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author:("Lee, Ji-seen")
1.  Generation of Cancerous Neural Stem Cells Forming Glial Tumor by Oncogenic Stimulation 
Stem cell reviews  2012;8(2):532-545.
Neural stem cells in the brain have been shown to be ‘cells of origin’ of certain brain cancers, most notably astrocytomas and medulloblastoma. In particular, in a mouse model, the targeting of genetic modifications for astrocytoma-relevant tumor suppressors to neural stem cells causes malignant astrocytoma to arise, thereby suggesting that astrocytoma is derived from neural stem cells. However, it remains to be determined whether this important finding is reproducible in humans. Herein, we generated cancerous neural stem cells by introducing a set of oncogenes to human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs). Serial genetic modification with v-myc for immortalization and consequent H-Ras for oncogenic stimulation with viral gene delivery proved sufficient to induce the transformation of hfNSCs. The resultant F3.Ras cells evidenced a variety of the hallmarks of brain cancer stem cells and most importantly were tumorigenic, forming brain cancers consisting of both a large number of differentiated and a very few undifferentiated populations of cells in an in vivo mouse model. On the contrary, oligodendrocytes derived from the v-myc expressing parent neural stem cells were not transformed by H-Ras, which suggests that neural stem cells may be more susceptible to cancerous transformation by a combination of oncogenes. We also determined that v-myc expressing fetal neural stem cells were defective in p53 response upon the introduction of H-Ras; this finding suggests that an insufficient p53-dependent tumor suppressive mechanism would be associated with high oncogenic susceptibility to H-Ras introduction.
doi:10.1007/s12015-011-9280-4
PMCID: PMC4043123  PMID: 21755312
Human neural stem cells; v-myc; H-Ras; Cancerous stem cells; p53; Glial tumor
2.  Loss of E-cadherin activates EGFR-MEK/ERK signaling, which promotes invasion via the ZEB1/MMP2 axis in non-small cell lung cancer 
Oncotarget  2013;4(12):2512-2522.
Loss of E-cadherin, a hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), can significantly affect metastatic dissemination. However, the molecular mechanism of EMT-associated metastatic dissemination by loss of E-cadherin still remains unclear in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In the present study, we show that the knockdown of E-cadherin was sufficient to convert A549 NSCLC cells into mesenchymal type with the concurrent up-regulation of typical EMT inducers such as ZEB1 and TWIST1. Interestingly, the EMT-induced cells by E-cadherin depletion facilitate invasion in a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2)-dependent manner with aberrant activation of EGFR signaling. We demonstrated that the elevated invasiveness was a result of the activated EGFR-MEK/ERK signaling, which in turn leads to ZEB1 dependent MMP2 induction. These results suggest that the EGFR-MEK/ERK/ZEB1/MMP2 axis is responsible for promoted invasion in EMT-induced NSCLCs. Consistently, ERK activation and loss of E-cadherin were both observed in the disseminating cancer cells at the invasive tumor fronts in NSCLC cancer tissues. Thereby, these data suggest that the EGFR-MEK/ERK signaling would be a promising molecular target to control aberrant MMP2 expression and consequent invasion in the EMT-induced NSCLCs
PMCID: PMC3926845  PMID: 24318272
E-Cadherin; EGFR-MEK/ERK signaling; ZEB1; MMP2; Invasion
3.  Wip1 directly dephosphorylates gamma-H2AX and attenuates the DNA damage response 
Cancer research  2010;70(10):4112-4122.
The integrity of DNA is constantly challenged throughout the life of a cell by both endogenous and exogenous stresses. A well-organized rapid damage response and proficient DNA repair, therefore, becomes critically important for maintaining genomic stability and cell survival. When DNA is damaged, the DNA damage response (DDR) can be initiated by alterations in chromosomal structure and histone modifications, such as the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (the phosphorylated form is referred to as γ-H2AX). γ-H2AX plays a crucial role in recruiting DDR factors to damage sites for accurate DNA repair. Upon repair completion,γ-H2AX must then be reverted to H2AX by dephosphorylation for attenuation of the DDR. Here, we report that Wip1 phosphatase, which is often over-expressed in a variety of tumors, effectively dephosphorylates γ-H2AX in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Wip1 significantly reduces the level of γ-H2AX after ionizing as well as ultraviolet radiation. Forced premature dephosphorylation of γ-H2AX by Wip1 disrupts recruitment of important DNA repair factors to damaged sites, and delays DNA damage repair. Additionally, deletion of Wip1 enhances γ-H2AX levels in cells undergoing constitutive oncogenic stress. Taken together our studies demonstrate that Wip1 is an important mammalian phosphatase for γ-H2AX and demonstrates an additional mechanism for Wip1 in the tumor surveillance network.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4244
PMCID: PMC2904079  PMID: 20460517
Wip1; PPM1D; H2AX; gamma-H2AX; ionizing radiation; ultraviolet radiation; DNA damage; DNA repair
4.  Fine Mapping of Xq28: Both MECP2 and IRAK1 Contribute to Risk for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Multiple Ancestral Groups 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2012;72(3):437-444.
Objectives
The Xq28 region containing IRAK1 and MECP2 has been identified as a risk locus for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in previous genetic association studies. However, due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between IRAK1 and MECP2, it remains unclear which gene is affected by the underlying causal variant(s) conferring risk of SLE.
Methods
We fine-mapped ≥136 SNPs in a ~227kb region on Xq28, containing IRAK1, MECP2 and 7 adjacent genes (L1CAM, AVPR2, ARHGAP4, NAA10, RENBP, HCFC1 and TMEM187), for association with SLE in 15,783 case-control subjects derived from 4 different ancestral groups.
Results
Multiple SNPs showed strong association with SLE in European Americans, Asians and Hispanics at P<5×10−8 with consistent association in subjects with African ancestry. Of these, 6 SNPs located in the TMEM187-IRAK1-MECP2 region captured the underlying causal variant(s) residing in a common risk haplotype shared by all 4 ancestral groups. Among them, rs1059702 best explained the Xq28 association signals in conditional testings and exhibited the strongest P value in trans-ancestral meta-analysis (Pmeta=1.3×10−27, OR=1.43), and thus was considered to be the most-likely causal variant. The risk allele of rs1059702 results in the amino acid substitution S196F in IRAK1 and had previously been shown to increase NF-κB activity in vitro. We also found that the homozygous risk genotype of rs1059702 was associated with lower mRNA levels of MECP2, but not IRAK1, in SLE patients (P=0.0012) and healthy controls (P=0.0064).
Conclusion
These data suggest contributions of both IRAK1 and MECP2 to SLE susceptibility.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-201851
PMCID: PMC3567234  PMID: 22904263
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Gene Polymorphism; Xq28; IRAK1; MECP2
5.  Association of PPP2CA polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility in multiple ethnic groups 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2011;63(9):2755-2763.
Objective
T cells from patients with SLE express increased amounts of PP2Ac which contribute to decreased production of IL-2. Because IL-2 is important in the regulation of several aspects of the immune response, it has been proposed that PP2Ac contributes to the expression of SLE. This study was designed to determine whether genetic variants of PPP2AC are linked to the expression of SLE and specific clinical manifestations and account for the increased expression of PP2Ac.
Methods
We conducted a trans-ethnic study consisting of 8,695 SLE cases and 7,308 controls from four different ancestries. Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the PPP2CA were genotyped using an Illumina custom array. PPP2CA expression in SLE and control T cells was analyzed by real-time PCR.
Results
A 32-kb haplotype comprised of multiple SNPs of PPP2CA showed significant association with SLE in Hispanic Americans (HA), European Americans (EA) and Asians but not in African-Americans (AA). Conditional analyses revealed that SNP rs7704116 in intron 1 showed consistently strong association with SLE across Asian, EA and HA populations (pmeta=3.8×10−7, OR=1.3[1.14–1.31]). In EA, the largest ethnic dataset, the risk A allele of rs7704116 was associated with the presence of renal disease, anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP antibodies. PPP2CA expression was approximately 2-fold higher in SLE patients carrying the rs7704116 AG genotype than those carrying GG genotype (p = 0.008).
Conclusion
Our data provide the first evidence for an association between PPP2CA polymorphisms and elevated PP2Ac transcript levels in T cells, which implicates a new molecular pathway for SLE susceptibility in EA, HA and Asians.
doi:10.1002/art.30452
PMCID: PMC3163110  PMID: 21590681

Results 1-5 (5)