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1.  Tuberculosis IFN-γ Responses in Breastmilk of HIV-infected Mothers 
Tuberculosis (TB) cellular immune responses were examined in breastmilk of HIV-infected mothers using the T-SPOT.TB interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Positive TB IFN-γ responses were detected in 6 of 8 (75%) valid breast milk assays. Among 7 mothers with paired breastmilk and blood assays, TB IFN-γ responses were higher in breastmilk compared to blood (p=.02). The magnitude of TB IFN-γ responses in maternal breastmilk and blood were correlated. Elucidating the influence of breastmilk TB immune responses on infant TB susceptibility and immunity may inform future maternal TB vaccine strategies.
PMCID: PMC4340614  PMID: 25574910
TB; IGRA; HIV; maternal; infant
2.  High Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-1 Exposed Kenyan Infants 
PMCID: PMC3959593  PMID: 24378937
tuberculosis; infant; HIV-1 exposure; T-SPOT.TB; Interferon Gamma Release Assay
3.  Consistency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Interferon-Gamma Responses in HIV-1-Infected Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum 
Background. We determined the consistency of positive interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) to detect latent TB infection (LTBI) over one-year postpartum in HIV-1-infected women. Methods. Women with positive IGRAs during pregnancy had four 3-monthly postpartum IGRAs. Postpartum change in magnitude of IFN-γ response was determined using linear mixed models. Results. Among 18 women with positive pregnancy IGRA, 15 (83%) had a subsequent positive IGRA; 9 (50%) were always positive, 3 (17%) were always negative, and 6 (33%) fluctuated between positive and negative IGRAs. Women with pregnancy IGRA IFN-γ>8 spot forming cells (SFCs)/well were more likely to have consistent postpartum IGRA response (odds ratio: 10.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9–117.0). Change in IFN-γ response over postpartum was 10.2 SFCs/well (95% CI: −1.5–21.8 SFCs/well). Conclusion. Pregnancy positive IGRAs were often maintained postpartum with increased consistency in women with higher baseline responses. There were modest increases in magnitude of IGRA responses postpartum.
PMCID: PMC3312220  PMID: 22496602

Results 1-3 (3)