Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects.
Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (<20 min of exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9:00 and 11:00 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session.
The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition.
Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women.
Actigraphy; Activity counts; Exercise; Older adults; Sleep quality; Wake after sleep onset
To compare the regional differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue hormone/cytokine production in abdominally obese women during weight loss.
Design and Methods
Forty-two abdominally obese, older women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention composed of hypocaloric diet with or without aerobic exercise (total energy expenditure: ~2800 kcal/week). Subcutaneous (gluteal and abdominal) adipose tissue biopsies were conducted before and after the intervention.
Adipose tissue gene expression and release of leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (−10.1 ±0.7 kg, P<0.001). At baseline, gene expression of adiponectin were higher (P<0.01), and gene expression and release of IL-6 were lower (both P<0.05) in abdominal than in gluteal adipose tissue. After intervention, leptin gene expression and release were lower in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue compared to baseline (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Abdominal, but not gluteal, adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression and release increased after intervention (both P<0.05).
A 20-week weight loss program decreased leptin production in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue, but only increased adiponectin production from abdominal adipose tissue in obese women. This depot-specific effect may be of importance for the treatment of health complications associated with abdominal adiposity.
Adipose Tissue; Hormones; Cytokines; Weight Loss; Abdominal Obesity
Undoped and indium (In)-doped lead telluride (PbTe) nanostructures were synthesized via solvothermal/hydrothermal route. The crystalline structure of the as-prepared undoped and In-doped PbTe samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which indicated the formation of face-centered single-phase cubic crystal. A first principle calculation on indium doping shows that the indium atoms are more likely to replace lead (Pb) rather than to take the interstitial sites. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis confirms that indium is incorporated into the PbTe matrix of the indium-doped PbTe samples. The effects of surfactant and synthesis temperature on the structure and morphology of the undoped PbTe were also investigated; it was found that PbTe nanostructures synthesized with the addition of surfactants exhibited uniform shapes and their size increased with the synthesis temperature.
Lead telluride; Nanostructure; Solvothermal/hydrothermal synthesis; First principle calculation
Cerebral ischemia induces injury, not only in the ischemic core and surrounding penumbra tissues, but also in remote areas such as the cervical spinal cord. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on cervical spinal cord injury following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive (RHRSP) rats. The results demonstrated that neuronal loss, which was assayed by Nissl staining in the cervical spinal cords of RHRSP rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), was markedly decreased by EA stimulation at the GV20 (Baihui) and GV14 (Dazhui) acupoints compared with that in rats undergoing sham stimulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis demonstrated that EA stimulation blocked the MCAO-induced elevated protein expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and amyloid precursor protein in the cervical spinal cord at days 24 and 48. To further investigate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective role of EA stimulation, the protein expression levels of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor-1 (NgR1), two key regulatory molecules for neurite growth, were recorded in each group. The results revealed that EA stimulation reduced the MCAO-induced elevation of Nogo-A and NgR1 protein levels at day 14 and 28 in RHRSP rats. Therefore, the results demonstrated that EA reduced cervical spinal cord injury following cerebral ischemia in RHRSP rats, indicating that EA has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic treatment agent for cervical spinal cord injury following stroke.
cerebral ischemia; cervical spinal cord; neuron; stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats
Subclinical hypercortisolemia often occurs in subjects with features of the metabolic syndrome, and it has been suggested that it may be, at least in part, responsible for the development of these metabolic abnormalities. However, the metabolic effects of glucocorticoid administration to mimic subclinical glucocorticoid excess have not been evaluated.
We used stable isotope-labeled tracer methods in conjunction with magnetic resonance techniques to measure the effect of glucocorticoid excess within the physiological range (~0.7 mg dexamethasone/day for 3 weeks) on glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) rates of appearance (Ra) into plasma, intrahepatic triglyceride (TG) content, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) kinetics and plasma lipoprotein subclass concentrations and particle sizes in 9 overweight and obese individuals.
Dexamethasone treatment led to a very small but significant increase in body weight (from 87.4±7.1 to 88.6±7.2 kg; P=0.003) and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (from 45.9±2.8 to 55.1±4.6 mg/dl; P=0.037) and HDL particle (from 33.7±2.2 to 41.4±4.2 nmol/l; P=0.023) concentrations in plasma but had no effect on intrahepatic TG content, glucose and FFA Ra in plasma, hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rates and mean residence times in the circulation, plasma TG and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and plasma lipoprotein particle sizes.
Subclinical hypercortisolemia does not have significant adverse metabolic consequences.
glucocorticoids; very low density lipoprotein; high density lipoprotein; triglyceride; free fatty acid
The objective of this pilot study was to objectively assess electroacupuncture for motor function recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke using the triple-stimulation technique (TST). The patients received either electroacupuncture plus western conventional medication (WCM) (n = 32) or single WCM (n = 31) for 14 days. The total clinical effective rate was statistically significantly superior in electroacupuncture group to that in WCM group (P < 0.01). Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMA) score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and TSTratio were statistically more significant in electroacupuncture group than those in WCM group (P < 0.01). There was positive correlation between TSTratio and NIHS score both before and after treatment (P < 0.01) and negative correlation between TSTratio and FAM score both before treatment and after treatment (P < 0.01). Comparing between the two groups or between pretreatment and posttreatment, adverse events, electrocardiogram, liver function, and kidney function showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). In conclusion, electroacupuncture was beneficial for the motor function recovery of patients with acute ischemic stroke and was generally safe. TST can be used for quantitative evaluation of electroacupuncture for motor function recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke because it can objectively analyze the injury and recovery of corticospinal tract impairments.
There is a lack of information on whether exercise training alone can reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly men and women.
This study was an ancillary to the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a four-site, single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-month physical activity (PA) intervention (N = 180) with a successful aging intervention (N = 181) in elderly (70–89 years) community-dwelling men and women at risk for physical disability. The PA intervention included aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises, with walking as the primary mode. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.
There was no significant change in body weight or fat mass after either intervention. The trend of MetS prevalence over the intervention period was similar between PA and successful aging groups (p = .77). Overall, the prevalence of MetS decreased significantly from baseline to 6 months (p = .003) but did not change further from 6- to 12-month visits (p = .11). There were no group differences in any individual MetS components (p > .05 for all group by visit interactions). However, in individuals not using medications at any visit to treat MetS components, those in the PA intervention had lower odds of having MetS than those in the successful aging group during follow-up (odds ratio = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.96).
In this sample, a 12-month PA intervention did not reduce the prevalence of MetS more than a successful aging intervention, perhaps due to the large proportion of individuals taking medications for treating MetS components.
Metabolic syndrome; Elderly; Physical activity
We report the first study on the genetic control of flowering in Setaria, a panicoid grass closely related to switchgrass, and in the same subfamily as maize and sorghum. A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. Many of the QTL across trials colocalize, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering in Setaria is robust across a range of photoperiod and other environmental factors. A detailed comparison of QTL for flowering in Setaria, sorghum, and maize indicates that several of the major QTL regions identified in maize and sorghum are syntenic orthologs with Setaria QTL, although the maize large effect QTL on chromosome 10 is not. Several Setaria QTL intervals had multiple LOD peaks and were composed of multiple syntenic blocks, suggesting that observed QTL represent multiple tightly linked loci. Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes.
Setaria; foxtail millet; QTL mapping; flowering time; comparative genomics
Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), also called microsatellite, is very useful for genetic marker development and genome application.
The increasing whole sequences of more and more large genomes provide sources for SSR mining in silico. However currently
existing SSR mining tools can’t process large genomes efficiently and generate no or poor statistics. Genome-wide Microsatellite
Analyzing Tool (GMATo) is a novel tool for SSR mining and statistics at genome aspects. It is faster and more accurate than existed
tools SSR Locator and MISA. If a DNA sequence was too long, it was chunked to short segments at several Mb followed by motifs
generation and searching using Perl powerful pattern match function. Matched loci data from each chunk were then merged to
produce final SSR loci information. Only one input file is required which contains raw fasta DNA sequences and output files in
tabular format list all SSR loci information and statistical distribution at four classifications. GMATo was programmed in Java and
Perl with both graphic and command line interface, either executable alone in platform independent manner with full parameters
control. Software GMATo is a powerful tool for complete SSR characterization in genomes at any size.
The soft GMATo is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gmato/files/?source=navbar or on contact
Genome; Microsatellite; SSR; Marker development; Software
Hypertriglyceridemia is a common metabolic complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an important risk factor for coronary heart disease in this patient population. The mechanisms responsible for the development of hypertriglyceridemia in subjects with CKD are not clear.
We studied very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (VLDL-apoB-100) kinetics in vivo in 6 subjects with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (CKD-ND), 6 subjects with CKD treated with peritoneal dialysis (CKD-PD) and 24 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched control subjects with normal renal function (12 control subjects each matched with the CKD-ND and CKD-PD group, respectively).
The secretion rates of VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 into plasma were not different between CKD-ND or CKD-PD and their respective control groups. The mean residence times of VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 in plasma, which represents the time VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 spend in the circulation after secretion by the liver, tended to be greater in subjects with CKD-ND than in control subjects (222 ± 38 vs. 143 ± 21 min, p = 0.07, and 352 ± 102 vs. 200 ± 20 min, p = 0.06, respectively) and were about two-fold greater in subjects with CKD-PD compared with their control group (248 ± 51 vs. 143 ± 21 min and 526 ± 116 vs. 182 ± 16 min, respectively; both p ≤ 0.01).
Impaired plasma clearance of VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 is the major abnormality associated with hypertriglyceridemia in patients with either CKD-ND or CKD-PD.
Isotope tracer; Lipoprotein; Metabolism; Renal failure
Elevated circulating levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) have been observed in obese persons and are reduced by weight loss. However, it is not known if combining caloric restriction (CR) with exercise training is better in reducing sLOX-1 levels than CR alone.
We examined whether the addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss intervention differentially affects sLOX-1 levels in 61 abdominally obese postmenopausal women randomly assigned to a CR only (n=22), CR + moderate-intensity exercise (n=22), or CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (n=17) intervention for 20 weeks. The caloric deficit was ~2,800 kcal/week for all groups.
The intervention groups were similar at baseline with respect to body weight, body composition, lipids, and blood pressure. However, plasma sLOX-1 levels were higher in the CR only group (99.90 ± 8.23 pg/ml) compared to both the CR + moderate-intensity exercise (69.39 ± 8.23 pg/ml, p=0.01) and CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (72.83 ± 9.36 pg/ml, p=0.03) groups. All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (~14%), body fat, and waist and hip circumferences to a similar degree. These changes were accompanied by a 23% reduction in sLOX-1 levels overall (−19.00 ± 30.08 pg/ml, p<0.0001), which did not differ among intervention groups (p=0.13). Changes in body weight, body fat, and VO2 max were not correlated with changes in sLOX-1 levels. In multiple regression analyses in all women combined, baseline sLOX-1 levels (β = − 0.70 ± 0.06, p<0.0001), age (β = 0.92 ± 0.43, p=0.03) and baseline BMI (β = 1.88 ± 0.66, p=0.006) were independent predictors of the change in sLOX-1 with weight loss.
Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on sLOX-1 levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women, with the addition of aerobic exercise having no added benefit when performed in conjunction with CR.
obesity; weight loss; caloric restriction; aerobic exercise; soluble receptor
Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women.
Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years) underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9), caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13), or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8). Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression.
At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P < 0.05). Compared to pre-intervention, CR did not change abdominal, but decreased gluteal CB1 (Δ = -0.82 ± 0.25, P < 0.05) and FAAH (Δ = -0.49 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) gene expression. CRM or CRV alone did not change adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression. However, combined CRM and CRV (CRM+CRV) decreased abdominal adipose tissue FAAH gene expression (Δ = -0.37 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). The changes in gluteal CB1 and abdominal FAAH gene expression levels in the CR alone and the CRM+CRV group were different (P < 0.05) or tended to be different (P = 0.10).
There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss.
Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor; Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase; Fat Depots; Diet; Exercise
muscle strength; inflammatory adipokine; gene expression; older adults; elderly
Insulin is an important regulator of glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. It suppresses hepatic glucose and triglyceride production, inhibits adipose tissue lipolysis and whole-body and muscle proteolysis and stimulates glucose uptake in muscle. In this review we discuss what is currently known about the control of substrate metabolism by insulin in men and women. The data available so far indicate that women are more sensitive to insulin with regards to glucose metabolism (both in the liver and in muscle) whereas there are no differences between men and women in insulin action on lipolysis. Potential differences exist in the regulation of plasma triglyceride concentration and protein metabolism by insulin and in changes in insulin-action in response to stimuli (e.g., weight loss and exercise) that are known to alter insulin sensitivity. However, these areas have not been studied comprehensively enough to draw firm conclusions.
glucose uptake; hepatic glucose production; lipolysis; triglyceride secretion; triglyceride clearance; proteolysis
The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) allows plants to anticipate and avoid shading by neighbouring plants by initiating an elongation growth response. The phytochrome photoreceptors are able to detect a reduction in the red:far red ratio in incident light, the result of selective absorption of red and blue wavelengths by proximal vegetation. A shade-responsive luciferase reporter line (PHYB::LUC) was used to carry out a high-throughput screen to identify novel SAS mutants. The dracula 1 (dra1) mutant, that showed no avoidance of shade for the PHYB::LUC response, was the result of a mutation in the PHYA gene. Like previously characterized phyA mutants, dra1 showed a long hypocotyl in far red light and an enhanced hypocotyl elongation response to shade. However, dra1 additionally showed a long hypocotyl in red light. Since phyB levels are relatively unaffected in dra1, this gain-of-function red light phenotype strongly suggests a disruption of phyB signalling. The dra1 mutation, G773E within the phyA PAS2 domain, occurs at a residue absolutely conserved among phyA sequences. The equivalent residue in phyB is absolutely conserved as a threonine. PAS domains are structurally conserved domains involved in molecular interaction. Structural modelling of the dra1 mutation within the phyA PAS2 domain shows some similarity with the structure of the phyB PAS2 domain, suggesting that the interference with phyB signalling may be the result of non-functional mimicry. Hence, it was hypothesized that this PAS2 residue forms a key distinction between the phyA and phyB phytochrome species.
Arabidopsis thaliana; light; luciferase; phytochrome; shade avoidance
This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer). Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n = 18) or vigorous-intensity (n = 18) center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7 ± 219.7 kcal·d−1) was higher (P = .011) than on days without exercise (450.7 ± 140.5 kcal·d−1); however, the difference (127.0 ± 188.1 kcal·d−1) was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6 ± 153.6 kcal·d−1) was lower (P = .047) than on days without exercise (519.2 ± 127.4 kcal·d−1). Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.
Aims and Method. The present study examined the relationship between the metabolic risk profile (MRP) and total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone using the free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 36 Caucasian American (CA) and 30 African-American (AA) women volunteering for a weight loss study.
Results. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between TT and diastolic blood pressure (P = .004 and P = .015 in CA and AA women, resp.). Additionally, total cholesterol (P = .003), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004), apolipoprotein B (P = .006), and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .027) were significantly related to TT in AA women only.
In CA women, similar measures of glucose/insulin status related to FAI, were also related to SHBG. In both CA and AA women, SHBG was related to waist (P = .031 and P = .022 resp.).
Conclusion. Our findings showed racial disparities in the relationship between the sex steroid milieu and the MRP in overweight/obese CA and AA women.
It is controversial whether weight loss reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) to a different magnitude in black and white women. This study was to determine whether changes in REE with weight loss were different between black and white postmenopausal women, and whether changes in body composition (including regional lean and fat mass) were associated with REE changes within each race. Black (n= 26) and white (n= 65) women (age= 58.2±5.4 years, 25< BMI< 40 kg·m−2) completed a 20-week weight loss intervention. Body weight, lean and fat mass (total body, limb and trunk) via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and REE via indirect calorimetry were measured before and after the intervention. We found that baseline REE positively correlated with body weight, lean and fat mass (total, limb, and trunk) in white women only (p< 0.05 for all). The intervention decreased absolute REE in both races similarly (1279±162 to 1204±169 kcal·day−1 in blacks; 1315±200 to 1209±185 kcal·day−1 in whites). REE remained decreased after adjusting for changes in total or limb lean mass in black (1302 to 1182 kcal·day−1, p= 0.043; 1298 to 1144 kcal·day−1, p= 0.006, respectively), but not in white, women. Changes in REE correlated with changes in body weight (partial r = 0.277) and fat mass (partial r= 0.295, 0.275, and 0.254 for total, limb, and trunk, respectively; p< 0.05) independent of baseline REE in white women. Therefore, with weight loss, REE decreased in proportion to the amount of fat and lean mass lost in white, but not black, women.
energy expenditure; weight loss; body composition; race
To examine whether adaptations in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) during weight loss were associated with future weight regain in overweight/obese, older women.
Research Methods and Procedures
Thirty-four overweight/obese (BMI=25–40 kg/m2), postmenopausal women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention of hypocaloric diet with (low- or high-intensity) or without treadmill walking (weekly caloric deficit was ~11760 kJ), with a subsequent 12-month follow-up. RMR (via indirect calorimetry), PAEE (by RT3 accelerometer) and body composition (by DXA) were measured before and after intervention. Body weight and self-reported information on physical activity were collected after intervention, and at 6- and 12-months following intervention.
The intervention resulted in decreases in body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, RMR, and PAEE (p < 0.001 for all). Weight regain was 2.9 ± 3.3 kg (−3.1 to +9.2 kg) at 6- months and 5.2 ± 5.0 kg (−2.3 to +21.7 kg) at 12-months following intervention. The amount of weight regained after 6- and 12-months was inversely associated with decreases in PAEE during the weight loss intervention (r= −0.521, p = 0.002 and r= −0.404, p = 0.018, respectively), such that women with larger declines in PAEE during weight loss experienced greater weight regain during follow-up. Weight regain was not associated with changes in RMR during intervention or with self-reported physical activity during follow-up.
This study demonstrates that, while both RMR and PAEE decreased during weight loss in postmenopausal women, maintaining high levels of daily physical activity during weight loss may be important to mitigate weight regain after weight loss.
energy expenditure; resting metabolic rate; weight loss intervention; hypocaloric diet