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1.  Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis 
Wormser, David | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Kaptoge, Stephen | Wood, Angela M | Gao, Pei | Sun, Qi | Walldius, Göran | Selmer, Randi | Verschuren, WM Monique | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Engström, Gunnar | Ridker, Paul M | Njølstad, Inger | Iso, Hiroyasu | Holme, Ingar | Giampaoli, Simona | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Gaziano, J Michael | Brunner, Eric | Kee, Frank | Tosetto, Alberto | Meisinger, Christa | Brenner, Hermann | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Whincup, Peter H | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Ian | Cremer, Peter | Hofman, Albert | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Clarke, Robert | de Boer, Ian H | Jukema, J Wouter | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Lawlor, Debbie A | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Casiglia, Edoardo | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Simons, Leon A | Nietert, Paul J | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Björkelund, Cecilia | Strandberg, Timo E | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Blazer, Dan G | Meade, Tom W | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Woodward, Mark | Nissinen, Aulikki | Kromhout, Daan | Jørgensen, Torben | Tilvis, Reijo S | Guralnik, Jack M | Rosengren, Annika | Taylor, James O | Kiechl, Stefan | Dagenais, Gilles R | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Wallace, Robert B | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Visser, Marjolein | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Kitamura, Akihiko | Sundström, Johan | Wennberg, Patrik | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Daimon, Makoto | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Cooper, Jackie A | Onat, Altan | Devereux, Richard | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Dankner, Rachel | Knuiman, Matthew W | Crespo, Carlos J | Gansevoort, Ron T | Goldbourt, Uri | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Shaw, Jonathan E | Mussolino, Michael | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Fletcher, Astrid | Kuller, Lewis H | Gillum, Richard F | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Assmann, Gerd | Wald, Nicholas | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Greenland, Philip | Trevisan, Maurizio | Ulmer, Hanno | Butterworth, Adam S | Folsom, Aaron R | Davey-Smith, George | Hu, Frank B | Danesh, John | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Charles E | Simpson, Lara M | Walldius, Göran | Jungner, Ingmar | Folsom, Aaron R | Demerath, Ellen W | Franceschini, Nora | Lutsey, Pamela L | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Pitsavos, Christos | Chrysohoou, Christina | Stefanadis, Christodoulos | Shaw, Jonathan E | Atkins, Robert | Zimmet, Paul Z | Barr, Elizabeth LM | Knuiman, Matthew W | Whincup, Peter H | Wannamethee, S Goya | Morris, Richard W | Willeit, Johann | Kiechl, Stefan | Weger, Siegfried | Oberhollenzer, Friedrich | Wald, Nicholas | Ebrahim, Shah | Lawlor, Debbie A | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Yarnell, John WG | Casiglia, Edoardo | Tikhonoff, Valérie | Greenland, Philip | Shay, Christina M | Garside, Daniel B | Nietert, Paul J | Sutherland, Susan E | Bachman, David L | Keil, Julian E | de Boer, Ian H | Kizer, Jorge R | Psaty, Bruce M | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne | Jensen, Gorm B | Schnohr, Peter | Giampaoli, Simona | Palmieri, Luigi | Panico, Salvatore | Pilotto, Lorenza | Vanuzzo, Diego | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Simons, Leon A | Simons, Judith | McCallum, John | Friedlander, Yechiel | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Price, Jackie F | Lee, Amanda J | Taylor, James O | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Wallace, Robert B | Kohout, Frank J | Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C | Guralnik, Jack M | Blazer, Dan G | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Phillips, Caroline L | Guralnik, Jack M | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Wareham, Nicholas J | Brenner, Hermann | Schöttker, Ben | Müller, Heiko | Rothenbacher, Dietrich | Wennberg, Patrik | Jansson, Jan-Håkan | Nissinen, Aulikki | Donfrancesco, Chiara | Giampaoli, Simona | Woodward, Mark | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Vasan, Ramachandran S | Fox, Caroline S | Pencina, Michael J | Daimon, Makoto | Oizumi, Toshihide | Kayama, Takamasa | Kato, Takeo | Bladbjerg, Else-Marie | Jørgensen, Torben | Møller, Lars | Jespersen, Jørgen | Dankner, Rachel | Chetrit, Angela | Lubin, Flora | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Welin, Lennart | Lappas, Georgios | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Lappas, Georgios | Bengtsson, Calle | Lissner, Lauren | Björkelund, Cecilia | Cremer, Peter | Nagel, Dorothea | Strandberg, Timo E | Salomaa, Veikko | Tilvis, Reijo S | Miettinen, Tatu A | Tilvis, Reijo S | Strandberg, Timo E | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Arima, Hisatomi | Doi, Yasufumi | Ninomiya, Toshiharu | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Dekker, Jacqueline M | Nijpels, Giel | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Rimm, Eric B | Willett, Walter C | Iso, Hiroyasu | Kitamura, Akihiko | Yamagishi, Kazumasa | Noda, Hiroyuki | Goldbourt, Uri | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Kurl, Sudhir | Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka | Poppelaars, Jan L | Deeg, Dorly JH | Visser, Marjolein | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Hedblad, Bo | Nilsson, Peter | Engström, Gunnar | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | de Boer, Ian H | Shea, Steven J | Meisinger, Christa | Thorand, Barbara | Koenig, Wolfgang | Döring, Angela | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Fletcher, Astrid | Nitsch, Dorothea | Kuller, Lewis H | Grandits, Greg | Tverdal, Aage | Selmer, Randi | Nystad, Wenche | Mussolino, Michael | Gillum, Richard F | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Manson, JoAnn E | Rimm, Eric B | Hankinson, Susan E | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Cooper, Jackie A | Bauer, Kenneth A | Davidson, Karina W | Kirkland, Susan | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Shimbo, Daichi | Kitamura, Akihiko | Iso, Hiroyasu | Sato, Shinichi | Holme, Ingar | Selmer, Randi | Tverdal, Aage | Nystad, Wenche | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Miura, Katsuyuki | Sakurai, Masaru | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Jouven, Xavier | Bakker, Stephan JL | Gansevoort, Ron T | van der Harst, Pim | Hillege, Hans L | Crespo, Carlos J | Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R | Kee, Frank | Amouyel, Philippe | Arveiler, Dominique | Ferrières, Jean | Schulte, Helmut | Assmann, Gerd | Jukema, J Wouter | de Craen, Anton JM | Sattar, Naveed | Stott, David J | Cantin, Bernard | Lamarche, Benoît | Després, Jean-Pierre | Dagenais, Gilles R | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Bergstrom, Jaclyn | Bettencourt, Richele R | Buisson, Catherine | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Aspelund, Thor | Sigurdsson, Gunnar | Thorsson, Bolli | Trevisan, Maurizio | Hofman, Albert | Ikram, M Arfan | Tiemeier, Henning | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Tavendale, Roger | Lowe, Gordon DO | Woodward, Mark | Devereux, Richard | Yeh, Jeun-Liang | Ali, Tauqeer | Calhoun, Darren | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Davey-Smith, George | Onat, Altan | Can, Günay | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Sakurai, Masaru | Nakamura, Koshi | Morikawa, Yuko | Njølstad, Inger | Mathiesen, Ellisiv B | Løchen, Maja-Lisa | Wilsgaard, Tom | Sundström, Johan | Ingelsson, Erik | Michaëlsson, Karl | Cederholm, Tommy | Gaziano, J Michael | Buring, Julie | Ridker, Paul M | Gaziano, J Michael | Ridker, Paul M | Ulmer, Hanno | Diem, Günter | Concin, Hans | Rodeghiero, Francesco | Tosetto, Alberto | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Manson, JoAnn E | Marmot, Michael | Clarke, Robert | Fletcher, Astrid | Brunner, Eric | Shipley, Martin | Kivimaki, Mika | Ridker, Paul M | Buring, Julie | Ford, Ian | Robertson, Michele | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Feskens, Edith | Geleijnse, Johanna M | Kromhout, Daan | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | Alexander, Myriam | Butterworth, Adam S | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Franco, Oscar H | Gao, Pei | Gobin, Reeta | Haycock, Philip | Kaptoge, Stephen | Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally | Lewington, Sarah | Pennells, Lisa | Rapsomaniki, Eleni | Sarwar, Nadeem | Thompson, Alexander | Thompson, Simon G | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | White, Ian R | Wood, Angela M | Wormser, David | Zhao, Xiaohui | Danesh, John
Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.
Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.
Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.
Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
doi:10.1093/ije/dys086
PMCID: PMC3465767  PMID: 22825588
Height; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cause-specific mortality; epidemiological study; meta-analysis
2.  The Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(9):1350-1354.
On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, “What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?” The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwt239
PMCID: PMC3988450  PMID: 24105654
immunology; pathology; study design
3.  Developing a national strategy to prevent dementia: Leon Thal Symposium 2009 
Among the major impediments to the design of clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most critical is the lack of validated biomarkers, assessment tools, and algorithms that would facilitate identification of asymptomatic individuals with elevated risk who might be recruited as study volunteers. Thus, the Leon Thal Symposium 2009 (LTS'09), on October 27–28, 2009 in Las Vegas, Nevada, was convened to explore strategies to surmount the barriers in designing a multisite, comparative study to evaluate and validate various approaches for detecting and selecting asymptomatic people at risk for cognitive disorders/dementia. The deliberations of LTS'09 included presentations and reviews of different approaches (algorithms, biomarkers, or measures) for identifying asymptomatic individuals at elevated risk for AD who would be candidates for longitudinal or prevention studies. The key nested recommendations of LTS'09 included: (1) establishment of a National Database for Longitudinal Studies as a shared research core resource; (2) launch of a large collaborative study that will compare multiple screening approaches and biomarkers to determine the best method for identifying asymptomatic people at risk for AD; (3) initiation of a Global Database that extends the concept of the National Database for Longitudinal Studies for longitudinal studies beyond the United States; and (4) development of an educational campaign that will address public misconceptions about AD and promote healthy brain aging.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2010.01.008
PMCID: PMC4298995  PMID: 20298968
Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; Mild cognitive impairment; Prevention; Biomarkers; Diagnosis; Screening; Clinical trials; MCI; Asymptomatic; Risk factors; Registry; Longitudinal studies; Database; PAD2020; Leon Thal Symposium; Treatment; Drug development; Health policy
4.  CD8+ T-Cells Count in Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV Disease in a Predominantly Male Cohort 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:246870.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV-) infected persons have a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-uninfected persons. Earlier studies suggest that HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether CD8+ T-cell count is associated with CVD risk is not clear. We investigated the association between CD8+ T-cell count and incident AMI in a cohort of 73,398 people (of which 97.3% were men) enrolled in the U.S. Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). Compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with high baseline CD8+ T-cell counts (>1065 cells/mm3) had increased AMI risk (adjusted HR = 1.82, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.46 to 2.28). There was evidence that the effect of CD8+ T-cell tertiles on AMI risk differed by CD4+ T-cell level: compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥200 cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with high CD8+ T-cell count, while those with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with low CD8+ T-cell count. CD8+ T-cell counts may add additional AMI risk stratification information beyond that provided by CD4+ T-cell counts alone.
doi:10.1155/2015/246870
PMCID: PMC4320893
5.  Risk of Suicide after Long Term Follow-up from Bariatric Surgery 
The American journal of medicine  2010;123(11):1036-1042.
Purpose
Bariatric surgery is recognized as the treatment of choice for class III obesity (body mass index >= 40) and has been increasingly recommended for obese patients. Prior research has suggested an excess of deaths due to suicide following bariatric surgery but few large long term follow up studies exist. We examined post-bariatric surgery suicides by time since operation, sex, age, and suicide death rates as compared to US suicide rates.
Methods
Medical data following bariatric operations performed on Pennsylvania residents between 01/01/1995 and 12/31/2004 were obtained from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost and Containment Council. Matching mortality data from suicides between 09/1/1996 and 12/28/2006 were obtained from the Division of Vital Records, Pennsylvania State Department of Health.
Results
There were 31 suicides (16,683 operations), for an overall rate of 6.6/10,000, 13.7 per 10,000 among men and 5.2 per 10,000 among women. About 30% of suicides occurred within the first two years following surgery, with almost 70% occurring within three years. For every age category except the youngest, suicide rates were higher among men vs. women. Age and sex-matched suicide rates in the US population (ages 35–64) were 2.4/10,000 (men) and 0.7/10,000 (women).
Conclusions
Compared to age and sex-matched suicide rates in the U.S., there was a substantial excess of suicides among all patients who had bariatric surgery in Pennsylvania during a ten-year period. These data document a need to develop more comprehensive longer-term surveillance and follow-up methods in order to evaluate factors associated with post-bariatric surgery suicide.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.06.016
PMCID: PMC4296730  PMID: 20843498
bariatric surgery; suicides; public health
6.  Prehypertension, Hypertension, and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Veterans 
We found increased acute myocardial infarction risk among hypertensive and prehypertensive HIV-infected veterans compared to normotensive uninfected veterans, independent of confounding comorbidities.
Background. Compared to uninfected people, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals may have an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, HIV-infected people are treated to the same blood pressure (BP) goals (<140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg) as their uninfected counterparts. Whether HIV-infected people with elevated BP have excess AMI risk compared to uninfected people is not known. This study examines whether the association between elevated BP and AMI risk differs by HIV status.
Methods. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS VC) consists of HIV-infected and -uninfected veterans matched 1:2 on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and clinical site. For this analysis, we analyzed 81 026 people with available BP data from VACS VC, who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. BP was the average of the 3 routine outpatient clinical measurements performed closest to baseline (first clinical visit after April 2003). BP categories used in the analyses were based on criteria of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results. Over 5.9 years (median), 860 incident AMIs occurred. Low/high prehypertensive and untreated/treated hypertensive HIV-infected individuals had increased AMI risk compared to uninfected, untreated normotensive individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.07–2.39]; HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.22–2.68]; HR, 2.57 [95% CI, 1.76–3.76]; and HR, 2.76 [95% CI, 1.90–4.02], respectively).
Conclusions. HIV, prehypertensive BP, and hypertensive BP were associated with an increased risk of AMI in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected veterans. Future studies should prospectively investigate whether HIV interacts with BP to further increase AMI risk.
doi:10.1093/cid/cit652
PMCID: PMC3864500  PMID: 24065316
blood pressure; prehypertension; HIV; myocardial infarction
7.  Arterial Stiffness and β-Amyloid Progression in Nondemented Elderly Adults 
JAMA neurology  2014;71(5):562-568.
IMPORTANCE
Recent studies show that cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is associated with blood pressure and measures of arterial stiffness in nondemented individuals.
OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between measures of arterial stiffness and change in Aβ deposition over time.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Deposition of Aβ was determined in a longitudinal observational study of aging by positron emission tomography using the Pittsburgh compound B twice 2 years apart in 81 nondemented individuals 83 years and older. Arterial stiffness was measured with a noninvasive and automated waveform analyzer at the time closest to the second positron emission tomography scan. All measures were performed under standardized conditions. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured in the central (carotid-femoral and heart-femoral PWV), peripheral (femoral-ankle PWV), and mixed (brachial-ankle PWV) vascular beds.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
The change in Aβ deposition over 2 years was calculated from the 81 individuals with repeat Aβ-positron emission tomography.
RESULTS
The proportion of Aβ-positive individuals increased from 48% at baseline to 75% at follow-up. Brachial-ankle PWV was significantly higher among Aβ-positive participants at baseline and follow-up. Femoral-ankle PWV was only higher among Aβ-positive participants at follow-up. Measures of central stiffness and blood pressure were not associated with Aβ status at baseline or follow-up, but central stiffness was associated with a change in Aβ deposition over time. Each standard deviation increase in central stiffness (carotid-femoral PWV, P = .001; heart-femoral PWV, P = .004) was linked with increases in Aβ deposition over 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
This study showed that Aβ deposition increases with age in nondemented individuals and that arterial stiffness is strongly associated with the progressive deposition of Aβ in the brain, especially in this age group. The association between Aβ deposition changes over time and generalized arterial stiffness indicated a relationship between the severity of subclinical vascular disease and progressive cerebral Aβ deposition.
doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.186
PMCID: PMC4267249  PMID: 24687165
8.  Longitudinal Effects of Weight Loss and Regain on Cytokine Concentration in Obese Adults 
Objective
To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial.
Materials/Methods
Participants were obese adults (N = 66) who lost and regained ≥10 lbs during a 24-month clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment. Measurements of cytokines and weight were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to determine percent change in weight and cytokines from baseline.
Results
The sample was predominantly female (80.3%) and White (86.4%), with a mean age of 48.4 ± 7.3 years and mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2. At baseline, men had higher waist circumference, body weight, and energy intake, and lower percent body fat and adiponectin. The largest decrease in weight was observed at 6 months with a mean 11% decrease (p < .0001). A significant gender-by-weight change interaction on percent change in adiponectin was observed [b(se) = 0.9 (0.2), p = .0003], with men having a larger increase in adiponectin with weight loss compared to women. There was a significant effect of weight gain over time with increases in IL-6 [b(se) = 0.9 (0.3), p = .001].
Conclusions
Overall, weight loss was significantly associated with improvements in adiponectin and IL-6. Those improvements remained at 24 months, following weight regain. The association between weight change and adiponectin was different between genders. Implementing strategies that support sustained weight loss can help prevent a state of chronic systemic inflammation and its associated adverse effects.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.04.004
PMCID: PMC4266426  PMID: 23725640
Cytokines; behavioral weight loss; weight regain
9.  Temporal relationships between physical activity and sleep in older women 
Medicine and science in sports and exercise  2013;45(12):10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829e4cea.
Purpose
To examine the temporal and bidirectional relationship between accelerometer-derived physical activity estimates and actigraphy-assessed sleep characteristics among older women.
Methods
A sub-group of participants [N=143, mean age= 73y] enrolled in the Healthy Women Study wore an ActiGraph accelerometer on their waist and an Actiwatch sleep monitor on their wrist concurrently for 7-consecutive days. Multi-level models examined whether ActiGraph-assessed daily activity counts (ct·min·d-1) and moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA; min·d-1) predicted Actiwatch-assessed sleep onset latency, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep fragmentation. Similar models were used to determine if nighttime sleep characteristics predicted physical activity the following day.
Results
In unadjusted models, greater daily activity counts (B=-.05, p=.005) and more minutes of MVPA (B=-.03, p=.01) were temporally associated with less total sleep time across the week. Greater sleep efficiency was associated with greater daily activity counts (B=.37, p=.01) and more minutes of MVPA (B=.64, p=.009) the following day. Less sleep fragmentation was also associated with greater daily activity counts and more MVPA the following day. Findings were similar after adjustment for age, education, BMI, depressive symptoms, arthritis, and accelerometer wear time.
Conclusions
Few studies have used objective measures to examine the temporal relationship between physical activity and sleep. Notably, these findings suggest that nightly variations in sleep efficiency influence physical activity the following day. Thus, improving overall sleep quality in addition to reducing nightly fluctuations in sleep may be important for encouraging a physically active lifestyle in older women.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829e4cea
PMCID: PMC3833970  PMID: 23739529
accelerometer; Actiwatch; objective measurement; sleep efficiency; moderate to vigorous physical activity
10.  Pulse wave velocity is associated with β-amyloid deposition in the brains of very elderly adults 
Neurology  2013;81(19):1711-1718.
Objective:
To determine arterial stiffness and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain of dementia-free older adults.
Methods:
We studied a cohort of 91 dementia-free participants aged 83–96 years. In 2009, participants completed brain MRI and PET imaging using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB; a marker of amyloid plaques in human brain). In 2011, we measured resting blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the central, peripheral, and mixed (e.g., brachial ankle PWV [baPWV]) vascular beds, using a noninvasive and automated waveform analyzer.
Results:
A total of 44/91 subjects were Aβ-positive on PET scan. Aβ deposition was associated with mixed PWV, systolic BP, and MAP. One SD increase in baPWV resulted in a 2-fold increase in the odds of being Aβ-positive (p = 0.007). High white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden was associated with increased central PWV, systolic BP, and MAP. Compared to Aβ-negative individuals with low WMH burden, each SD increase in PWV was associated with a 2-fold to 4-fold increase in the odds of being Aβ-positive and having high WMH.
Conclusions:
Arterial stiffness was associated with Aβ plaque deposition in the brain, independent of BP and APOE ε4 allele. The associations differed by type of brain abnormality and vascular bed measured (e.g., WMH with central stiffness and Aβ deposition and mixed stiffness). Arterial stiffness was highest in individuals with both high Aβ deposition and WMH, which has been suggested to be a “double hit” contributing to the development of symptomatic dementia.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000435301.64776.37
PMCID: PMC3812104  PMID: 24132374
11.  Association of Total Marine Fatty Acids, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, With Aortic Stiffness in Koreans, Whites, and Japanese Americans 
American Journal of Hypertension  2013;26(11):1321-1327.
BACKGROUND
Few previous studies have reported the association of aortic stiffness with marine n-3 fatty acids (Fas) in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the combined and independent associations of 2 major marine n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with aortic stiffness evaluated using carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in Korean, white, and Japanese American men.
METHODS
A population-based sample of 851 middle-aged men (299 Koreans, 266 whites, and 286 Japanese Americans) was examined for cfPWV during 2002–2006. Serum FAs, including EPA and DHA, were measured as a percentage of total FAs using gas chromatography. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of EPA and DHA with cfPWV after adjusting for blood pressure and other confounders.
RESULTS
Mean EPA and DHA levels were 1.9 (SD = 1.0) and 4.8 (SD = 1.4) for Koreans, 0.8 (SD = 0.6) and 2.4 (SD = 1.2) for whites, and 1.0 (SD = 1.0) and 3.2 (SD = 1.4) for Japanese Americans. Both EPA and DHA were significantly higher in Koreans than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses in Koreans showed that cfPWV had a significant inverse association with total marine n-3 FAs and with EPA alone after adjusting for blood pressure and other potential confounders. In contrast, there was no significant association of cfPWV with DHA. Whites and Japanese Americans did not show any significant associations of cfPWV with total marine n-3 FAs, EPA, or DHA.
CONCLUSIONS
High levels of EPA observed in Koreans have an inverse association with aortic stiffness.
doi:10.1093/ajh/hpt107
PMCID: PMC3790451  PMID: 23820020
aortic stiffness; blood pressure; carotid femoral pulse wave velocity; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; fish oil; hypertension.
12.  Do Differences in Risk Factors Explain the Lower Rates of Coronary Heart Disease in Japanese Versus U.S. Women? 
Journal of Women's Health  2013;22(11):966-977.
Abstract
Background
Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in women in Japan is one of the lowest in developed countries. In an attempt to shed some light on possible reasons of lower CHD in women in Japan compared with the United States, we extensively reviewed and analyzed existing national data and recent literature.
Methods
We searched recent epidemiological studies that reported incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and examined risk factors for CHD in women in Japan. Then, we compared trends in risk factors between women currently aged 50–69 years in Japan and the United States, using national statistics and other available resources.
Results
Recent epidemiological studies have clearly shown that AMI incidence in women in Japan is lower than that reported from other countries, and that lipids, blood pressure (BP), diabetes, smoking, and early menopause are independent risk factors. Comparing trends in risk factors between women in Japan and the United States, current levels of serum total cholesterol are higher in women in Japan and levels have been similar at least since 1990. Levels of BP have been higher in in Japan for the past 3 decades. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been similar in Japanese and white women currently aged 60–69 for the past 2 decades. In contrast, rates of cigarette smoking, although low in women in both countries, have been lower in women in Japan.
Conclusions
Differences in risk factors and their trends are unlikely to explain the difference in CHD rates in women in Japan and the United States. Determining the currently unknown factors responsible for low CHD mortality in women in Japan may lead to new strategy for CHD prevention.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2012.4087
PMCID: PMC3820126  PMID: 24073782
13.  The Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials: Update and Overview of Health Outcomes During the Intervention and Post-Stopping Phases 
IMPORTANCE
Menopausal hormone therapy continues in clinical use but questions remain regarding its risks and benefits for chronic disease prevention.
OBJECTIVE
To provide a comprehensive, integrated overview of findings from the two Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy (HT) trials with extended post-intervention follow up.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS
27,347 postmenopausal women, age 50–79 years, were enrolled at 40 US centers. Interventions were conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) for women with an intact uterus (N = 16,608) and CEE alone for women with hysterectomy (N= 10,739), or their placebos. Intervention continued for 5.6 and 7.2 years (median), respectively, with cumulative follow-up of 13 years through September 30, 2010.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
The primary efficacy and safety outcomes were coronary heart disease (CHD) and invasive breast cancer, respectively. A global index also included stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and deaths. Secondary and quality-of-life outcomes were also assessed.
RESULTS
During the intervention phase for CEE+MPA, the hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–1.45) and overall risks outweighed benefits, with increases in invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and the global index. Other risks included increased dementia (in women >65 years), gallbladder disease, and urinary incontinence, while benefits included decreased hip fractures, diabetes, and vasomotor symptoms. Post-intervention, most risks and benefits dissipated, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted (cumulative hazard ratio [HR] =1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.48). During intervention for CEE alone, risks and benefits were more balanced, with a HR for CHD of 0.94 (0.78–1.14), increased stroke and venous thrombosis, decreased hip fractures and diabetes, and over cumulative follow-up, decreased breast cancer (HR=0.79 [0.65–0.97]). Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality. With CEE, younger women (50–59 years) had more favorable results for all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and the global index (nominal P values for trend by age <0.05), but not for stroke and venous thrombosis. Absolute risks of adverse events (measured by the global index) per 10,000 women per year on CEE+MPA ranged from 12 excess cases for age 50–59 to 38 for age 70–79 and, for CEE, from 19 fewer cases for age 50–59 to 51 excess cases for age 70–79. Results for quality of life outcomes in both trials were mixed.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
Menopausal hormone therapy has a complex pattern of risks and benefits. While appropriate for symptom management in some women, its use for chronic disease prevention is not supported by the WHI randomized trials.
TRIAL REGISTRATION
clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT00000611
doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278040
PMCID: PMC3963523  PMID: 24084921
14.  Islet Autoimmunity Identifies a Unique Pattern of Impaired Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function, Markedly Reduced Pancreatic Beta Cell Mass and Insulin Resistance in Clinically Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106537.
There is a paucity of literature describing metabolic and histological data in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes. This subgroup of diabetes mellitus affects at least 5% of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) and it is termed Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). We evaluated indexes of insulin secretion, metabolic assessment, and pancreatic pathology in clinically diagnosed T2DM patients with and without the presence of humoral islet autoimmunity (Ab). A total of 18 patients with at least 5-year duration of clinically diagnosed T2DM were evaluated in this study. In those subjects we assessed acute insulin responses to arginine, a glucose clamp study, whole-body fat mass and fat-free mass. We have also analyzed the pancreatic pathology of 15 T2DM and 43 control cadaveric donors, using pancreatic tissue obtained from all the T2DM organ donors available from the nPOD network through December 31, 2013. The presence of islet Ab correlated with severely impaired β-cell function as demonstrated by remarkably low acute insulin response to arginine (AIR) when compared to that of the Ab negative group. Glucose clamp studies indicated that both Ab positive and Ab negative patients exhibited peripheral insulin resistance in a similar fashion. Pathology data from T2DM donors with Ab or the autoimmune diabetes associated DR3/DR4 allelic class II combination showed reduction in beta cell mass as well as presence of autoimmune-associated pattern A pathology in subjects with either islet autoantibodies or the DR3/DR4 genotype. In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence indicating that islet Ab positive long-term T2DM patients exhibit profound impairment of insulin secretion as well as reduced beta cell mass seemingly determined by an immune-mediated injury of pancreatic β-cells. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying beta cell destruction in this subset of diabetic patients may lead to the development of novel immunologic therapies aimed at halting the disease progression in its early stage.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106537
PMCID: PMC4165581  PMID: 25226365
16.  Long-term Survival in Adults Aged 65 and Older With White Matter Hyperintensity: Association With Performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test 
Psychosomatic medicine  2013;75(7):10.1097/PSY.0b013e31829c1df2.
OBJECTIVE
White matter hyperintensity (WMH) confers increased mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about differences in survival times among adults 65 years and older who have WMH and live in the community. To characterize the factors that may reduce mortality risk in the presence of WMH, measures of race, sex, ApoE4, neuroimaging, cardiometabolic, physiological and psychosocial characteristics were examined, with a particular focus on information processing as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test(DSST).
METHODS
Cox-proportional models were used to estimate mortality risks in a cohort of 3513 adults (74.8years, 58%women, 84%white) with WMH (0–9 points), DSST (0–90 points), risk factor assessment in 1992–94 and data on mortality and incident stroke to 2009 (median follow-up [range]:14.2[0.5–18.1]years).
RESULTS
WMH predicted a 48% greater mortality risk (age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR)[95% confidence interval(CI)] for WMH>3 points=1.48[1.35–1.62]). This association was attenuated after adjustment for DSST (HR[CI]: 1.38[1.27–1.51]) or lacunar infarcts (HR[CI]: 1.37[1.25,1.50]) but not after adjustment for other factors. The interaction between DSST and WMH was significant (p=0.011). In fully adjusted models stratified by WMH>3, participants with DSST>median had a 34% lower mortality risk among those with WMH>3 (n=532/1217) and a 28% lower mortality risk among those with WMH<3 (n=1364/2296), compared to participants with DSST
CONCLUSION
WMH is associated with increased long-term mortality risk in community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older. The increased risk is attenuated for those with higher DSST. Assessment of cognitive function with DSST may improve risk stratification of individuals with WMH.
doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31829c1df2
PMCID: PMC3809761  PMID: 23886735
mortality; information processing; white matter hyperintensity
Aims
Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether obesity is independently associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis. We examined an independent association of obesity with prevalent CAC among samples of multi-ethnic groups whose background populations have varying levels of obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods and results
We analysed a population-based sample of 1212 men, aged 40–49 years free of clinical cardiovascular disease recruited in 2002–06; 310 Japanese in Japan (JJ), 294 Koreans in South Korea (KN), 300 Japanese Americans (JA), and 308 Whites in the USA (UW). We defined prevalent CAC as an Agatston score of ≥10. Prevalent CAC was calculated by tertile of the body mass index (BMI) in each ethnic group and was plotted against the corresponding median of tertile BMI. Additionally, logistic regression was conducted to examine whether an association of the BMI was independent of conventional risk factors. The median BMI and crude prevalence of CAC for JJ, KN, JA, and UW were 23.4, 24.4, 27.4, and 27.1 (kg/m2); 12, 11, 32, and 26 (%), respectively. Despite the absolute difference in levels of BMI and CAC across groups, higher BMI was generally associated with higher prevalent CAC in each group. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, hypertension, lipids, and diabetes mellitus, the BMI was positively and independently associated with prevalent CAC in JJ, KN, UW, but not in JA.
Conclusion
In this multi-ethnic study, obesity was independently associated with subclinical stage of coronary atherosclerosis among men aged 40–49 years regardless of the BMI level.
doi:10.1093/ehjci/jet080
PMCID: PMC3738098  PMID: 23764486
Coronary artery calcium; Obesity; Body mass index; Multi-ethnic; Men; Risk factors
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104149.
Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 (n = 6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ≥2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ≥2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.76–1.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12–3.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.93–2.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.92–2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.62–2.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United States population, women with a history of preterm- or SGA-LBW deliveries have increased odds of hypertension and this risk appears to be higher for black women and younger women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104149
PMCID: PMC4122444  PMID: 25093324
Journal of human hypertension  2013;28(2):111-117.
We examined the association between serum lipoprotein subclasses and the three measures of arterial stiffness i.e. (i) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) which is a gold standard measure of central arterial stiffness, (ii) brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) which is emerging as a combined measure of central and peripheral arterial stiffness, and (iii) femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) which is a measure of peripheral arterial stiffness. Among a population-based sample of 701 apparently healthy Caucasian, Japanese American and Korean men aged 40–49 years, concentrations of lipoprotein particles were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and PWV was assessed with an automated waveform analyzer (VP2000, Omron, Japan). Multiple linear regressions were performed to analyze the association between each NMR lipoprotein subclasses and PWV measures, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and other confounders. A cut-off of p<0.01 was used for determining significance. All PWV measures had significant correlations with total and small low-density lipoprotein particle number (LDL-P) (all p<0.0001) but not LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (all p>0.1), independent of race and age. In multivariate regression analysis, no NMR lipoprotein subclass was significantly associated with cfPWV (all p>0.01). However, most NMR lipoprotein subclasses had significant associations with both baPWV and faPWV (p<0.01). In this study of healthy middle-aged men, as compared to cfPWV, both baPWV and faPWV had stronger associations with particle numbers of lipoprotein subclasses. Our results may suggest that both baPWV and faPWV are related to arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis, whereas cfPWV may represent arterial stiffness alone.
doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.60
PMCID: PMC3800263  PMID: 23823580
lipoproteins; lipoprotein fractions; pulse wave velocity; atherosclerosis
Global heart  2013;8(3):273-280.
Background
Both indices of obesity and lipoprotein subfractions contribute to coronary heart disease risk. However, associations between indices of obesity and lipoprotein subfractions remain undetermined across different ethnic groups. This study aims to examine the associations of indices of obesity in Japanese Americans (JA), African Americans (AA) and Koreans with lipoprotein subfractions.
Methods
A population-based sample of 230 JA, 91 AA, and 291 Korean men aged 40–49 was examined for indices of obesity, i.e., visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively), waist circumference (WC), and body-mass index (BMI), and for lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy. Multiple regression analyses were performed in each of the three ethnic groups to examine the associations of each index of obesity with lipoprotein.
Results
VAT had significant positive associations with total and small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significant negative association with large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in all three ethnicities (p < 0.01). SAT, WC, and BMI had significant positive associations with total and small LDL in only JA and Koreans, while these indices had significant inverse associations with large HDL in all ethnic groups (p < 0.01). Compared to SAT, VAT had larger R2 values in the associations with total and small LDL and large HDL in all three ethnic groups.
Conclusions
VAT is significantly associated with total and small LDL and large HDL in all three ethnic groups. The associations of SAT, WC, and BMI with lipoprotein subfractions are weaker compared to VAT in all three ethnic groups.
doi:10.1016/j.gheart.2013.07.001
PMCID: PMC4110345  PMID: 25068101
visceral adipose tissue; subcutaneous adipose tissue; body-mass index; waist circumference; lipoprotein subfractions
International journal of cardiology  2012;167(1):134-139.
Background
Prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in Japanese men is lower than in white and Japanese-American men. It is unclear if aortic calcification (AC) strongly linked to smoking is also lower in Japanese men who have many times higher smoking prevalence compared to US men.
Methods
We conducted a population-based study of 903 randomly-selected men aged 40–49 years: 310 Japanese men in Kusatsu, Japan, 301 white men in Allegheny County, U.S., and 292 Japanese men in Hawaii, U.S. (2002–2006). The presence of AC was assessed by electron-beam tomography. AC was defined as Agatston aortic calcium scores (AoCaS) >0 and ≥100.
Results
Japanese (35.8%) had significantly less AoCaS>0 compared to both white (68.8%, p<0.001) and Japanese-American (62.3%, p<0.001) but similar AoCaS≥100 (19.4%, 18.3%, 22.6%, respectively, p=0.392). Pack-years of smoking, which was highest in Japanese, was the most important single associate of AC in all populations. Additionally age, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides in Japanese; body-mass index (BMI) in white; and BMI, LDL-C, hypertension, diabetes, and lipid medications in Japanese-American were independent associates of AC. The risk of AC using either cut points adjusted for pack-years of smoking and additional risk factors was lower in Japanese compared to both white and Japanese-American. AC and CAC had moderately positive and significant correlations in Japanese (r=0.26), white (r=0.39), and Japanese-American (r=0.45).
Conclusions
Prevalence of AC defined both >0 and ≥100 was significantly lower in Japanese than in white and Japanese-American men after adjusting for cigarette smoking and additional risk factors
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.12.060
PMCID: PMC3328605  PMID: 22240754
Epidemiology; risk factors; atherosclerosis; aorta; calcification; electron-beam tomography; Caucasian; Japanese; Japanese American
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;20(3):636-643.
The Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study was designed to test whether a nonpharmacological intervention including qualitative and quantitative dietary changes to induce weight loss and increased physical activity levels would reduce blood triglyceride levels and number of low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL-P). Such decreases in lipoproteins and other risk factors could reduce or slow progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Study participants were randomized to either the intervention (Lifestyle Change) or assessment (Health Education) group. Most of the intervention ended at the 30-month visit. The last 48-month examination was completed in 9/2008. There was very substantial weight loss and increased exercise during the first 30 months of the trial resulting in significant decreases in CV risk factors. Most of the intervention effect was lost through 48 months. Weight loss was 3.4 kg in Lifestyle Intervention and 0.2 kg in the Health Education at 48 months (P = 0.000). There were no significant changes at 48 months in lipid levels, blood pressure (BP), glucose, insulin, or in the subclinical measures of coronary calcium, carotid intima media thickness, or plaque. There was a significant decrease in long-distance corridor walk time in the Lifestyle vs. Health Education groups. Significant lifestyle changes can be achieved that result in decreases in CV risk factors. Whether such changes reduce CV outcomes is still untested in clinical trials of weight loss or exercise. Long-term maintenance of successful lifestyle changes, weight loss and reduced risk factors is the hurdle for lifestyle interventions attempting to prevent CV and other chronic diseases.
doi:10.1038/oby.2011.80
PMCID: PMC3623568  PMID: 21494228
Annals of neurology  2013;73(6):751-761.
Objective
This study examined amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in 190 non-demented subjects aged 82 and older to determine the proportion of Aβ-positive scans and associations with cognition, APOE status, brain volume, and Ginko biloba (Gb) treatment.
Methods
Subjects who agreed to participate had a brain MRI and positron emission tomography scan with 11C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) following completion of a Gb treatment clinical trial. The youngest subject in this imaging study was 82, and the mean age of the subjects was 85.5 at the time of the scans;152 (80%) were cognitively normal and 38 (20%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)at the time of the PiB study.
Results
A high proportion of the cognitively normal subjects (51%) and MCI subjects (68%) were PiB-positive. The APOE*4 allele was more prevalent in PiB-positive than in PiB-negative subjects (30% vs 6%). Measures of memory, language and attentional functions were worse in PiB-positive than in PiB-negative subjects, when both normal and MCI cases were analyzed together; however no significant associations were observed within either normal or MCI subject groups alone. There was no relationship between Gb treatment and Aβ deposition as determined by PiB.
Interpretation
The data revealed a 55% prevalence of PiB-positivity in non-demented subjects age >80 and 85% PiB-positivity in the APOE*4 non-demented elderly subjects. The findings also showed that long-term exposure to Gb did not affect the prevalence of cerebral Aβ deposition.
doi:10.1002/ana.23797
PMCID: PMC3725727  PMID: 23596051
Introduction
Scientific evidence shows that cigarette price increases can significantly reduce smoking prevalence and smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults. However, data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of increasing Pennsylvania’s cigarette tax to reduce smoking and/or adverse health effects of smoking. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of cigarette tax increases and resulting price increases on smoking prevalence, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and asthma hospitalization rates, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rates in Pennsylvania.
Methods
We used segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series to evaluate the level and trend changes in Pennsylvania adults’ current smoking prevalence, age-adjusted AMI and asthma hospitalization rates, age-specific asthma hospitalization rates, and age-adjusted SCD rates following 2 cigarette excise tax increases.
Results
After the first excise tax increase, no beneficial effects were noted on the outcomes of interest. The second tax increase was associated with significant declines in smoking prevalence for people aged 18 to 39, age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for men, age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations rates, and SCD rates among men. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 5.2% (P = .01), with a quarterly decrease of 1.4% (P = .01) for people aged 18 to 39 years. The age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rate for men showed a decline of 3.87/100,000 population (P = .04). The rate of age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations decreased by 10.05/100,000 population (P < .001), and the quarterly trend decreased by 3.21/100,000 population (P < .001). Quarterly SCD rates for men decreased by 1.34/100,000 population (P < .001).
Conclusion
An increase in the price of cigarettes to more than $4 per 20-cigarette pack was associated with a significant decrease in smoking among younger people (aged 18–39). Decreases were also seen in asthma hospitalizations and men’s age-adjusted AMI hospitalization and SCD rates. Further research and policy development regarding the effect of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption should be cognizant of the psychological tipping points at which overall price affects smoking patterns.
doi:10.5888/pcd10.120268
PMCID: PMC3804017  PMID: 24135393
Diabetes  2013;62(5):1763-1767.
Evidence is limited as to whether heritable risk of obesity varies throughout adulthood. Among >34,000 European Americans, aged 18–100 years, from multiple U.S. studies in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium, we examined evidence for heterogeneity in the associations of five established obesity risk variants (near FTO, GNPDA2, MTCH2, TMEM18, and NEGR1) with BMI across four distinct epochs of adulthood: 1) young adulthood (ages 18–25 years), adulthood (ages 26–49 years), middle-age adulthood (ages 50–69 years), and older adulthood (ages ≥70 years); or 2) by menopausal status in women and stratification by age 50 years in men. Summary-effect estimates from each meta-analysis were compared for heterogeneity across the life epochs. We found heterogeneity in the association of the FTO (rs8050136) variant with BMI across the four adulthood epochs (P = 0.0006), with larger effects in young adults relative to older adults (β [SE] = 1.17 [0.45] vs. 0.09 [0.09] kg/m2, respectively, per A allele) and smaller intermediate effects. We found no evidence for heterogeneity in the association of GNPDA2, MTCH2, TMEM18, and NEGR1 with BMI across adulthood. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have greater effects on body weight in young compared with older adulthood for FTO, suggesting changes by age, generation, or secular trends. Future research should compare and contrast our findings with results using longitudinal data.
doi:10.2337/db12-0863
PMCID: PMC3636619  PMID: 23300277

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