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1.  Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations Overestimate Creatinine Clearance in Older Individuals Enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA): Impact on Renal Drug Dosing 
Pharmacotherapy  2013;33(9):912-921.
Objectives
To evaluate performance of kidney function estimation equations and to determine the frequency of drug dose discordance in an older population.
Design
Cross-sectional analysis of data from community-dwelling volunteers randomly selected from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2010.
Subjects
Two hundred sixty-nine men and women with a mean ± SD age of 81 ± 6 years, mean serum creatinine concentration (Scr) of 1.1 ± 0.4 mg/dl, and mean measured 24-hour creatinine clearance (mClcr) of 53 ± 13 ml/minute.
Measurements and Main Results
Kidney function was estimated by using the following equations: Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). The performance of each equation was assessed by measuring bias and precision relative to mClcr. Dose calculation errors (discordance) were determined for 10 drugs requiring renal dosage adjustments to avoid toxicity when compared to the FDA-approved dosages. The CG equation was the least biased estimate of mClcr. The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations were significantly positively biased compared to CG (mean ± SD 34 ± 20% and 22 ± 15%, respectively, p<0.001) and mClcr (29 ± 47% and 18 ± 40%, respectively, p<0.001). Rounding low Scr values (< 1.0 mg/dl) up to an arbitrary value of 1.0 mg/dL resulted in CG values (44±10 mL/min) that were significantly lower than mClcr (56±12 mL/min, p<0.001) and CG (56±15 mL/min, p<0.001). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations had median dose discordance rates of 28.6% and 22.9%, respectively.
Conclusion
The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations significantly overestimated creatinine clearance (mClcr and CG) in elderly individuals. This leads to dose calculation errors for many drugs, particularly in individuals with severe renal impairment. Thus, GFR-estimating equations should not be substituted in place of the CG equation in older adults for the purpose of renal dosage adjustments. In addition, the common practice of rounding or replacing low Scr values with an arbitrary value of 1.0 mg/dL for use in the CG equation should be avoided. Additional studies that evaluate alternative eGFR equations in the older populations that incorporate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes measures are needed.
doi:10.1002/phar.1282
PMCID: PMC3732548  PMID: 23625813
GFR; glomerular filtration rate; creatinine clearance; geriatrics; BLSA; drug safety
2.  Optimum Ribavirin Exposure Overcomes Racial Disparity in Efficacy of Peginterferon and Ribavirin Treatment for Hepatitis C Genotype 1 
OBJECTIVES
Peginterferon and ribavirin treatment is less effective for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infections in African Americans (AA) compared with Caucasian Americans (CA). Host genetic variability near the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene locus is partly responsible. We investigated the relationship between ribavirin drug exposure and week 24 and 72 (sustained virologic response, SVR) responses (undetected serum HCV RNA) in 71 AA and 74 CA with HCV genotype 1 who received >90 % of the prescribed peginterferon and weight-based ribavirin (1,000 or 1,200 mg per day) from week 1 to 24.
METHODS
Ribavirin plasma levels were measured at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24; ribavirin area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule.
RESULTS
Compared with CA, AA had lower week 24 (WK24VR) (57.8 vs. 78.1; P < 0.05) and week 72 (SVR) (36.6 % vs 54.8 %; P < 0.05) response rates. AA also had significantly lower ribavirin exposure (AUC) from week 1 to 12 (P < 0.05). Ribavirin exposures ≥ 4,065 and ≥ 4,480 ng/ml/day in the first week (AUC0–7) were thresholds for WK24VR and SVR in receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses. AA were less likely to have a threshold ribavirin AUC0–7 level than CA (P < 0.05). There were no significant racial differences in WK24VR (AA: 77 vs. CA: 84 %) and SVR (AA: 52 vs. CA: 60 %) rates in patients who met the ribavirin AUC0–7 thresholds. Ribavirin AUC0–7 predicted WK24VR and SVR independently of IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 genotype. Yet, achieving threshold AUC0–7 levels increased response rates primarily in AA with the less favorable non-C/C genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS
Standard weight-based dosing leads to suboptimal ribavirin exposure in AA and contributes to the racial disparity in peginterferon and ribavirin treatment efficacy for HCV genotype 1.
doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.306
PMCID: PMC3718255  PMID: 23090351
3.  Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infection 
The AAPS Journal  2012;14(3):571-580.
We report a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model of orally administered ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial, including the estimation of covariate effects on ribavirin PK parameters and sustained viral response (SVR). Ribavirin concentrations obtained from 144 patients, consisting of n = 71 African American (AA) and n = 73 Caucasian Americans (CA), during 24 weeks of therapy were best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination parameterized in terms of apparent oral clearance (CL/F), apparent central volume (Vc/F), apparent peripheral volume (Vp/F), and apparent intercompartmental clearance (Q/F). The typical population parameters were CL/F (19.0 L/h), Vc/F (1,130 L), Vp/F (4,020 L), and Q/F (38.6). The Vp/F was approximately 50% greater in AA compared to CA. Significant covariates in the SVR model included IL-28B genotype, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and ribavirin exposure during the first week (AUC0 − 7). The population PK and logistic regression models both described the observed ribavirin concentration data and SVR data well. These findings suggest that optimization of ribavirin plasma concentrations during the first week of ribavirin dosing is most critical in AA patients in order to increase the rate of SVR, especially those with the IL-28B TT genotype.
doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9368-z
PMCID: PMC3385833  PMID: 22639111
hepatitis C; pharmacodynamics; population pharmacokinetics; ribavirin
4.  The relationship of oxidative stress and cholesterol with dipping status before and after aerobic exercise training 
Blood pressure  2009;18(4):171-179.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training (AEXT) on dipping status in pre-hypertensive and stage-1 hypertensive individuals. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether AEXT alters oxidative stress and endothelial biomarkers correlated to dipping status.
Methods
Twenty-three subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at baseline and after 6 months of AEXT. AEXT consisted of training at 70% VO2max 3 days/week for 6 months. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides, urinary and plasma nitric oxide end-products, superoxide dismutase and 8-iso-PGF2α were measured before and after AEXT. Statistically, ANOVA and linear regression were used.
Results
Before and after AEXT, there were no significant differences between dippers and non-dippers in any of the biomarkers except for total cholesterol following AEXT. In a sub-analysis following AEXT, 14 subjects retained their original dipping status, five subjects changed from dippers to non-dippers and four subjects changed from non-dippers to dippers. Significant differences existed between these groups in changes in total and LDL-cholesterol, ox-LDL, 8-iso-PGF2α and % Dip.
Conclusions
Changes in cholesterol levels but not oxidative stress or endothelial biomarkers were related to changes in BP variables following AEXT in dippers and non-dippers.
doi:10.1080/08037050903047160
PMCID: PMC2922419  PMID: 19544106
Aerobic exercise; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; dipper; non-dipper; hypertension; oxidative stress
5.  Differential aerobic exercise-induced changes in plasma aldosterone between African Americans and Caucasians 
Experimental physiology  2007;92(5):871-879.
Aldosterone influences the kidney’s regulation of blood pressure (BP), but aldosterone can contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Blood pressure is reduced with aerobic exercise training (AEX), but the extent to which plasma aldosterone (PA) levels change is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of AEX changed PA levels, 24 h sodium (Na+) excretion and BP in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects and whether these changes differed according to ethnicity. The study was performed in the Kinesiology Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, and 35 (22 Caucasian; 13 African American) sedentary prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects completed 6 months of AEX. Blood samples were collected under fasting and supine conditions, and PA was measured by radioimmunoassay. In total population aerobic exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (24 ± 0.8 versus 28 ± 1 ml kg−1 min−1, P < 0.001) and decreased PA levels (97 ± 11 versus 72 ± 6 pg ml−1, P = 0.01), body mass index (28 ± 0.5 versus 28 ± 0.5 kg m−2, P = 0.004) and weight (85 ± 2 versus 83 ± 2 kg, P = 0.003). Aerobic exercise training decreased PA levels (from 119 ± 16 to 81 ± 7 pg ml−1, P = 0.02) in the Caucasians but there was no change in BP or Na+ excretion. African American participants had no significant changes in PA levels, BP and Na+ excretion. Plasma aldosterone levels were 47% lower at baseline (P = 0.01) and 30% lower after AEX (P = 0.04) in African American participants compared with Caucasians. Baseline (P = 0.08) and final PA levels (P = 0.17) did not differ between the two groups after accounting for baseline and final intra-abdominal fat, respectively. The reduction in PA levels with AEX appeared to be driven by the change in PA levels in Caucasian participants. Fat distribution contributed to the ethnic differences in PA levels.
doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2007.037408
PMCID: PMC2729146  PMID: 17483200
6.  Peginterferon Pharmacokinetics in African American and Caucasian American Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection 
Background & Aims
The relationship between serum peginterferon pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the early virologic response (EVR) to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy was assessed in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in the Virahep-C study.
Methods
333 patients [160 African Americans (AA) and 173 Caucasian Americans (CA)] who received peginterferon alfa-2a (180 μg/wk) without a dose modification during the initial 4 weeks of therapy were analyzed. Peginterferon and 2,5-OAS serum levels were measured on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 of treatment. The EVR: (≥ 2 log10 decline in HCV RNA levels by week 12 of therapy) was the primary virologic endpoint.
Results
Peginterferon pharmacokinetics after the first dose were similar in AA and CA, but AA had greater peginterferon concentrations at days 1, 3, 14 and 28 (p < 0.05). AA had higher absolute serum 2,5-OAS levels on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 (p < 0.05), but the magnitude of 2,5-OAS induction during treatment relative to day 0 were similar. AA patients exhibited a smaller decline in serum HCV RNA during the first 28 days of treatment (p < 0.001) and a lower EVR (65% vs. 83%). AA and CA with EVR had significantly higher serum peginterferon concentrations and serum 2,5-OAS induction during the first 12 weeks than patients without an EVR.
Conclusion
Peginterferon alfa-2a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability is associated with EVR in both AA and CA with HCV infection, but do not explain the racial disparity in combination treatment efficacy.
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2008.02.035
PMCID: PMC2704736  PMID: 18407798
7.  Phase 1 Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study of Chimeric Murine-Human Monoclonal Antibody cαStx2 Administered Intravenously to Healthy Adult Volunteers 
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious complication of infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) is responsible for the renal toxicity that can follow intestinal infection and hemorrhagic colitis due to E. coli. A chimeric mouse-human antibody, designated cαStx2, that has neutralizing activity in a mouse model was produced and tested in healthy adult volunteers. In this phase I dose escalation study, cαStx2 was generally well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that clearance was stable over the dose range of 1.0 to 10 mg/kg of body weight (0.249 ± 0.023 ml/kg/h) but was higher for the 0.1-mg/kg dose (0.540 ± 0.078 ml/kg/h), suggesting saturable elimination. A similar nonlinear trend was observed for the volume of distribution, where average values ranged from 0.064 ± 0.015 liter/kg for the 1.0- to 10-mg/kg doses and 0.043 ± 0.005 for the 0.01-mg/kg dose. The relatively small volume of distribution suggests that the antibody is limited to the vascular (plasma) compartment. The mean half-life was 165 ± 66 h, with lowest values observed for the 0.1-mg/kg dose (56.2 ± 9.7 h) and the highest values reported for the 10.0-mg/kg dose (206.4 ± 12.4 h). Future studies are needed to confirm the safety of this cαStx2, and innovative clinical trials will be required to measure its efficacy in preventing or treating HUS.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.5.1808-1812.2005
PMCID: PMC1087672  PMID: 15855500

Results 1-7 (7)