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1.  Serum Cathepsin S Is Associated With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community-Based Cohort of Elderly Men 
Diabetes Care  2012;36(1):163-165.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate associations between serum cathepsin S, impaired insulin sensitivity, defective insulin secretion, and diabetes risk in a community-based sample of elderly men without diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Serum cathepsin S, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp), and insulin secretion (early insulin response during an oral glucose tolerance test) were measured in 905 participants of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (mean age, 71 years). Thirty participants developed diabetes during 6 years of follow-up.
RESULTS
After adjustment for age, anthropometric variables, and inflammatory markers, higher cathepsin S was associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (regression coefficient per SD increase −0.09 [95% CI −0.14 to −0.04], P = 0.001), but no association with early insulin response was found. Moreover, higher cathepsin S was associated with a higher risk for developing diabetes (odds ratio per SD increase 1.48 [1.08–2.01], P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Cathepsin S activity appears to be involved in the early dysregulation of glucose and insulin metabolism.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0494
PMCID: PMC3526243  PMID: 22923671
2.  Short-term chamber exposure to low doses of two kinds of wood smoke does not induce systemic inflammation, coagulation or oxidative stress in healthy humans 
Inhalation Toxicology  2013;25(8):417-425.
Introduction:
Air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. A proposed mechanism is that local airway inflammation leads to systemic inflammation, affecting coagulation and the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. One major source of air pollution is wood burning. Here we investigate whether exposure to two kinds of wood smoke, previously shown to cause airway effects, affects biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation.
Methods:
Thirteen healthy adults were exposed to filtered air followed by two sessions of wood smoke for three hours, one week apart. One session used smoke from the start-up phase of the wood-burning cycle, and the other smoke from the burn-out phase. Mean particle mass concentrations were 295 µg/m3 and 146 µg/m3, and number concentrations were 140 000/cm3 and 100 000/cm3, respectively. Biomarkers were analyzed in samples of blood and urine taken before and several times after exposure. Results after wood smoke exposure were adjusted for exposure to filtered air.
Results:
Markers of systemic inflammation and soluble adhesion molecules did not increase after wood smoke exposure. Effects on markers of coagulation were ambiguous, with minor decreases in fibrinogen and platelet counts and mixed results concerning the coagulation factors VII and VIII. Urinary F2-isoprostane, a consistent marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation, unexpectedly decreased after wood smoke exposure.
Conclusions:
The effects on biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation do not indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in healthy adults by short-term exposure to wood smoke at these moderate doses, previously shown to cause airway effects.
doi:10.3109/08958378.2013.798387
PMCID: PMC3793281  PMID: 23808634
Biomarkers; F2-isoprostane; health effects; human exposure studies; particles; systemic inflammation; wood smoke
3.  Primary Osteosarcoma of Breast, A Rare Case. 
Mammary sarcomas are very uncommon and make up less than 1% of all primary breast malignancies.Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare and represents 12.5% of mammary sarcomas. A secondary lesion from a primary osteosarcoma of the bone should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In addition, the absence of a direct connection between the tumour and the underlying skeleton is mandatory for the diagnosis.We report a case of primary osteosarcoma of the breast occurring in young patient with fatal evolution.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5700.3263
PMCID: PMC3782943  PMID: 24086886
Osteosarcoma of breast; Stromal sarcoma
4.  Effects of Enriched Environment on COX-2, Leptin and Eicosanoids in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51525.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer. This study investigated a possible link between COX-2 and adipokines in the development of mammary tumors. A model of environmental enrichment (EE), known to reduce tumor growth was used for a syngeneic murine model of mammary carcinoma. 3-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice were housed in standard environment (SE) or EE cages for 9 weeks and transplanted orthotopically with syngeneic EO771 adenocarcinoma cells into the right inguinal mammary fat pad. EE housing influenced mammary gland development with a decrease in COX-2 expressing cells and enhanced side-branching and advanced development of alveolar structures of the mammary gland. Tumor volume and weight were decreased in EE housed mice and were associated with a reduction in COX-2 and Ki67 levels, and an increase in caspase-3 levels. In tumors of SE mice, high COX-2 expression correlated with enhanced leptin detection. Non-tumor-bearing EE mice showed a significant increase in adiponectin levels but no change in those of leptin, F2-isoprostanes, PGF2α, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, and MCP-1 levels. Both tumor-bearing groups (SE and EE housing) had increased resistin, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1 and MCP-1 levels irrespective of the different housing environment demonstrating higher inflammatory response due to the presence of the tumor. This study demonstrates that EE housing influenced normal mammary gland development and inhibited mammary tumor growth resulting in a marked decrease in intratumoral COX-2 activity and an increase in the plasma ratio of adiponectin/leptin levels.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051525
PMCID: PMC3521763  PMID: 23272114
5.  Inflammation, oxidative stress, glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria in elderly men: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:537.
Background
The role of inflammation and oxidative stress in mild renal impairment in the elderly is not well studied. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating the associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and markers of different inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress in a community based cohort of elderly men.
Findings
Cystatin C-based GFR, ACR, and biomarkers of cytokine-mediated inflammation (interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein[CRP], serum amyloid A[SAA]), cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation (urinary prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]), and oxidative stress (urinary F2 isoprostanes) were assessed in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men(n = 647, mean age 77 years).
Results
In linear regression models adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and treatment with statins, ACE-inhibitors, ASA, and anti-inflammatory agents, eGFR was inversely associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (β-coefficient −0.13 to −0.19, p < 0.001 for all), and positively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (β-coefficient 0.09, p = 0.02). In line with this, ACR was positively associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (β- coefficient 0.09-0.12, p < 0.02 for all), and negatively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (β-coefficient −0.12, p = 0.002). The associations were similar but with lower regression coefficients in a sub-sample with normal eGFR (>60 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 514), with the exception that F2-isoprostane and SAA were no longer associated with eGFR.
Conclusion
Our data indicate that cytokine-mediated inflammation is involved in the early stages of impaired kidney function in the elderly, but that cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation does not play a role at this stage. The unexpected association between higher eGFR/lower albuminuria and increased F2-isoprostanes in urine merits further studies.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-537
PMCID: PMC3527356  PMID: 23016573
Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria
6.  24-Hour ambulatory blood pressure associates inversely with prostaglandin F2α, interleukin-6 and F2-isoprostane formation in a Swedish population of older men 
Vasoconstrictive prostaglandins (PGs), such as PGF2α, F2-isoprostanes, and systemic inflammation may be involved in the physiological regulation of blood pressure (BP) and the pathophysiology leading to hypertension. However, studies evaluating these parameters and BP in human populations are sparse. We analysed the cross-sectional associations between 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α (indicator of PG-mediated vasoconstriction and inflammation), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and urinary F2-isoprostanes (indicator of vasoconstriction and oxidative stress) in 619 men in a Swedish older population (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, age 78 years). Both systolic and diastolic 24-hour BP correlated inversely with concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α (P<0.01) and F2-isoprostanes (P<0.01) independent on other cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, diastolic 24-hour BP inversely correlated with plasma IL-6 (P<0.05) and 24-hour pulse pressure showed a positive linear correlation with IL-6, CRP and SAA. In conclusion, high BP is associated with decreased formation of vasoconstrictive PGF2α and F2-isoprostanes in this population of older men. These findings, although unlike our original hypothesis, might have an important physiological function which needs to be further evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3342711  PMID: 22567175
Blood pressure; pulse pressure; eicosanoids; prostaglandin F2α; F2-isoprostanes; interleukin-6; inflammation; human; population
7.  Cytokine-mediated inflammation is independently associated with insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp in a community-based cohort of elderly men 
Both clinical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between an inflammatory state and insulin resistance. We investigated the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation (high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin [IL] 6) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate, assessed by the euglycemic insulin clamp) in a community-based cohort, with subgroup analyses of normal weight individuals without diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (NCEP). hsCRP and IL-6 were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (multivariable-adjusted regression coefficient for 1-SD increase of hsCRP -0.12 (-0.21-(-0.03), p=0.01) and of IL-6 -0.11 (-0.21-(-0.02), p=0.01) in models adjusting for age and components of the metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference). The multivariable-adjusted association between hsCRP, IL-6 and insulin sensitivity were of a similar magnitude in normal weight individuals without diabetes and without the metabolic syndrome. Our data show that cytokine -mediated subclinical inflammation is independently associated with decreased insulin sensitivity also in apparently metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, indicating that the interplay between inflammatory processes and insulin resistance is present already in the early stages of the development of glucometabolic disease.
PMCID: PMC3113503  PMID: 21686140
Euglycemic insulin clamp; insulin sensitivity; inflammation; cytokines; metabolic syndrome; diabetes
8.  Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers 
Lipids  2010;46(1):37-46.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4
PMCID: PMC3024511  PMID: 21042875
Plasma lipoproteins; Plasma lipids; Dietary fat; Nutrition, n-3 fatty acids; Lipid absorption; Phospholipids
9.  Independent and combined influence of AGTR1 variants and aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in hypertensives 
Blood pressure  2009;18(4):204-212.
Angiotensin II (AngII), via the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R), contributes to oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise training (AEXT) reduces the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, presumably by reducing the grade of oxidative stress. We investigated the independent and combined influence of the AGTR1 A1166C and −825 T/A polymorphisms on oxidative stress and plasma AngII responses to AEXT in pre- and stage 1 hypertensives. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α significantly increased with AEXT (p=0.002); however, there were no significant changes in superoxide dismutase activity or AngII levels. There was a significant difference in the change in AngII levels with AEXT between A1166C genotype groups (p=0.04) resulting in a significant interactive effect of the A1166C polymorphism and AEXT on the change in AngII (p<0.05). Only the TT genotype group of the −825 T/A polymorphism had a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.02). Risk allele analysis revealed a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.04) and a significant increase in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p=0.01) with AEXT in individuals with two risk alleles only. Our findings suggest that variation in the AGTR1 gene is associated with differential changes in plasma AngII but not oxidative stress.
doi:10.1080/08037050903118706
PMCID: PMC2922402  PMID: 19593696
AGTR1; angiotensin II; exercise; isoprostanes; oxidative stress
10.  Exercise Training, NADPH Oxidase p22phox Gene Polymorphisms, and Hypertension 
Introduction
Oxidative stress that is mediated through NADPH oxidase activity plays a role in the pathology of hypertension, and aerobic exercise training reduces NADPH oxidase activity. The involvement of genetic variation in the p22phox (CYBA) subunit genes in individual oxidative stress responses to aerobic exercise training has yet to be examined in Pre and Stage 1 hypertensives.
Methods
Ninety-four sedentary Pre and Stage 1 hypertensive adults underwent 6 months of aerobic exercise training at a level of 70% V̇O2max to determine whether the CYBA polymorphisms, C242T and A640G, were associated with changes in urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), urinary nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC).
Results
Demographic and subject characteristics were similar among genotype groups for both polymorphisms. At baseline, a significant (P = 0.03) difference among the C2424T genotype groups in 8-iso-PGF2α levels was detected, with the TT homozygotes having the lowest levels and the CC homozygotes having the highest levels. However, no differences were found at baseline between the A640G genotype groups. After 6 months of aerobic exercise training, there was a significant increase in V̇O2max (P < 0.0001) in the entire study population. In addition, there were significant increases in both urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (P = 0.002) and plasma TAC (P = 0.03) levels and a significant decrease in endogenous urinary NOx (P < 0.0001). Overall, aerobic exercise training elicited no significant differences among genotype groups in either CYBA variant for any of the oxidative stress variables.
Conclusions
We found that compared with CYBA polymorphisms C242T and A640G, it was aerobic exercise training that had the greatest influence on the selected biomarkers; furthermore, our results suggest that the C242T CYBA variant influences baseline levels of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α but not the aerobic exercise-induced responses.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318199cee8
PMCID: PMC2871250  PMID: 19516159
OXIDATIVE STRESS; AEROBIC EXERCISE; CYBA GENE; NITRIC OXIDE; ISOPROSTANES
11.  Fruit and vegetable consumption and its relation to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adolescents 
Background
Fruits and vegetables, foods rich in flavonoids and antioxidants, have been associated with lower risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adults. Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are predictors of coronary heart disease risk; however, it is unknown whether these markers are related to dietary flavonoid and antioxidant intake in youth.
Objective
To determine whether greater intakes of fruit and vegetables, antioxidants, folate, and total flavonoids were inversely associated with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in 285 adolescent boys and girls aged 13-17 years.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study conducted between February, 1996-January, 2000, diet was assessed by a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight measurements were obtained and a fasting blood sample drawn. Spearman partial correlation analyses evaluated the relation of intakes of fruit and vegetables, antioxidants, folate, and flavonoids with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α metabolite and oxidative stress (urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α, a F2-isoprostane), adjusting for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, energy intake, and body mass index.
Results
Urinary F2-isoprostane was inversely correlated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables, vitamin C, beta-carotene, and flavonoids. Serum CRP was significantly inversely associated with intakes of fruit, (r = -0.19; p=0.004), vitamin C (r = -0.13, p=0.03); and folate (r=-0.18; p=0.004). Serum IL-6 was inversely associated with intakes of legumes, vegetables, beta-carotene, and vitamin C (r= -0.12, p=0.03). Serum TNF-α was inversely associated with beta-carotene (r=-0.16, p=0.02) and luteolin (r= -0.15, p=0.02).
Conclusion
Study results show that the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable intake on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are already present by early adolescence and provide support for the United States Dietary Guideline “to consume five or more servings per day” of fruits and vegetables to promote beneficial cardiovascular health
doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.036
PMCID: PMC2676354  PMID: 19248856
12.  Insulin Sensitivity Measured With Euglycemic Clamp Is Independently Associated With Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Community-Based Cohort  
Diabetes Care  2008;31(8):1550-1555.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the community, with prespecified subgroup analyses in normoglycemic individuals with normal GFR.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We investigated the cross-sectional association between insulin sensitivity (M/I, assessed using euglycemic clamp) and cystatin C–based GFR in a community-based cohort of elderly men (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM], n = 1,070). We also investigated whether insulin sensitivity predicted the incidence of renal dysfunction at a follow-up examination after 7 years.
RESULTS—Insulin sensitivity was directly related to GFR (multivariable-adjusted regression coefficient for 1-unit higher M/I 1.19 [95% CI 0.69–1.68]; P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, glucometabolic variables (fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test), cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking), and lifestyle factors (BMI, physical activity, and consumption of tea, coffee, and alcohol). The positive multivariable-adjusted association between insulin sensitivity and GFR also remained statistically significant in participants with normal fasting plasma glucose, normal glucose tolerance, and normal GFR (n = 443; P < 0.02). In longitudinal analyses, higher insulin sensitivity at baseline was associated with lower risk of impaired renal function (GFR <50 ml/min per 1.73 m2) during follow-up independently of glucometabolic variables (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for 1-unit higher of M/I 0.58 [95% CI 0.40–0.84]; P < 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that impaired insulin sensitivity may be involved in the development of renal dysfunction at an early stage, before the onset of diabetes or prediabetic glucose elevations. Further studies are needed in order to establish causality.
doi:10.2337/dc08-0369
PMCID: PMC2494665  PMID: 18509205
13.  Microalbuminuria Measured by three Different Methods, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Swedish Males 
Microalbuminuria is associated with hypertension and is a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic disease, both renal and coronary heart disease (CHD), Presently there are several methods available for measurement of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the three different methods gave similar information or if one of the assays were superior to the others. Blood pressure, inflammatory markers and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity were correlated with urine albumin analysed with a point-of-care testing (POCT) instrument, nephelometric determination of albumin and albumin/creatinine ratio in elderly males. The study population consisted of 103 diabetic and 603 nondiabetic males (age 77 years) in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed urine albumin with a HemoCue® Urine Albumin POCT instrument and a ProSpec® nephelometer and albumin/creatinine ratio. There were strong correlations between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all three urine albumin methods (p < 0.0001). There were also significant correlations between the different urine albumin measurements and serum amyloid A component, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. The three different urine albumin methods studied provided similar information in relation to cardiovascular disease. There was a strong correlation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and microalbuminuria in both the whole study population and in nondiabetic males emphasizing the role of hypertension in glomerular damage. The good correlation between the studied urine albumin measurements show that all three methods can be used for monitoring urine albumin excretion.
PMCID: PMC2709962  PMID: 19609391
Age; Cardiovascular disease; C-reactive protein; Hypertension; IL-6; Inflammation; Microalbuminuria
14.  High intake of fruit and vegetables is related to low oxidative stress and inflammation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
Patients with type 2 diabetes have increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. A high fruit and vegetable intake may be beneficial.
Objective
To study whether fruit and vegetable intake and levels of plasma antioxidants relate to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes. Further, to investigate whether plasma antioxidants are good biomarkers for intake of fruit and vegetables.
Design
Patients with type 2 diabetes were studied. Their dietary intake and levels of plasma antioxidants, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were analysed.
Results
Fruit and vegetable intake was inversely related to oxidative stress. Plasma carotenoids were negatively correlated with inflammation. The plasma levels of α-carotene and β-carotene showed strongly positive associations with fruit and vegetable intake.
Conclusions
The results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake may decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in this group of patients. An increased intake of fruit and vegetables can therefore be beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes, since these patients are documented to have raised oxidative stress and inflammation. The study support the usefulness of plasma α-carotene and β-carotene as biomarkers for fruit and vegetable intake.
doi:10.1080/17482970701737285
PMCID: PMC2606994
antioxidants; fruit; inflammatory cytokine; oxidative stress; type 2 diabetes; vegetables
15.  The enigma of in vivo oxidative stress assessment: isoprostanes as an emerging target 
Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the major factors behind several acute and chronic diseases, and may also be associated with ageing. Excess formation of free radicals in miscellaneous body environment may originate from endogenous response to cell injury, but also from exposure to a number of exogenous toxins. When the antioxidant defence system is overwhelmed, this leads to cell damage. However, the measurement of free radicals or their endproducts is tricky, since these compounds are reactive and short lived, and have diverse characteristics. Specific evidence for the involvement of free radicals in pathological situations has been difficult to obtain, partly owing to shortcomings in earlier described methods for the measurement of oxidative stress. Isoprostanes, which are prostaglandin-like bioactive compounds synthesized in vivo from oxidation of arachidonic acid, independently of cyclooxygenases, are involved in many human diseases, and their measurement therefore offers a way to assess oxidative stress. Elevated levels of F2-isoprostanes have also been seen in the normal human pregnancy, but their physiological role has not yet been defined. Large amounts of bioactive F2-isoprostanes are excreted in the urine in normal basal situations, with a wide interindividual variation. Their exact role in the regulation of normal physiological functions, however, needs to be explored further. Current understanding suggests that measurement of F2-isoprostanes in body fluids provides a reliable analytical tool to study oxidative stress-related diseases and experimental inflammatory conditions, and also in the evaluation of various dietary antioxidants, as well as drugs with radical-scavenging properties. However, assessment of isoprostanes in plasma or urine does not necessarily reflect any specific tissue damage, nor does it provide information on the oxidation of lipids other than arachidonic acid.
doi:10.1080/17482970701411642
PMCID: PMC2607004
antioxidants; free radicals; human; inflammation; isoprostanes; oxidative strain; oxidative stress
16.  Increased isoprostane and prostaglandin are prominent in neurons in Alzheimer disease 
Background
Inflammation and oxidative stress are both involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and have been shown to be reciprocally linked. One group of molecules that have been directly associated with inflammation and the production of free radicals are the prostaglandin 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2α and the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α.
Results
To further delineate the role of inflammatory and oxidative parameters in Alzheimer disease, in this study we evaluated the amount and localization of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2α and 8-iso-PGF2α in hippocampal post mortem tissue samples from age-matched Alzheimer disease and control patients. Our results demonstrate increased levels of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2α and 8-iso-PGF2α in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of Alzheimer disease patients when compared to control patients.
Conclusion
These data not only support the shared mechanistic involvement of free radical damage and inflammation in Alzheimer disease, but also indicate that multiple pathogenic "hits" are likely necessary for both the development and propagation of Alzheimer disease.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-2-2
PMCID: PMC1785381  PMID: 17241462

Results 1-16 (16)