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author:("wichmand, Ben")
1.  The effect of obstructive sleep apnea and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: rationale, design and methods of the TOROS study 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:36.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with stroke severity and poor functional outcome. Continuous positive airway pressure seems to improve functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. To date, the effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitive functioning in stroke patients is not well established. The current study will investigate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure on both cognitive and functional outcomes in stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
A randomized controlled trial will be conducted on the neurorehabilitation unit of Heliomare, a rehabilitation center in the Netherlands. Seventy stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control group (n = 2×35). The intervention will consist of four weeks of continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Patients allocated to the control group will receive four weeks of treatment as usual. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the intervention and at two-month follow-up.
In a supplementary study, these 70 patients with obstructive sleep apnea will be compared to 70 stroke patients without obstructive sleep apnea with respect to cognitive and functional status at rehabilitation admission. Additionally, the societal participation of both groups will be assessed at six months and one year after inclusion.
This study will provide novel information on the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on rehabilitation outcomes after stroke.
Trial registration
Trial registration number: Dutch Trial Register NTR3412
PMCID: PMC3938083  PMID: 24568360
Stroke; Rehabilitation outcome; Obstructive sleep apnea; CPAP; Randomized controlled trial; Cognition; Functional status
2.  MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(6):e002541.
To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective.
Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study.
Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis.
Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=181) were included. Mean follow-up was 38.9 months (range 5.5–75.9).
Main outcome measures
Diagnostic accuracy of individual instruments and incremental value of entorhinal cortex volume on MRI and p-τ/Aβ ration in CSF after administration of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Memory Test are calculated and expressed as the ‘Net Reclassification Improvement’ (NRI), which is the change in the percentage of individuals that are correctly diagnosed as Alzheimer or non-Alzheimer case.
Tested in isolation, a short memory test, MRI and CSF all substantially contribute to the differentiation of those MCI patients who remain stable during follow-up from those who progress to develop Alzheimer's disease. The memory test, MRI and CSF improved the diagnostic classification by 21% (95% CI 15.1 to 26.9), 22.1% (95% CI 16.1 to 28.1) and 18.8% (95% CI 13.1 to 24.5), respectively. After administration of a short memory test, however, the NRI of MRI is +1.1% (95% CI 0.1 to 3.9) and of CSF is −2.2% (95% CI −5.6 to −0.6).
After administration of a brief test of memory, MRI or CSF do not substantially affect diagnostic accuracy for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with MCI. The NRI is an intuitive and easy to interpret measure for evaluation of potential added value of new diagnostic instruments in daily clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC3686215  PMID: 23794572
diagnostic accuracy; Alzheimer; Mild cognitive impairment; Net reclassification improvement
3.  Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care 
Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC). The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3 ± 4.2) than those in the community (5.1 ± 3.0). Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18%) as compared to the community sample (11%). Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help.
PMCID: PMC3320051  PMID: 22536537
4.  Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis 
To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis.
Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy controls.
Cognitive impairment was found in 32% of patients and this proportion was similar for survivors of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Survivors of pneumococcal meningitis performed worse on memory tasks (p<0.001) and tended to be cognitively slower than survivors of meningococcal meningitis (p = 0.08). We found a diffuse pattern of cognitive impairment in which cognitive speed played the most important role. Cognitive performance was not related to time since meningitis; however, there was a positive association between time since meningitis and self‐reported physical impairment (p<0.01). The frequency of cognitive impairment and the numbers of abnormal test results for patients with and without adjunctive dexamethasone were similar.
Adult survivors of bacterial meningitis are at risk of cognitive impairment, which consists mainly of cognitive slowness. The loss of cognitive speed is stable over time after bacterial meningitis; however, there is a significant improvement in subjective physical impairment in the years after bacterial meningitis. The use of dexamethasone was not associated with cognitive impairment.
PMCID: PMC2117539  PMID: 17353256
5.  Decision making as a predictor of first ecstasy use: a prospective study 
Psychopharmacology  2008;203(3):519-527.
Ecstasy (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a widely used recreational drug that may damage the serotonin system and may entail neuropsychological dysfunctions. Few studies investigated predictors for ecstasy use. Self-reported impulsivity does not predict the initiation of ecstasy use; the question is if neuropsychological indicators of impulsivity can predict first ecstasy use.
This study tested the hypothesis that a neuropsychological indicator of impulsivity predicts initiation of ecstasy use.
Materials and methods
Decision-making strategy and decision-making reaction times were examined with the Iowa Gambling Task in 149 ecstasy-naive subjects. The performance of 59 subjects who initiated ecstasy use during a mean follow-up period of 18 months (range, 11–26) was compared with the performance of 90 subjects that remained ecstasy-naive.
Significant differences in decision-making strategy between female future ecstasy users and female persistent ecstasy-naive subjects were found. In addition, the gap between decision-making reaction time after advantageous choices and reaction time after disadvantageous choices was smaller in future ecstasy users than in persistent ecstasy-naives.
Decision-making strategy on a gambling task was predictive for future use of ecstasy in female subjects. Differences in decision-making time between future ecstasy users and persistent ecstasy-naives may point to lower punishment sensitivity or higher impulsivity in future ecstasy users. Because differences were small, the clinical relevance is questionable.
PMCID: PMC2761546  PMID: 19020868
Ecstasy; MDMA; Decision-making; Iowa Gambling Task; Neuropsychology

Results 1-5 (5)