Ginger demonstrates promising anticancer properties. No research has examined the pharmacokinetics of the ginger constituents 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in humans. We conducted a clinical trial with 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol examining the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of these analytes and their conjugate metabolites
Human volunteers were given ginger at doses from 100 mg, to 2.0 g (N=27), and blood samples were obtained at 15 minutes to 72 hours after a single oral dose. Participants were allocated in a dose-escalation manner starting with 100 mg. There was a total of three participants at each dose except for 1.0 g (N=6) and 2.0 g (N=9).
No participant had detectable free 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol or 6-shogaol, but 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol glucuronides were detected. The 6-gingerol sulfate conjugate was detected above the 1.0 g dose but there were no detectable 10-gingerol or 6-shogaol sulfates except for one participant with detectable 8-gingerol sulfate. The Cmax and AUC values (Mean±SE) estimated for the 2.0 g dose are 0.85±0.43, 0.23±0.16, 0.53±0.40, and 0.15±0.12 μg/mL ; and 65.6.33±44.4, 18.1±20.3, 50.1±49.3, and 10.9±13.0 μg·hr/mL for 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol. The corresponding tmax values are 65.6±44.4, 73.1±29.4, 75.0±27.8, and 65.6±22.6 minutes and the analytes had elimination half-lives < 2hr. The 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol conjugates were present as either glucuronide or sulfate conjugates, not as mixed conjugates, although 6-, 10-gingerol were an exception.
Six-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol is absorbed after oral dosing and can be detected as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.