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author:("paithan, Mary")
1.  Interprofessional Competencies in Integrative Primary Healthcare 
In October 2014, the National Center for Integrative Primary Healthcare (NCIPH) was launched as a collaboration between the University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine and the Academic Consortium for Integrative Health and Medicine and supported by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. A primary goal of the NCIPH is to develop a core set of integrative healthcare (IH) competencies and educational programs that will span the interprofessional primary care training and practice spectra and ultimately become a required part of primary care education. This article reports on the first phase of the NCIPH effort, which focused on the development of a shared set of competencies in IH for primary care disciplines. The process of development, refinement, and adoption of 10 “meta-competencies” through a collaborative process involving a diverse interprofessional team is described. Team members represent nursing, the primary care medicine professions, pharmacy, public health, acupuncture, naturopathy, chiropractic, nutrition, and behavioral medicine. Examples of the discipline-specific sub-competencies being developed within each of the participating professions are provided, along with initial results of an assessment of potential barriers and facilitators of adoption within each discipline. The competencies presented here will form the basis of a 45-hour online curriculum produced by the NCIPH for use in primary care training programs that will be piloted in a wide range of programs in early 2016 and then revised for wider use over the following year.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2015.064
PMCID: PMC4563887  PMID: 26421232
Interprofessional education; primary care; integrative medicine
2.  Integrative Nursing 
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2014.036
PMCID: PMC4045096
Integrative nursing; whole systems healing; outcome measurement; healing environments; global perspectives
3.  Living in Health, Harmony, and Beauty: The Diné (Navajo) Hózhó Wellness Philosophy 
Hózhó is the complex wellness philosophy and belief system of the Diné (Navajo) people, comprised of principles that guide one's thoughts, actions, behaviors, and speech. The alignment of integrative nursing principles and the Hózhó Wellness Philosophy illustrates the power that integrative nursing offers as a meta-theoretical perspective that can transform our healthcare system so that it is inclusive and responsive to the needs of our varied populations. Integrative nursing offers the opportunity to re-introduce cultural wellness wisdom, such as Hózhó, as a means to improve whole-person/whole-systems wellbeing and resilience. Integrative nursing, through the acceptance and validation of indigenous health-sustaining wisdom, contributes to the delivery of effective, authentic, culturally tailored, whole-person/whole-system, patient-centered, relationship-based healthcare. Highlighting the Diné Hózhó philosophy re-introduces this philosophy to the Diné, other American Indian/Alaska Native nations, global indigenous cultures, and even nonindigenous people of the world as a means to promote and sustain global health and wellbeing.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2015.044
PMCID: PMC4424938  PMID: 25984415
Integrative Nursing; American Indian; culture; Hózhó; wellness; wellness philosophy
4.  Gazing With Soft Eyes: Envisioning a Responsive, Integrative Healthcare System 
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2015.021
PMCID: PMC4424943  PMID: 25984411
Relationship-centered care; integrative nursing; mind; body; spirit
5.  Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale Natural Products 
Finding safer and more effective treatments for specific cancers remains a significant challenge for integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of drugs, vaccines, traditional animal venoms, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in cancer treatment. The recent discovery of nanoparticles in traditional homeopathic medicines adds another point of convergence between modern nanomedicine and alternative interventional strategies. A way in which homeopathic remedies could initiate anticancer effects includes cell-to-cell signaling actions of both exogenous and endogenous (exosome) nanoparticles. The result can be a cascade of modulatory biological events with antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a multigenerational clinical system developed by homeopathic physicians in India who have treated thousands of patients with cancer. A number of homeopathic remedy sources from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; Carcinosin—tumor-derived breast cancer tissue prepared homeopathically) overlap those already under study in nonhomeopathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle tumor exosome cancer vaccine research. Past research on antineoplastic effects of nano forms of botanical extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on homeopathic remedy potencies made from the same types of source materials suggests other important overlaps. The replicated finding of silica, silicon, and nano-silica release from agitation of liquids in glassware adds a proven nonspecific activator and amplifier of immunological effects. Taken together, the nanoparticulate research data and the Banerji Protocols for homeopathic remedies in cancer suggest a way forward for generating advances in cancer treatment with natural product–derived nanomedicines.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2013.009
PMCID: PMC3921611  PMID: 24753994
Cancer treatment protocols; Banerji Protocols; complementary and alternative medicine; integrative medicine; homeopathy; nanomedicine; nanoparticles; exosomes; nosodes; hormesis; pulsed drug dosing
6.  Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science 
Journal of herbal medicine  2013;3(3):112-119.
Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.
doi:10.1016/j.hermed.2013.03.001
PMCID: PMC3777424  PMID: 24058898
Western herbal medicine; Traditional herbal medicine; Herbal Medicine; Phytotherapy; Traditional knowledge; Complex adaptive systems
7.  Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health 
Introduction
Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses.
Methods
We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation.
Results
NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1–100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs’ large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs.
Discussion
Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host’s complex networks underlie effects.
Conclusions
Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2012.11.002
PMCID: PMC3685499  PMID: 23795222
Nanomedicine; Drug delivery systems; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicine; Antioxidants; Homeopathy; Nanoparticles; Silica; Infectious disease treatment; Adaptation; Network medicine
8.  Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects 
Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems.
The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient’s symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials.
This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism’s dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors.
The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health.
doi:10.1016/j.homp.2012.10.005
PMCID: PMC3539158  PMID: 23290882
nanoparticle; homeopathy; allostasis; time-dependent sensitization; metaplasticity; crosssensitization; research design; complex adaptive systems; physiological stress response
9.  Surgical Treatment Differences Among Latina and African American Breast Cancer Survivors 
Oncology nursing forum  2012;39(4):E324-E331.
Purpose/Objectives
To describe breast cancer treatment choices from the perspectives of Latina and African American breast cancer survivors.
Design
An interdisciplinary team conducted a mixed-methods study of women treated for stages I–IV breast cancer.
Setting
Participants’ homes in metropolitan areas.
Sample
39 participants in three groups: monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 15), English-speaking Latinas (n = 15), and African American women (n = 9).
Methods
Individual participant interviews were conducted by racially and linguistically matched nurse researchers, and sociodemographic data were collected. Content and matrix analysis methods were used.
Main Research Variables
Perceptions of breast cancer care.
Findings
High rates of mastectomy were noted for early-stage treatment (stage I or II). Among the participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer, the majority of English-speaking Latinas (n = 9) and African American women (n = 4) received a mastectomy. However, the majority of the Spanish-speaking Latina group (n = 5) received breast-conserving surgery. Four factors influenced the choice of mastectomy over lumpectomy across the three groups: clinical indicators, fear of recurrence, avoidance of adjuvant side effects, and perceived favorable survival outcomes. Spanish-speaking Latinas were more likely to rely on physician treatment recommendations, and the other two groups used a shared decision-making style.
Conclusions
Additional study is needed to understand how women select and integrate treatment information with the recommendations they receive from healthcare providers. Among the Spanish-speaking Latina group, limited English proficiency, the use of translators in explaining treatment options, and a lack of available educational materials in Spanish are factors that influenced reliance on physician recommendations.
Implications for Nursing
Oncology nurses were notably absent in supporting the women’s treatment decision making. Advanced practice oncology nurses, coupled with language-appropriate educational resources, may provide essential guidance in clarifying surgical treatment choices for breast cancer among culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
doi:10.1188/12.ONF.E324-E331
PMCID: PMC3495184  PMID: 22750902
10.  A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system 
Background
This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience.
Discussion
The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from disease.
Summary
Homeopathic remedies are proposed as source nanoparticles that mobilize hormesis and time-dependent sensitization via non-pharmacological effects on specific biological adaptive and amplification mechanisms. The nanoparticle nature of remedies would distinguish them from conventional bulk drugs in structure, morphology, and functional properties. Outcomes would depend upon the ability of the organism to respond to the remedy as a novel stressor or heterotypic biological threat, initiating reversals of cumulative, cross-adapted biological maladaptations underlying disease in the allostatic stress response network. Systemic resilience would improve. This model provides a foundation for theory-driven research on the role of nanomaterials in living systems, mechanisms of homeopathic remedy actions and translational uses in nanomedicine.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-191
PMCID: PMC3570304  PMID: 23088629
Homeopathy; Nanoparticles; Silica; Epitaxy; Hormesis; Cross adaptation; Time dependent sensitization; Metaplasticity; Allostasis; Complex adaptive system; Stress response network; Resilience; Nanomedicine
11.  Analyzing Heterogeneous Complexity in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research: A Systems Biology Solution via Parsimony Phylogenetics 
Summary
Systems biology offers cutting-edge tools for the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The advent of ‘omics’ techniques and the resulting avalanche of scientific data have introduced an unprecedented level of complexity and heterogeneous data to biomedical research, leading to the development of novel research approaches. Statistical averaging has its limitations and is unsuitable for the analysis of heterogeneity, as it masks diversity by homogenizing otherwise heterogeneous populations. Unfortunately, most researchers are unaware of alternative methods of analysis capable of accounting for individual variability. This paper describes a systems biology solution to data complexity through the application of parsimony phylogenetic analysis. Maximum parsimony (MP) provides a data-based modeling paradigm that will permit a priori stratification of the study cohort(s), better assessment of early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy within each stratum, and a method that could be used to explore, identify and describe complex human patterning.
doi:10.1159/000335190
PMCID: PMC3292783  PMID: 22327551
Heterogeneity; Parsimony; Phylogenetics; Synapomorphies; Systems biology; Clinical trial design; Complementary and alternative medicine
12.  Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format 
Background
Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately.
Methods
From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation.
Results
The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was anchored by the positive and negative extremes relevant to the experiential domain. Because of frequent informant allusions to response set shifts from before to after CAM therapies, we chose a retrospective pretest format. Items cover physical, emotional, cognitive, social, spiritual, and whole person domains.
Conclusions
This paper reports the success of a novel approach to the development of outcome instruments, in which items are extracted from patients' words instead of being distilled from pre-existing theory. The resulting instrument, focused on measuring shifts in patients' perceptions of health and well-being along pre-specified axes, is undergoing continued testing, and is available for use by cooperating investigators.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-135
PMCID: PMC3293761  PMID: 22206345
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); patient-reported outcomes (PROs); patient-centered care; non-specific outcomes; questionnaire development; retrospective pre-test; well-being
13.  New Approaches to Nutritional Therapy 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2010.07.001
PMCID: PMC2976542  PMID: 21076654
14.  COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY USE AMONG RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2010.05.001
PMCID: PMC2975464  PMID: 21072254
16.  Indigenous Native American Healing Traditions 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2010.03.016
PMCID: PMC2913884  PMID: 20689671
17.  Promoting Optimal Health with Traditional Chinese Medicine 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2010.01.013
PMCID: PMC2913879  PMID: 20689727
18.  Using Herbal Remedies to Maintain Optimal Weight 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2009.12.005
PMCID: PMC2927017  PMID: 20802831
19.  Naturopathic Treatment of Obesity 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2009.07.019
PMCID: PMC2791327  PMID: 20161459
20.  The Inner Healer: Mind-body Strategies for Health 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2009.01.012
PMCID: PMC2754856  PMID: 20160987
21.  Let’s Talk about Complementary and Alternative Therapies 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2008.12.011
PMCID: PMC2754875  PMID: 20160990
22.  Mind-Body Solutions for Obesity 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2009.05.012
PMCID: PMC2764526  PMID: 20046886
23.  Introducing Complementary and Alternative Therapies 
doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2008.10.012
PMCID: PMC2754854  PMID: 20046927
24.  Counternarratives of Mexican-Origin Women with Breast Cancer 
ANS. Advances in nursing science  2009;32(2):E57-E67.
Little is known about cancer health disparities among undocumented Latino immigrant populations, who represent a rapidly growing sector in the United States. Federal and state legislative reforms to control immigration have increased significantly over the past year. Although the effects of immigration reforms are being documented in housing, education, and public service industries, no data have been found examining the impact on the health of immigrant communities. In this article, we identify the consequences of recent immigration legislation enacted in Arizona, which has created barriers to accessing cancer treatment and continued follow-up care among a sample of Latina breast cancer survivors.
doi:10.1097/ANS.0b013e3181a3b47c
PMCID: PMC2712628  PMID: 19461222
access to care; breast cancer; health disparities; health policy; immigration; Latino; undocumented
25.  Evaluating Complex Healthcare Systems: A Critique of Four Approaches 
The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to the emerging conceptual and methodological literature that focuses on understanding and evaluating complex or ‘whole’ systems of healthcare. An international working group reviewed literature from interdisciplinary or interprofessional groups describing approaches to the evaluation of complex systems of healthcare. The following four key approaches were identified: a framework from the MRC (UK), whole systems research, whole medical systems research described by NCCAM (USA) and a model from NAFKAM (Norway). Main areas of congruence include acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of many healthcare interventions and the need to find new ways to evaluate these; the need to describe and understand the components of complex interventions in context (as they are actually practiced); the necessity of using mixed methods including randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (explanatory and pragmatic) and qualitative approaches; the perceived benefits of a multidisciplinary team approach to research; and the understanding that methodological developments in this field can be applied to both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as well as conventional therapies. In contrast, the approaches differ in the following ways: terminology used, the extent to which the approach attempts to be applicable to both CAM and conventional medical interventions; the prioritization of research questions (in order of what should be done first) especially with respect to how the ‘definitive’ RCT fits into the process of assessing complex healthcare systems; and the need for a staged approach. There appears to be a growing international understanding of the need for a new perspective on assessing complex healthcare systems.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nel079
PMCID: PMC1978227  PMID: 17965757
complex interventions; research methods; whole systems research

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