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1.  Qualitative Evaluation of Pediatric Pain-Behavior, -Quality and -Intensity Item Candidates and the PROMIS Pain Domain Framework in Children with Chronic Pain 
As initial steps in a broader effort to develop and test pediatric Pain Behavior and Pain Quality item banks for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®), we employed qualitative interview and item review methods to 1) evaluate the overall conceptual scope and content validity of the PROMIS pain domain framework among children with chronic /recurrent pain conditions, and 2) develop item candidates for further psychometric testing. To elicit the experiential and conceptual scope of pain outcomes across a variety of pediatric recurrent/chronic pain conditions, we conducted semi-structured individual (32) and focus-group interviews (2) with children and adolescents (8–17 years), and parents of children with pain (individual (32) and focus group (2)). Interviews with pain experts (10) explored the operational limits of pain measurement in children. For item bank development, we identified existing items from measures in the literature, grouped them by concept, removed redundancies, and modified remaining items to match PROMIS formatting. New items were written as needed and cognitive debriefing was completed with children and their parents, resulting in 98 Pain Behavior (47 self, 51 proxy), 54 Quality and 4 Intensity items for further testing. Qualitative content analyses suggest that reportable pain outcomes that matter to children with pain are captured within and consistent with the pain domain framework in PROMIS.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2015.08.007
PMCID: PMC4666795  PMID: 26335990
child; self-report; pain assessment; patient reported outcomes; qualitative; PROMIS
2.  Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview 
Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.
doi:10.4137/SART.S33389
PMCID: PMC4830638  PMID: 27081311
nicotine dependence; smoking; smoking cessation; suicidality
3.  Disclosure and Self-Report of Emotional, Social, and Physical Health in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain—A Qualitative Study of PROMIS Pediatric Measures 
Objectives To examine the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures, including the pain interference scale, among children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) who experience chronic pain. To describe children’s understandings of the health domain constructs and elucidate verbal and conceptual aspects of self-reported pain-related functioning, which shape disclosure and reporting. Methods 34 children and youth with diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or noninflammatory chronic pain completed semistructured and cognitive interviews exploring the meaning, experience, and expression of up to 4 of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric domains: anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, pain interference, and peer relationships. Team-based thematic and content analyses were conducted. Results Clear verbal and social-cognitive differences were observed in representations and accounts of the domain-experiences across age-groups, but we noted little, if any, evidence of problems with content validity. Conclusions Findings suggest the importance of a rigorous developmental approach for understanding the verbal and cognitive dimensions of pediatric self-reports and patient-reported outcomes.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jss099
PMCID: PMC3547235  PMID: 23027719
adolescents; children; chronic and recurrent pain; developmental perspectives; qualitative methods
4.  Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada 
Pharmacy practice  2008;6(1):33-42.
PURPOSE
Natural health products (natural health products) such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products.
METHODS
Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined to identify if, and how, these instruments establish professional duties in regard to natural health products.
RESULTS
The majority of Canadian jurisdictions now include some explicit reference to natural health products in standards of practice policy or guideline documents. Often natural health products are simply assumed to be included in the over-the-counter (OTC) product category and thus professional responsibilities for OTCs are relevant for natural health products. A minority of provinces have specific policies on natural health products, herbals or homeopathy. In addition, the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities’ Model Standards of Practice specifically refers to natural health products. Most policy documents indicate that pharmacists should inquire about natural health product use when counselling patients and, when asked, should provide accurate information regarding the efficacy, toxicity, side effects or interactions of natural health products. Public messaging also indicates that pharmacists are knowledgeable professionals who can provide evidence-based information about natural health products.
CONCLUSIONS
Explicit policies or guidelines regarding pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products currently exist in the majority of Canadian jurisdictions.
PMCID: PMC3265537  PMID: 22282720 CAMSID: cams1356
pharmacist; legal responsibilities; natural health products; dietary supplements
5.  Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada 
Pharmacy Practice  2008;6(1):33-42.
Natural health products such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies.
Purpose
to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products.
Methods
Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined to identify if, and how, these instruments establish professional duties in regard to natural health products.
Results
The majority of Canadian jurisdictions now include some explicit reference to natural health products in standards of practice policy or guideline documents. Often natural health products are simply assumed to be included in the over-the-counter (OTC) product category and thus professional responsibilities for OTCs are relevant for natural health products. A minority of provinces have specific policies on natural health products, herbals or homeopathy. In addition, the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities’ Model Standards of Practice specifically refers to natural health products. Most policy documents indicate that pharmacists should inquire about natural health product use when counselling patients and, when asked, should provide accurate information regarding the efficacy, toxicity, side effects or interactions of natural health products. Public messaging also indicates that pharmacists are knowledgeable professionals who can provide evidence-based information about natural health products.
Conclusions
Explicit policies or guidelines regarding pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products currently exist in the majority of Canadian jurisdictions.
PMCID: PMC3265537  PMID: 22282720
Natural health products; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Pharmacists; Canada

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