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1.  Disclosure and Self-Report of Emotional, Social, and Physical Health in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain—A Qualitative Study of PROMIS Pediatric Measures 
Objectives To examine the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures, including the pain interference scale, among children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) who experience chronic pain. To describe children’s understandings of the health domain constructs and elucidate verbal and conceptual aspects of self-reported pain-related functioning, which shape disclosure and reporting. Methods 34 children and youth with diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or noninflammatory chronic pain completed semistructured and cognitive interviews exploring the meaning, experience, and expression of up to 4 of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric domains: anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, pain interference, and peer relationships. Team-based thematic and content analyses were conducted. Results Clear verbal and social-cognitive differences were observed in representations and accounts of the domain-experiences across age-groups, but we noted little, if any, evidence of problems with content validity. Conclusions Findings suggest the importance of a rigorous developmental approach for understanding the verbal and cognitive dimensions of pediatric self-reports and patient-reported outcomes.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jss099
PMCID: PMC3547235  PMID: 23027719
adolescents; children; chronic and recurrent pain; developmental perspectives; qualitative methods
2.  Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada 
Pharmacy practice  2008;6(1):33-42.
PURPOSE
Natural health products (natural health products) such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products.
METHODS
Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined to identify if, and how, these instruments establish professional duties in regard to natural health products.
RESULTS
The majority of Canadian jurisdictions now include some explicit reference to natural health products in standards of practice policy or guideline documents. Often natural health products are simply assumed to be included in the over-the-counter (OTC) product category and thus professional responsibilities for OTCs are relevant for natural health products. A minority of provinces have specific policies on natural health products, herbals or homeopathy. In addition, the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities’ Model Standards of Practice specifically refers to natural health products. Most policy documents indicate that pharmacists should inquire about natural health product use when counselling patients and, when asked, should provide accurate information regarding the efficacy, toxicity, side effects or interactions of natural health products. Public messaging also indicates that pharmacists are knowledgeable professionals who can provide evidence-based information about natural health products.
CONCLUSIONS
Explicit policies or guidelines regarding pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products currently exist in the majority of Canadian jurisdictions.
PMCID: PMC3265537  PMID: 22282720 CAMSID: cams1356
pharmacist; legal responsibilities; natural health products; dietary supplements
3.  Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada 
Pharmacy Practice  2008;6(1):33-42.
Natural health products such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies.
Purpose
to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products.
Methods
Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined to identify if, and how, these instruments establish professional duties in regard to natural health products.
Results
The majority of Canadian jurisdictions now include some explicit reference to natural health products in standards of practice policy or guideline documents. Often natural health products are simply assumed to be included in the over-the-counter (OTC) product category and thus professional responsibilities for OTCs are relevant for natural health products. A minority of provinces have specific policies on natural health products, herbals or homeopathy. In addition, the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities’ Model Standards of Practice specifically refers to natural health products. Most policy documents indicate that pharmacists should inquire about natural health product use when counselling patients and, when asked, should provide accurate information regarding the efficacy, toxicity, side effects or interactions of natural health products. Public messaging also indicates that pharmacists are knowledgeable professionals who can provide evidence-based information about natural health products.
Conclusions
Explicit policies or guidelines regarding pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products currently exist in the majority of Canadian jurisdictions.
PMCID: PMC3265537  PMID: 22282720
Natural health products; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Pharmacists; Canada

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