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1.  Temporoparietal hypometabolism is common in FTLD and is associated with imaging diagnostic errors 
Archives of neurology  2010;68(3):329-337.
Objective
To evaluate the cause of diagnostic errors in the visual interpretation of positron emission tomography scans with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Design
Twelve trained raters unaware of clinical and autopsy information independently reviewed FDG-PET scans and provided their diagnostic impression and confidence of either FTLD or AD. Six of these raters also recorded whether metabolism appeared normal or abnormal in 5 predefined brain regions in each hemisphere – frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, temporoparietal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex. Results were compared to neuropathological diagnoses.
Setting
Academic medical centers
Patients
45 patients with pathologically confirmed FTLD (n=14) or AD (n=31)
Results
Raters had a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of FDG-PET scans; however, raters consistently found some scans more difficult to interpret than others. Unanimity of diagnosis among the raters was more frequent in patients with AD (27/31, 87%) than in patients with FTLD (7/14, 50%) (p = 0.02). Disagreements in interpretation of scans in patients with FTLD largely occurred when there was temporoparietal hypometabolism, which was present in 7 of the 14 FTLD scans and 6 of the 7 lacking unanimity. Hypometabolism of anterior cingulate and anterior temporal regions had higher specificities and positive likelihood ratios for FTLD than temporoparietal hypometabolism had for AD.
Conclusions
Temporoparietal hypometabolism in FTLD is common and may cause inaccurate interpretation of FDG-PET scans. An interpretation paradigm that focuses on the absence of hypometabolism in regions typically affected in AD before considering FTLD is likely to misclassify a significant portion of FTLD scans. Anterior cingulate and/or anterior temporal hypometabolism indicates a high likelihood of FTLD, even when temporoparietal hypometabolism is present. Ultimately, the accurate interpretation of FDG-PET scans in patients with dementia cannot rest on the presence or absence of a single region of hypometabolism, but must take into account the relative hypometabolism of all brain regions.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.295
PMCID: PMC3058918  PMID: 21059987
2.  AWARENESS OF DEFICITS IN FINANCIAL ABILITIES IN PATIENTS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: GOING BEYOND SELF-INFORMANT DISCREPANCY 
OBJECTIVE
Self and informant reports of functional abilities are weighted heavily in diagnostic decision making regarding mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear whether patients with MCI are fully aware and provide reliable estimates of their functional status. In this study, we used three different approaches to examine accuracy of self report of financial abilities among patients with MCI.
DESIGN
Cross-sectional, case-comparison group study.
SETTING
University medical center.
PARTICIPANTS
Seventy-four patients with MCI and their informants, and 73 cognitively healthy older adults and their informants.
MEASUREMENTS
We compared MCI patients’ report of their financial abilities to their performance on an objective measure of financial capacity. We also compared informant reports of patients’ abilities to patients’ objective test performance, and informant reports to patients’ self report.
RESULTS
We found that the discrepancy between self report and objective performance was higher among MCI patients compared to the cognitively healthy older adults on the financial domains of Checkbook Management, Bank Statement Management, and Bill Payment, and on overall financial capacity. We also found that MCI patients with poorer global cognition overestimated their financial abilities whereas those with higher depressive symptoms underestimated their financial abilities. Overall, MCI patients were better at estimating their financial abilities than their informants.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with MCI are not fully aware of deficits in their financial abilities. Both cognitive impairment and depression impact MCI patients’ self-reported functioning. In addition, MCI informants misestimate patients’ financial abilities. This raises concerns about the widespread use of informant report as the gold standard against which to evaluate patient self-report of functioning.
doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e31817e8a9d
PMCID: PMC3189703  PMID: 18669943
financial capacity; awareness; anosognosia; report-based measures; objective testing; MCI; AD
3.  Neurocognitive predictors of financial capacity across the dementia spectrum: Normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease 
Financial capacity is a complex instrumental activity of daily living critical to independent functioning of older adults and sensitive to impairment in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known about the neurocognitive basis of financial impairment in dementia. We developed cognitive models of financial capacity in cognitively healthy older adults (n = 85) and patients with MCI (n = 113) and mild AD (n = 43). All participants were administered the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI) and a neuropsychological test battery. Univariate correlation and multiple regression procedures were used to develop cognitive models of overall FCI performance across groups. The control model (R2 = .38) comprised (in order of entry) written arithmetic skills, delayed story recall, and simple visuomotor sequencing. The MCI model (R2 = .69) comprised written arithmetic skills, visuomotor sequencing and set alternation, and race. The AD model (R2 = .65) comprised written arithmetic skills, simple visuomotor sequencing, and immediate story recall. Written arithmetic skills (WRAT-3 Arithmetic) was the primary predictor across models, accounting for 27% (control model), 46% (AD model), and 55% (MCI model) of variance. Executive function and verbal memory were secondary model predictors. The results offer insight into the cognitive basis of financial capacity across the dementia spectrum of cognitive aging, MCI, and AD.
doi:10.1017/S1355617709090365
PMCID: PMC2838718  PMID: 19203439
Financial capacity; IADLs; Cognitive predictors; Cognitive aging; MCI; AD

Results 1-3 (3)