Multiple systems tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD), a form of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 with tau inclusions (FTDP-17T), is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an (a) to (g) transition at position +3 of intron 10 of the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. The mutation causes overexpression of 4 repeat (4R) tau isoforms with increased 4R/3R ratio leading to neurodegeneration. Clinically, these patients primarily present with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and show disinhibition, disordered social comportment, and impaired executive function, memory, and speech. While altered glucose metabolism has been reported in subjects with sporadic bvFTD, it has yet to be investigated in an FTDP-17 sample of this size. In this study, eleven mutation carriers (5 males; mean age = 48.0 ± 6.9 years) and eight non-carriers (2 males; mean age = 43.7 ± 12.0 years) from a MSTD family were imaged using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Eight of the MAPT intron 10 +3 mutation carriers met diagnostic criteria for bvFTD at the time of the PET scan, while three MAPT intron 10 +3 carriers were not cognitively impaired at the time of scan. Non-carriers had no clinically-relevant cognitive impairment at the time of the PET scan. Additionally, ten mutation carriers (5 males; mean age = 48.04 ± 2.1 years) and seven non-carriers (2 males; mean age 46.1 ± 4.1 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is an expanded sample size from a previous study. Seven MAPT mutation carriers met diagnostic criteria for bvFTD at the time of the MRI scan. Images were assessed on a voxel-wise basis for the effect of mutation carrier status. SPM8 was used for preprocessing and statistical analyses. Compared to non-carriers, MAPT mutation carriers showed lower [18F]FDG uptake bilaterally in the medial temporal lobe, and the parietal and frontal cortices. Anatomical changes were predominantly seen bilaterally in the medial temporal lobe areas which substantially overlapped with the hypometabolism findings. These anatomical and metabolic changes overlap previously described patterns of neurodegeneration in MSTD patients and are consistent with the characteristics of their cognitive dysfunction. These results suggest that neuroimaging can describe the neuropathology associated with this MAPT mutation.
Multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD); frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 with tau inclusions (FTDP-17T); behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia; [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET); microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT); magentic resonance imaging (MRI); neuroimaging
Atypical Parkinsonism associated with white matter pathology has been described in cerebrovascular diseases, mitochondrial cytopathies, osmotic demyelinating disorders, leukoencephalopathies including leukodystrophies, and others. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with symptomatic onset in midlife and death within a few years after symptom onset. Neuroimaging reveals cerebral white matter lesions that are pathologically characterized by non-inflammatory myelin loss, reactive astrocytosis, and axonal spheroids. Most cases are caused by mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene.
We studied neuropathologically verified HDLS patients with CSF1R mutations to assess Parkinsonian features. Ten families were evaluated with 16 affected individuals. During the course of the illness, all patients had at least some degree of bradykinesia. Fifteen patients had postural instability, and seven had rigidity. Two patients initially presented with Parkinsonian gait and asymmetrical bradykinesia. These two patients and two others exhibited bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and tremor (two with resting) early in the course of the illness. Levodopa/carbidopa therapy in these four patients provided no benefit, and the remaining 12 patients were not treated. The mean age of onset for all patients was about 45 years (range, 18-71) and the mean disease duration was approximately six years (range, 3-11).
We also reviewed HDLS patients published prior to the CSF1R discovery for the presence of Parkinsonian features. Out of 50 patients, 37 had gait impairments, 8 rigidity, 7 bradykinesia, and 5 resting tremor. Our report emphasizes the presence of atypical Parkinsonism in HDLS due to CSF1R mutations.
HDLS; CSF1R mutation; Parkinsonism; Autosomal dominant; White matter disorders
Rrecent studies have highlighted a group of 4-repeat (4R) tauopathies that are characterised neuropathologically by widespread, globular glial inclusions (GGIs). Tau immunohistochemistry reveals 4R immunore-active globular oligodendroglial and astrocytic inclusions and the latter are predominantly negative for Gallyas silver staining. These cases are associated with a range of clinical presentations, which correlate with the severity and distribution of underlying tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Their heterogeneous clinicopathological features combined with their rarity and under-recognition have led to cases characterised by GGIs being described in the literature using various and redundant terminologies. In this report, a group of neuropathologists form a consensus on the terminology and classification of cases with GGIs. After studying microscopic images from previously reported cases with suspected GGIs (n = 22), this panel of neuropathologists with extensive experience in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and a documented record of previous experience with at least one case with GGIs, agreed that (1) GGIs were present in all the cases reviewed; (2) the morphology of globular astrocytic inclusions was different to tufted astrocytes and finally that (3) the cases represented a number of different neuropathological subtypes. They also agreed that the different morphological subtypes are likely to be part of a spectrum of a distinct disease entity, for which they recommend that the overarching term globular glial tauopathy (GGT) should be used. Type I cases typically present with frontotemporal dementia, which correlates with the fronto-temporal distribution of pathology. Type II cases are characterised by pyramidal features reflecting motor cortex involvement and corticospinal tract degeneration. Type III cases can present with a combination of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease with fronto-temporal cortex, motor cortex and corticospinal tract being severely affected. extrapyramidal features can be present in Type II and III cases and significant degeneration of the white matter is a feature of all GGT subtypes. Improved detection and classification will be necessary for the establishment of neuropathological and clinical diagnostic research criteria in the future.
To describe the brain MRI characteristics of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) with known mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene (CSF1R) on chromosome 5.
We reviewed 20 brain MRI scans of 15 patients with autopsy- or biopsy-verified HDLS and CSF1R mutations. We assessed sagittal T1-, axial T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted and axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images for distribution of white matter lesions (WMLs), gray matter involvement, and atrophy. We calculated a severity score based on a point system (0−57) for each MRI scan.
Of the patients, 93% (14 of 15) demonstrated localized WMLs with deep and subcortical involvement, whereas one patient revealed generalized WMLs. All WMLs were bilateral but asymmetric and predominantly frontal. Fourteen patients had a rapidly progressive clinical course with an initial MRI mean total severity score of 16.7 points (range 10−33.5). Gray matter pathology and brainstem atrophy were absent, and the corticospinal tracts were involved late in the disease course. There was no enhancement, and there was minimal cerebellar pathology.
Recognition of the typical MRI patterns of HDLS and the use of an MRI severity score might help during the diagnostic evaluation to characterize the natural history and to monitor potential future treatments. Indicators of rapid disease progression were symptomatic disease onset before 45 years, female sex, WMLs extending beyond the frontal regions, a MRI severity score greater than 15 points, and mutation type of deletion.
Rare mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT, microtubule-associated protein tau) cause frontotemporal dementia-spectrum (FTD-s) disorders, including FTD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome, and a common extended haplotype spanning across the MAPT locus is associated with increased risk of PSP and Parkinson's disease. We identified a rare tau variant (p.A152T) in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and assessed its frequency in multiple independent series of patients with neurodegenerative conditions and controls, in a total of 15 369 subjects.
Tau p.A152T significantly increases the risk for both FTD-s (n = 2139, OR = 3.0, CI: 1.6–5.6, P = 0.0005) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 3345, OR = 2.3, CI: 1.3–4.2, P = 0.004) compared with 9047 controls. Functionally, p.A152T (i) decreases the binding of tau to microtubules and therefore promotes microtubule assembly less efficiently; and (ii) reduces the tendency to form abnormal fibers. However, there is a pronounced increase in the formation of tau oligomers. Importantly, these findings suggest that other regions of the tau protein may be crucial in regulating normal function, as the p.A152 residue is distal to the domains considered responsible for microtubule interactions or aggregation. These data provide both the first genetic evidence and functional studies supporting the role of MAPT p.A152T as a rare risk factor for both FTD-s and AD and the concept that rare variants can increase the risk for relatively common, complex neurodegenerative diseases, but since no clear significance threshold for rare genetic variation has been established, some caution is warranted until the findings are further replicated.
Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07.
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited central nervous system white matter disease with variable clinical presentations including personality and behavioral changes, dementia, depression, parkinsonism, seizures, and others1,2. We combined genome-wide linkage analysis with exome sequencing and identified 14 different mutations affecting the tyrosine kinase domain of the colony stimulating factor receptor 1 (encoded by CSF1R) in 14 families affected by HDLS. In one kindred, the de novo occurrence of the mutation was confirmed. Follow-up sequencing analyses identified an additional CSF1R mutation in a patient clinically diagnosed with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). In vitro, CSF-1 stimulation resulted in the rapid autophosphorylation of selected tyrosine-residues in the kinase domain of wild-type but not mutant CSF1R, suggesting that HDLS may result from a partial loss of CSF1R function. Since CSF1R is a critical mediator of microglial proliferation and differentiation in the brain, our findings suggest an important role for microglial dysfunction in HDLS pathogenesis.
To assess the relative frequency of unique mutations and their associated characteristics in 97 individuals with mutations in progranulin (GRN), an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Participants and Design
A 46-site International Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Collaboration was formed to collect cases of FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa (TDP-43)–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). We identified 97 individuals with FTLD-TDP with pathogenic GRN mutations (GRN+ FTLD-TDP), assessed their genetic and clinical characteristics, and compared them with 453 patients with FTLD-TDP in which GRN mutations were excluded (GRN− FTLD-TDP). No patients were known to be related. Neuropathologic characteristics were confirmed as FTLD-TDP in 79 of the 97 GRN+ FTLDTDP cases and all of the GRN− FTLD-TDP cases.
Age at onset of FTLD was younger in patients with GRN+ FTLD-TDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (median, 58.0 vs 61.0 years; P<.001), as was age at death (median, 65.5 vs 69.0 years; P<.001). Concomitant motor neuron disease was much less common in GRN+ FTLDTDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (5.4% vs 26.3%; P<.001). Fifty different GRN mutations were observed, including 2 novel mutations: c.139delG (p.D47TfsX7) and c.378C>A (p.C126X). The 2 most common GRN mutations were c.1477C>T (p.R493X, found in 18 patients, representing 18.6% of GRN cases) and c.26C>A (p.A9D, found in 6 patients, representing 6.2% of cases). Patients with the c.1477C>T mutation shared a haplotype on chromosome 17; clinically, they resembled patients with other GRN mutations. Patients with the c.26C>A mutation appeared to have a younger age at onset of FTLD and at death and more parkinsonian features than those with other GRN mutations.
GRN+ FTLD-TDP differs in key features from GRN− FTLD-TDP.
The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) using a 3 stage design consisting of a discovery stage (Stage 1) and two replication stages (Stages 2 and 3). Both joint and meta-analysis analysis approaches were used. We obtained genome-wide significant results at MS4A4A [rs4938933; Stages 1+2, meta-analysis (PM) = 1.7 × 10−9, joint analysis (PJ) = 1.7 × 10−9; Stages 1–3, PM = 8.2 × 10−12], CD2AP (rs9349407; Stages 1–3, PM = 8.6 × 10−9), EPHA1 (rs11767557; Stages 1–3 PM = 6.0 × 10−10), and CD33 (rs3865444; Stages 1–3, PM = 1.6 × 10−9). We confirmed that CR1 (rs6701713; PM = 4.6×10−10, PJ = 5.2×10−11), CLU (rs1532278; PM = 8.3 × 10−8, PJ = 1.9×10−8), BIN1 (rs7561528; PM = 4.0×10−14; PJ = 5.2×10−14), and PICALM (rs561655; PM = 7.0 × 10−11, PJ = 1.0×10−10) but not EXOC3L2 are LOAD risk loci1–3.
Mutations in the Progranulin gene (PGRN) recently have been discovered to be associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to 17q21 without identified MAPT mutations. The range of mutations of PGRN that can result in the FTD phenotype and the clinical presentation of patients with PGRN mutations have yet to be determined.
In this study, we examined 84 FTD patients from families not known previously to have illness linked to chromosome 17 for identified PGRN and MAPT mutations and sequenced the coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of PGRN. We compared the prevalence, clinical characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging and 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, and neuropsychological testing of patients with the PGRN R493X mutation with those patients without identified PGRN mutations.
We discovered a new PGRN mutation (R493X) resulting in a stop codon in two patients. This was the only PGRN mutation identified in our sample. The patients with the PGRN R493X mutation had a rapid illness course and had predominant right-sided atrophy and hypometabolism on magnetic resonance imaging and 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The affected father of one of the patients with the PGRN R493X mutation showed frontal and temporal atrophy without neurofibrillary tangles on neuropathological examination.
Known PGRN and MAPT mutations were rare and of similar prevalence in our sample (2 compared with 1/84). The patients with the PGRN R493X mutation had a clinical presentation comparable with other behavior-predominant FTD patients. The neuropathology of an affected family member of a patient with the PGRN R493X mutation appears not to be Alzheimer’s disease.
To determine the brain areas associated with specific components of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) in corticobasal syndrome (CBS).
Case-control and cross-sectional study.
Forty-eight patients with CBS and 14 control subjects.
Administration of the Test of Oral and Limb Apraxia.
Main Outcome Measures
Differences between patients with CBS and healthy controls and associations between areas of gray matter volume and IMA determined by voxel-based morphometry in patients with CBS.
Overall, IMA was associated with decreased gray matter volume in the left supplemental motor area, pre-motor cortex, and caudate nucleus of patients with CBS. The overall degree of apraxia was independent of the side of motor impairment. Praxis to imitation (vs command) was particularly impaired in the patients with CBS. Patients demonstrated equal impairment in transitive and intransitive praxis.
In patients with CBS, IMA is associated with left posterior frontal cortical and subcortical volume loss. Despite showing left frontal volume loss associated with IMA, patients with CBS have particularly impaired imitation of gestures. These findings suggest either that the IMA of CBS affects a route of praxis that bypasses motor engrams or that motor engrams are affected but that they exist in areas other than the inferior parietal cortex.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP)1. FTLD-TDP is frequently familial resulting from progranulin (GRN) mutations. We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP, using genome-wide association (GWA). We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block on 7p21 that contains TMEM106B in a GWA study (GWAS) on 515 FTLD-TDP cases. Three SNPs retained genome-wide significance following Bonferroni correction; top SNP rs1990622 (P=1.08×10−11; odds ratio (OR) minor allele (C) 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.71). The association replicated in 89 FTLD-TDP cases (rs1990622; P=2×10−4). TMEM106B variants may confer risk by increasing TMEM106B expression. TMEM106B variants also contribute to genetic risk for FTLD-TDP in patients with GRN mutations. Our data implicate TMEM106B as a strong risk factor for FTLD-TDP suggesting an underlying pathogenic mechanism.
Frontotemporal lobar degenerations are a group of disorders characterized by circumscribed degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes and diverse histopathological features. We report clinical, neuropathological, ultrastructural, biochemical and genetic data on seven individuals with a four-repeat (4R) tauopathy characterized by the presence of globular glial inclusions (GGIs) in brain white matter. Clinical manifestations were compatible with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and included motor neuron symptoms; there was prominent neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal cortex, subiculum and amygdala. The surrounding white matter showed abundant GGIs composed of abnormal filaments present mostly in oligodendrocytes. The severity of white matter tau abnormalities correlated with a reduction in myelin and axons and with microglial activation. Western blotting of sarkosyl-insoluble tau demonstrated the presence of two major tau bands of 64 and 68 kDa. No mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene were detected in two affected individuals. We propose that 4R tau-immunoreactive GGIs are the neuropathologic hallmark of a distinct sporadic tauopathy with variable clinical presentations that include FTD and occasionally upper motor neuron disease. This type of tauopathy with GGIs expands the group of neurodegenerative disorders in which oligodendroglial pathology predominates, beyond the synucleinopathy multiple system atrophy disorders.
Dementia; Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; Tau; Tauopathy; White matter
Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Biochemical characterizations and comparisons have revealed that many PSEN mutations alter γ-secretase activity to promote accumulation of toxic Aβ42 peptides. In this study, we compared the histopathologic and biochemical profiles of ten FAD cases expressing independent PSEN mutations and determined the degradation patterns of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP), Notch, N-cadherin and Erb-B4 by γ-secretase. In addition, the levels of Aβ40/42 peptides were quantified by ELISA.
We observed a wide variation in type, number and distribution of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. Four of the ten cases examined exhibited a substantial enrichment in the relative proportions of Aβ40 over Aβ42. The AβPP N-terminal and C-terminal fragments and Tau species, assessed by Western blots and scanning densitometry, also demonstrated a wide variation. The Notch-1 intracellular domain was negligible by Western blotting in seven PSEN cases. There was significant N-cadherin and Erb-B4 peptide heterogeneity among the different PSEN mutations.
These observations imply that missense mutations in PSEN genes can alter a range of key γ-secretase activities to produce an array of subtly different biochemical, neuropathological and clinical manifestations. Beyond the broad common features of dementia, plaques and tangles, the various PSEN mutations resulted in a wide heterogeneity and complexity and differed from sporadic AD.
Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) is associated with mutations in the Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau(MAPT) gene or the Progranulin(PGRN) gene. MAPT mutations lead to widespread deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (FTDP-17T). PGRN mutations are associated with ubiquitin- and TDP-43-positive inclusions in the frontotemporal cortex, striatum and hippocampus (FTDP-17U). Despite the differences, FTDP-17T and FTDP-17U share a largely overlapping clinical phenotype.
To determine whether neuroimaging studies may allow an in vivo early differentiation between FTDP-17T and FTDP-17U.
We studied 25 individuals affected with FTDP-17T associated with either the exon 10+3 (24 subjects) or the G335S (1 subject) MAPT mutation, as well as 3 FTDP-17U individuals, who were carriers of the A9D, IVS6-2A>G or R493X PGRN mutation. Neuroimaging studies, obtained along the course of the disease, were compared to the neuropathologic findings.
FTDP-17T cases were associated with symmetric frontotemporal atrophy. Behavioral changes constituted the predominant clinical presentation. Conversely, an asymmetric degenerative process was seen in all 3 PGRN cases, who presented with either corticobasal syndrome (A9D) or frontotemporal dementia and language deterioration (IVS6-2A>G and R493X).
Neuroimaging data, in the early disease stage of FTDP-17, may offer the possibility of an early differentiation of FTDP-17T and FTDP-17U phenotypes, independent of the genetic analysis.
Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17; Tau; Ubiquitin; TDP-43; Neuropathology
Multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD) is an inherited disease caused by a (g) to (a) transition at position +3 in intron 10 of Tau. It belongs to the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 with mutations in Tau (FTDP-17T). Here we present the longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, neuropathological, biochemical and genetic characterization of the MSTD family. Presenting signs were consistent with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia in 17 of 21 patients. Two individuals presented with an atypical form of progressive supranuclear palsy and two others with either severe postural imbalance or an isolated short-term memory deficit. Memory impairment was present at the onset in 15 patients, with word finding difficulties and stereotyped speech also being common. Parkinsonism was first noted 3 years after the onset of symptoms. Neuroimaging showed the most extensive grey matter loss in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal operculum/insular cortex of the right hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate gyrus, head of the caudate nucleus and the posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex bilaterally. Neuropathologically, progressive nerve cell loss, gliosis and coexistent neuronal and/or glial deposits consisting mostly of 4-repeat tau were present in frontal, cingulate, temporal and insular cortices, white matter, hippocampus, parahippocampus, basal ganglia, selected brainstem nuclei and spinal cord. Tau haplotyping indicated that specific haplotypes of the wild-type allele may act as modifiers of disease presentation. Quantitative neuroimaging has been used to analyse the progression of atrophy in affected individuals and for predicting disease onset in an asymptomatic mutation carrier. This multidisciplinary study provides a comprehensive description of the natural history of disease in one of the largest known families with FTDP-17T.
frontotemporal dementia; progressive supranuclear palsy; hippocampus; voxel-based morphometry; Tau haplotype