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1.  CHRONIC LEG PAIN IN A DIVISION II FIELD HOCKEY PLAYER: A CASE REPORT 
Exertional compartment syndromes in athletes represent a diagnostic and management challenge for clinicians. The clinical presentation of exertional compartment syndrome is similar to other more common musculoskeletal disorders. A lack of special tests or unique diagnostic identifiers for use in decision making by out‐patient clinicians complicates early recognition of this disorder and may delay optimal management. The purpose of this case report is to retrospectively explore the clinical presentation and the decision‐making during the course of care of a field hockey athlete eventually determined to have exertional compartment syndrome. Suggestions to assist in recognition and guidance in patient management are included as well as the procedures required for differential diagnosis. Procedures utilized during conservative care are also described in detail.
Level of Evidence:
5 (Single Case Report)
PMCID: PMC3924616  PMID: 24567863
Compartment syndrome; diagnosis of leg pain; fasciotomy
2.  A Multicenter Study of Glucocerebrosidase Mutations in Dementia With Lewy Bodies 
JAMA neurology  2013;70(6):10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.1925.
Importance
While mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) are associated with an increased risk for Parkinson disease (PD), it is important to establish whether such mutations are also a common risk factor for other Lewy body disorders.
Objective
To establish whether GBA1 mutations are a risk factor for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Design
We compared genotype data on patients and controls from 11 centers. Data concerning demographics, age at onset, disease duration, and clinical and pathological features were collected when available. We conducted pooled analyses using logistic regression to investigate GBA1 mutation carrier status as predicting DLB or PD with dementia status, using common control subjects as a reference group. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to account for additional heterogeneity.
Setting
Eleven centers from sites around the world performing genotyping.
Participants
Seven hundred twenty-one cases met diagnostic criteria for DLB and 151 had PD with dementia. We compared these cases with 1962 controls from the same centers matched for age, sex, and ethnicity.
Main Outcome Measures
Frequency of GBA1 mutations in cases and controls.
Results
We found a significant association between GBA1 mutation carrier status and DLB, with an odds ratio of 8.28 (95% CI, 4.78–14.88). The odds ratio for PD with dementia was 6.48 (95% CI, 2.53–15.37). The mean age at diagnosis of DLB was earlier in GBA1 mutation carriers than in noncarriers (63.5 vs 68.9 years; P<.001), with higher disease severity scores.
Conclusions and Relevance
Mutations in GBA1 are a significant risk factor for DLB. GBA1 mutations likely play an even larger role in the genetic etiology of DLB than in PD, providing insight into the role of glucocerebrosidase in Lewy body disease.
doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.1925
PMCID: PMC3841974  PMID: 23588557
3.  Dipeptide repeat proteins are present in the p62 positive inclusions in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neurone disease associated with expansions in C9ORF72 
Background
Cases of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Motor Neurone Disease (MND) associated with expansions in C9ORF72 gene are characterised pathologically by the presence of TDP-43 negative, but p62 positive, inclusions in granule cells of the cerebellum and in cells of dentate gyrus and area CA4 of the hippocampus.
Results
We screened 84 cases of pathologically confirmed FTLD and 23 cases of MND for the presence of p62 positive inclusions in these three brain regions, and identified 13 positive cases of FTLD and 3 of MND. All cases demonstrated expansions in C9ORF72 by Southern blotting where frozen tissues were available. The p62 positive inclusions in both cerebellum and hippocampus were immunostained by antibodies to dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR), poly Gly-Ala (poly-GA), poly Gly-Pro (poly-GP) and poly Gly-Arg (poly-GR), these arising from a putative non-ATG initiated (RAN) sense translation of the GGGGCC expansion. There was also some slight, but variable, immunostaining with poly-AP antibody implying some antisense translation might also occur, though the relative paucity of immunostaining could reflect poor antigen avidity on the part of the antisense antibodies. Of the FTLD cases with DPR, 6 showed TDP-43 type A and 6 had TDP-43 type B histology; one had FTLD-tau with the pathology of corticobasal degeneration. There were no qualitative or quantitative differences in the pattern of immunostaining with antibodies to DPR, or p62, proteins between TDP-43 type A and type B cases. Ratings for frequency of inclusions immunostained by these poly-GA, poly-GP and poly-GR antibodies broadly correlated with those for immunolabelled by p62 antibody in all three regions.
Conclusion
We conclude that DPR are a major component of p62 positive inclusions in FTLD and MND.
doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-68
PMCID: PMC3893586  PMID: 24252525
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; C9ORF72; p62 inclusions; Dipeptide repeat proteins
4.  Nuclear Carrier and RNA Binding Proteins in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration associated with Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) pathological changes 
Neuropathology and applied neurobiology  2012;10.1111/j.1365-2990.2012.01274.x.
Aims
We aimed to investigate the role of the nuclear carrier and binding proteins, transportin-1 (TRN1) and transportin-2 (TRN2), TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15) and Ewing’s Sarcoma protein (EWS) in inclusion body formation in cases of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) associated with Fused in Sarcoma protein (FTLD-FUS).
Methods
Eight cases of FTLD-FUS (5 cases of atypical FTLD-U (aFTLD-U), 2 of Neuronal Intermediate Filament Inclusion Body Disease (NIFID) and 1 of Basophilic Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD)) were immunostained for FUS, TRN1, TRN2, TAF15 and EWS. 10 cases of FTLD associated with TDP-43 inclusions served as reference cases.
Results
The inclusion bodies in FTLD-FUS contained TRN1 and TAF15 and, to a lesser extent, EWS, but not TRN2. The patterns of immunostaining for TRN1 and TAF15 were very similar to that of FUS. None of these proteins was associated with tau or TDP-43 aggregations in FTLD.
Conclusion
Data suggest that FUS, TRN1 and TAF15 may participate in a functional pathway in an interdependent way, and imply that the function of TDP-43 may not necessarily be in parallel with, or complementary to, that of FUS, despite each protein sharing many similar structural elements.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2012.01274.x
PMCID: PMC3479345  PMID: 22497712
Frontotemporal Lobar degeneration; Fused in Sarcoma; TDP-43; transportins; TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15; Ewing’s sarcoma protein
5.  Pathological assessments for the presence of hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in Alzheimer’s disease 
Background
We have sought histological evidence, using TDP-43 and p62 immunohistochemistry, for the presence of expansions in C9ORF72 among 200 patients with pathologically confirmed AD.
Results
We noted TDP-43 pathological changes in hippocampus and temporal cortex in 45 (22.5%) of these patients, but did not detect any cases where p62 positive changes in hippocampus and cerebellum, considered pathognomic for C9ORF72 expansions, were present.
Conclusion
We conclude that expansions in C9ORF72 associated with AD are a rare occurrence, and in those instances in the literature where these have been reported, the presence of AD may in fact be coincidental and unrelated to the expansion.
doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-50
PMCID: PMC3893394  PMID: 24252571
Alzheimer’s disease; Genetics; C9ORF72
6.  Distinct clinical and pathological characteristics of frontotemporal dementia associated with C9ORF72 mutations 
Brain  2012;135(3):693-708.
The identification of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene as the cause of chromosome 9-linked frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease offers the opportunity for greater understanding of the relationship between these disorders and other clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In this study, we screened a cohort of 398 patients with frontotemporal dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, semantic dementia or mixture of these syndromes for mutations in the C9ORF72 gene. Motor neuron disease was present in 55 patients (14%). We identified 32 patients with C9ORF72 mutations, representing 8% of the cohort. The patients’ clinical phenotype at presentation varied: nine patients had frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease, 19 had frontotemporal dementia alone, one had mixed semantic dementia with frontal features and three had progressive non-fluent aphasia. There was, as expected, a significant association between C9ORF72 mutations and presence of motor neuron disease. Nevertheless, 46 patients, including 22 familial, had motor neuron disease but no mutation in C9ORF72. Thirty-eight per cent of the patients with C9ORF72 mutations presented with psychosis, with a further 28% exhibiting paranoid, deluded or irrational thinking, whereas <4% of non-mutation bearers presented similarly. The presence of psychosis dramatically increased the odds that patients carried the mutation. Mutation bearers showed a low incidence of motor stereotypies, and relatively high incidence of complex repetitive behaviours, largely linked to patients’ delusions. They also showed a lower incidence of acquired sweet food preference than patients without C9ORF72 mutations. Post-mortem pathology in five patients revealed transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 pathology, type A in one patient and type B in three. However, one patient had corticobasal degeneration pathology. The findings indicate that C9ORF72 mutations cause some but not all cases of frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease. Other mutations remain to be discovered. C9ORF72 mutations are associated with variable clinical presentations and pathology. Nevertheless, the findings highlight a powerful association between C9ORF72 mutations and psychosis and suggest that the behavioural characteristics of patients with C9ORF72 mutations are qualitatively distinct. Mutations in the C9ORF72 gene may be a major cause not only of frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease but also of late onset psychosis.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr355
PMCID: PMC3286329  PMID: 22300873
frontotemporal lobar degeneration; clinical characteristics; motor neuron disease; psychosis; neuropathology
7.  A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the cause of chromosome 9p21-linked ALS-FTD 
Renton, Alan E. | Majounie, Elisa | Waite, Adrian | Simón-Sánchez, Javier | Rollinson, Sara | Gibbs, J. Raphael | Schymick, Jennifer C. | Laaksovirta, Hannu | van Swieten, John C. | Myllykangas, Liisa | Kalimo, Hannu | Paetau, Anders | Abramzon, Yevgeniya | Remes, Anne M. | Kaganovich, Alice | Scholz, Sonja W. | Duckworth, Jamie | Ding, Jinhui | Harmer, Daniel W. | Hernandez, Dena G. | Johnson, Janel O. | Mok, Kin | Ryten, Mina | Trabzuni, Danyah | Guerreiro, Rita J. | Orrell, Richard W. | Neal, James | Murray, Alex | Pearson, Justin | Jansen, Iris E. | Sondervan, David | Seelaar, Harro | Blake, Derek | Young, Kate | Halliwell, Nicola | Callister, Janis | Toulson, Greg | Richardson, Anna | Gerhard, Alex | Snowden, Julie | Mann, David | Neary, David | Nalls, Michael A. | Peuralinna, Terhi | Jansson, Lilja | Isoviita, Veli-Matti | Kaivorinne, Anna-Lotta | Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit | Ikonen, Elina | Sulkava, Raimo | Benatar, Michael | Wuu, Joanne | Chiò, Adriano | Restagno, Gabriella | Borghero, Giuseppe | Sabatelli, Mario | Heckerman, David | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Zinman, Lorne | Rothstein, Jeffrey | Sendtner, Michael | Drepper, Carsten | Eichler, Evan E. | Alkan, Can | Abdullaev, Zied | Pack, Svetlana D. | Dutra, Amalia | Pak, Evgenia | Hardy, John | Singleton, Andrew | Williams, Nigel M. | Heutink, Peter | Pickering-Brown, Stuart | Morris, Huw R. | Tienari, Pentti J. | Traynor, Bryan J.
Neuron  2011;72(2):257-268.
The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region. Here we show that there is a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 on the affected haplotype. This repeat expansion segregates perfectly with disease in the Finnish population, underlying 46.0% of familial ALS and 21.1% of sporadic ALS in that population. Taken together with the D90A SOD1 mutation, 87% of familial ALS in Finland is now explained by a simple monogenic cause. The repeat expansion is also present in one third of familial ALS cases of outbred European descent making it the most common genetic cause of these fatal neurodegenerative diseases identified to date.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.09.010
PMCID: PMC3200438  PMID: 21944779
8.  Genetic and Clinical Features of Progranulin-Associated Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(4):488-497.
Objective
To assess the relative frequency of unique mutations and their associated characteristics in 97 individuals with mutations in progranulin (GRN), an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Participants and Design
A 46-site International Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Collaboration was formed to collect cases of FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa (TDP-43)–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). We identified 97 individuals with FTLD-TDP with pathogenic GRN mutations (GRN+ FTLD-TDP), assessed their genetic and clinical characteristics, and compared them with 453 patients with FTLD-TDP in which GRN mutations were excluded (GRN− FTLD-TDP). No patients were known to be related. Neuropathologic characteristics were confirmed as FTLD-TDP in 79 of the 97 GRN+ FTLDTDP cases and all of the GRN− FTLD-TDP cases.
Results
Age at onset of FTLD was younger in patients with GRN+ FTLD-TDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (median, 58.0 vs 61.0 years; P<.001), as was age at death (median, 65.5 vs 69.0 years; P<.001). Concomitant motor neuron disease was much less common in GRN+ FTLDTDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (5.4% vs 26.3%; P<.001). Fifty different GRN mutations were observed, including 2 novel mutations: c.139delG (p.D47TfsX7) and c.378C>A (p.C126X). The 2 most common GRN mutations were c.1477C>T (p.R493X, found in 18 patients, representing 18.6% of GRN cases) and c.26C>A (p.A9D, found in 6 patients, representing 6.2% of cases). Patients with the c.1477C>T mutation shared a haplotype on chromosome 17; clinically, they resembled patients with other GRN mutations. Patients with the c.26C>A mutation appeared to have a younger age at onset of FTLD and at death and more parkinsonian features than those with other GRN mutations.
Conclusion
GRN+ FTLD-TDP differs in key features from GRN− FTLD-TDP.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.53
PMCID: PMC3160280  PMID: 21482928
9.  Granular expression of prolyl-peptidyl isomerase PIN1 is a constant and specific feature of Alzheimer’s disease pathology and is independent of tau, Aβ and TDP-43 pathology 
Acta neuropathologica  2011;121(5):635-649.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) manifests with progressive memory loss and decline of spatial awareness and motor skills. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Previous studies suggest that the enzyme prolyl-peptidyl cis–trans isomerase PIN1 [protein interacting with NIMA (never in mitosis A)-1] recognizes hyperphosphorylated tau (in NFTs) and facilitates its dephosphorylation, thereby recovering its function. This study aims to determine the frequency, severity and distribution of PIN1 immunoreactivity and its relationship to NFTs and other neuropathological markers of neurodegeneration such as amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and transcription-responsive DNA-binding protein of Mr 43 kDa (TDP-43). Immunohistochemical analysis of 194 patients (46 with AD, 43 with Parkinson’s disease/dementia with Lewy bodies, 12 with progressive supranuclear palsy/corticobasal degeneration, 36 with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, 21 with motor neuron disease and 34 non-demented (ND) individuals) revealed an increased frequency and severity of PIN1 immunoreactive inclusions in AD as compared to all diagnostic groups (P < 0.001). The hippocampal and cortical distribution of PIN1 granules was distinct from that of NFTs, Aβ and TDP-43 pathologies, though the frequency of neurons with PIN1 immunoreactivity increased with increasing NFT pathology. There was a progressive increase in PIN1 changes in ND individuals as the degree of AD-type pathological changes increased. Present findings indicate that PIN1 changes are a constant feature of AD pathology and could serve as a biomarker of the onset or spread of AD neuropathology independent of tau or Aβ.
doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0798-y
PMCID: PMC3122037  PMID: 21243369
Alzheimer’s disease; PIN1; Neurofibrillary tangles; Neurodegeneration; Dementia
10.  Neuropathological background of phenotypical variability in frontotemporal dementia 
Acta Neuropathologica  2011;122(2):137-153.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the umbrella term encompassing a heterogeneous group of pathological disorders. With recent discoveries, the FTLDs have been show to classify nicely into three main groups based on the major protein deposited in the brain: FTLD-tau, FTLD-TDP and FTLD-FUS. These pathological groups, and their specific pathologies, underlie a number of well-defined clinical syndromes, including three frontotemporal dementia (FTD) variants [behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), progressive non-fluent aphasia, and semantic dementia (SD)], progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Understanding the neuropathological background of the phenotypic variability in FTD, PSPS and CBS requires large clinicopathological studies. We review current knowledge on the relationship between the FTLD pathologies and clinical syndromes, and pool data from a number of large clinicopathological studies that collectively provide data on 544 cases. Strong relationships were identified as follows: FTD with motor neuron disease and FTLD-TDP; SD and FTLD-TDP; PSPS and FTLD-tau; and CBS and FTLD-tau. However, the relationship between some of these clinical diagnoses and specific pathologies is not so clear cut. In addition, the clinical diagnosis of bvFTD does not have a strong relationship to any FTLD subtype or specific pathology and therefore remains a diagnostic challenge. Some evidence suggests improved clinicopathological association of bvFTD by further refining clinical characteristics. Unlike FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP, FTLD-FUS has been less well characterized, with only 69 cases reported. However, there appears to be some associations between clinical phenotypes and FTLD-FUS pathologies. Clinical diagnosis is therefore promising in predicting molecular pathology.
doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0839-6
PMCID: PMC3232515  PMID: 21614463
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; Progressive supranuclear palsy; Tau; TDP-43; FUS
11.  Psychiatric disorders in preclinical Huntington's disease 
Background
Psychiatric symptoms are a common feature of Huntington's disease (HD) and often precede the onset of motor and cognitive impairments. However, it remains unclear whether psychiatric changes in the preclinical period result from structural change, are a reaction to being at risk or simply a coincidental occurrence. Few studies have investigated the temporal course of psychiatric disorder across the preclinical period.
Objectives
To compare lifetime and current prevalence of psychiatric disorder in presymptomatic gene carriers and non‐carriers and to examine the relationship of psychiatric prevalence in gene carriers to temporal proximity of clinical onset.
Methods
Lifetime and current psychiatric histories of 204 at risk individuals (89 gene carriers and 115 non‐carriers) were obtained using a structured clinical interview, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Psychiatric disorders were classified using both standardised diagnostic criteria and a more subtle symptom based approach. Follow‐up of gene carriers (n = 51) enabled analysis of the role of temporal proximity to clinical onset.
Results
Gene carriers and non‐carriers did not differ in terms of the lifetime frequency of clinical psychiatric disorders or subclinical symptoms. However, gene carriers reported a significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms. Moreover, the rate of depression increased as a function of proximity to clinical onset.
Conclusions
Affective disorder is an important feature of the prodromal stages of HD. The findings indicate that depression cannot be accounted for by natural concerns of being at risk. There is evidence of a window of several years in which preclinical symptoms are apparent.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.103309
PMCID: PMC2117854  PMID: 17178819
12.  Ubiquitin Associated Protein 1 is a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
Neurobiology of aging  2009;30(4):656-665.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is now recognised as a common form of early onset dementia. Up to 40% of patients have a family history of disease demonstrating a large genetic component to its etiology. Linkage to chromosome 9p21 has recently been reported in families with this disorder. We undertook a large scale two-stage linkage disequilibrium mapping approach of this region in the Manchester FTLD cohort. We identified association of ubiquitin-associated-protein-1 (UBAP1; OR 1.42 95% CI 1.08–1.88, P=0.013) with FTLD in this cohort and we replicated this finding in an additional two independent cohorts from the Netherlands (OR 1.33 95% CI 1.04–1.69, P=0.022), the USA (OR 1.4 95% CI 1.02–1.92, P=0.032) and a forth Spainish cohort approached significant association (OR 1.45 95% CI 0.97–2.17, p=0.064). However, we failed to replicate in a fifth cohort from London (OR 0.99 95% CI 0.72–1.37, p=0.989). Quantitative analysis of UBAP1 mRNA extracted from tissue from the Manchester cases demonstrated a significant reduction of expression from the disease-associated haplotype. In addition, we identified a case of familial FTLD that demonstrated colocalisation of UBAP1 and TDP-43 in the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the brain of this individual. Our data for the first time identifies UBAP1 as a genetic risk factor for FTLD and suggests a mechanistic relationship between this protein and TDP-43.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.01.009
PMCID: PMC2753870  PMID: 19217189
13.  Heterogeneity of ubiquitin pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: classification and relation to clinical phenotype 
Acta Neuropathologica  2006;112(5):539-549.
We have investigated the extent and pattern of immunostaining for ubiquitin protein (UBQ) in 60 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), 37 of whom were ascertained in Manchester UK and 23 in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK. There were three distinct histological patterns according to the form and distribution of the UBQ pathology. Histological type 1 was present in 19 patients (32%) and characterised by the presence of a moderate number, or numerous, UBQ immunoreactive neurites and intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions within layer II of the frontal and temporal cerebral cortex, and cytoplasmic inclusions within granule cells of the dentate gyrus; neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII) of a “cat’s eye” or “lentiform” appearance were present in 17 of these patients. In histological type 2 (16 patients, 27%), UBQ neurites were predominantly, or exclusively, present with few intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions within layer II of the cerebral cortex, while in histological type 3 (25 patients, 42%), UBQ intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions either within the cortical layer II or in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with few or no UBQ neurites, were seen. In neither of these latter two groups were NII present. The influence of histological type on clinical phenotype was highly significant with type 1 histology being associated clinically with cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), type 2 histology with semantic dementia (SD), and type 3 histology with FTD, or FTD and motor neurone disease (MND).
doi:10.1007/s00401-006-0138-9
PMCID: PMC2668618  PMID: 17021754
14.  TDP-43 protein in plasma may index TDP-43 brain pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
Acta Neuropathologica  2008;116(2):141-146.
Autopsy studies have shown that about 55% of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and 25% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) harbour TDP-43 immunoreactive pathological changes in their brains. Using ELISA, we investigated whether we could detect the presence, or increased amounts, of TDP-43 in plasma of patients with FTLD and AD compared to normal control subjects. We detected elevated levels of TDP-43 protein in plasma of 46% patients with FTLD with clinical frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 22% patients with AD, compared to 8% of control subjects. The proportions of patients with FTD and AD showing raised plasma TDP-43 levels correspond closely to those proportions known from autopsy studies to contain TDP-43 pathological changes in their brains. Raised TDP-43 plasma levels may thereby index TDP-43 pathology within the brain. Plasma TDP-43 levels may be a biomarker that can provide a laboratory test capable of identifying the presence of TDP-43 brain pathology in neurodegenerative disease during life. It may help to distinguish those cases of FTLD with ubiquitin/TDP-43 pathology in their brains from those with tauopathy. As a predictive test, plasma TDP-43 level may have great practical value in directing therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing or removing tau or TDP-43 pathological changes from the brain in FTLD and AD.
doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0389-8
PMCID: PMC2464623  PMID: 18506455
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; TDP-43; Plasma; Biomarker

Results 1-14 (14)