To describe and contrast functional dependency (FD) levels among recently-admitted AL residents with and without dementia and to assess the differential contribution of cognitive, behavioral, medical, and social factors on FD within each group.
A cross-sectional study.
A random sample of 28 AL facilities in the Central Maryland region.
Two hundred and sixty-two AL residents assessed <1 year after admission.
Participants were given comprehensive in-person dementia assessments. Cognitive, behavioral, medical, and social factors were also assessed. FD was operationalized as impairment in activities of daily living.
The fifty-nine percent of residents with dementia had higher levels of FD (p<0.001) and were more likely to require assistance in all assessed task-specific ADL domains (p<0.001) except mobility (p=0.653). In multivariate models, global cognition, medical health status, and presence of diabetes explained 43% of the variance in FD in the dementia group. Twenty-five percent of the variance in FD was explained by depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and global cognition in those without dementia.
Recently-admitted AL residents have substantial levels of FD. FD is higher among residents with dementia compared to those without and the association of cognitive, mental health, and medical variables with FD differ as a function of dementia status. Future research should examine how these dimensions affect FD longitudinally and whether they may serve as targets for interventions and quality of care improvement initiatives.