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author:("Lin, sing-Chi")
1.  Anatomy of Disturbed Sleep in Pallido-Ponto-Nigral Degeneration 
Annals of neurology  2011;69(6):1014-1025.
Objective
Pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND), caused by an N279K mutation of the MAPT gene, is 1 of a family of disorders collectively referred to as frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. This study aims to characterize the nature of the sleep disturbance in PPND and compare these findings to those in other progressive neurological illnesses. Pathological findings are also provided.
Methods
Ten subjects were recruited from the PPND kindred; 5 affected and 5 unaffected. The subjects underwent clinical assessment, polysomnography, and wrist actigraphy. Available sleep-relevant areas (pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmentum, nucleus basalis of Meynert, thalamus, and locus ceruleus) of affected subjects were analyzed postmortem.
Results
The affected group's total sleep time was an average of 130.8 minutes compared to 403.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.01). Initial sleep latency was significantly longer in affected subjects (range, 58–260 minutes vs 3–34 minutes). Affected subjects also had an increase in stage I sleep (8.5% vs 1%), and less stage III/IV sleep (8.5% vs 17%). At the time of autopsy, all cases had severe neuronal tau pathology in wake-promoting nuclei, as well as decreases in thalamic cholinergic innervations. There was no difference in orexinergic fiber density in nucleus basalis of Meynert or locus ceruleus compared to controls.
Interpretation
The PPND kindred showed severe sleep disturbance. Sleep abnormalities are common in neurodegenerative illnesses, but this is the first study of sleep disorders in PPND. Unlike most neurodegenerative conditions, PPND is characterized by decreased total sleep time, increased sleep latency, and decreased sleep efficiency, without daytime hypersomnolence.
doi:10.1002/ana.22340
PMCID: PMC3905604  PMID: 21681797
2.  Validation of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire to Screen for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in an Aging and Dementia Cohort 
Sleep medicine  2011;12(5):445-453.
Objective
To validate a questionnaire focused on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among participants in an aging and dementia cohort.
Background
RBD is a parasomnia that can develop in otherwise neurologically-normal adults as well as in those with a neurodegenerative disease. Confirmation of RBD requires polysomnography (PSG). A simple screening measure for RBD would be desirable for clinical and research purposes.
Methods
We had previously developed the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ), a 16 item measure, to screen for the presence of RBD and other sleep disorders. We assessed the validity of the MSQ by comparing the responses of patients’ bed partners with the findings on PSG. All subjects recruited in the Mayo Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Mayo Clinic Jacksonville from 1/00 to 7/08 who had also undergone a PSG were the focus of this analysis.
Results
The study sample was comprised of 176 subjects [150 male; median age 71 years (range 39–90)], with the following clinical diagnoses: normal (n=8), mild cognitive impairment (n=44), Alzheimer’s disease (n=23), dementia with Lewy bodies (n=74), as well as other dementia and/or parkinsonian syndromes (n=27). The core question on recurrent dream enactment behavior yielded a sensitivity (SN) of 98% and specificity (SP) of 74% for the diagnosis of RBD. The profile of responses on four additional subquestions on RBD and one on obstructive sleep apnea improved specificity.
Conclusions
These data suggest that among aged subjects with cognitive impairment and/or parkinsonism, the MSQ has adequate SN and SP for the diagnosis of RBD. The utility of this scale in other patient populations will require further study.
doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.12.009
PMCID: PMC3083495  PMID: 21349763
sleep disorders; parasomnias; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia with Lewy bodies; parkinsonism
3.  Clinical and Genetic Description of a Family With a High Prevalence of Autosomal Dominant Restless Legs Syndrome 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2009;84(2):134-138.
OBJECTIVE: To conduct clinical and molecular genetic analyses of the members of an extended family in Central Indiana with a high prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS).
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: From February 1, 2006, through August 31, 2008, we collected data from members of this family, which is of English descent. Genealogical methods were used to expand the family tree, and family members were screened with an RLS questionnaire. Telephone interviews and personal examinations were performed at Mayo Clinic and during a field trip to Central Indiana. Blood samples were collected for molecular genetic analysis. A follow-up telephone interview was conducted 1 year later.
RESULTS: The family tree spans 7 generations with 88 living members, 30 of whom meet the criteria for diagnosis of RLS established by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Three affected family members also have Parkinson disease or essential tremor. The mode of RLS inheritance is compatible with an autosomal dominant pattern. The affected family members do not exhibit linkage to the 5 known RLS loci or mutations in the RLS susceptibility genes MEIS1 and BTBD9.
CONCLUSION: Of 88 members of this single extended family in Central Indiana, 30 were diagnosed as having RLS. Because our analysis shows that the disease is not linked to any of the known RLS loci or risk-associated genes, we postulate that members of this family may carry a gene mutation in a novel genetic locus.
Of 88 members of a single extended family, 30 were diagnosed as having restless legs syndrome; because this analysis shows that the disease is not linked to any of the known restless legs syndrome loci or risk-associated genes, members of this family may carry a gene mutation in a novel genetic locus.
PMCID: PMC2664577  PMID: 19181647
4.  Analysis of the C9orf72 repeat in Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor and restless legs syndrome 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2012;19(2):198-201.
The hexanucleotide expanded repeat (GGGGCC) in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene is recognized as the most common genetic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, as part of the clinical phenotype, some patients present with parkinsonism. The present study investigated the potential expansion or association of the C9orf72 repeat length with susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, essential tremor and restless legs syndrome. One restless legs syndrome patient was shown to harbor a repeat expansion, however on clinical follow-up this patient was observed to have developed frontotemporal dementia. There was no evidence of association of repeat length on disease risk or age-at-onset for any of the three disorders. Therefore the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion appears to be specific to TDP-43 driven amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and dementia.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.09.013
PMCID: PMC3570692  PMID: 23084342
C9orf72; expanded repeat; PD; ET; RLS; genetic association
5.  Correction: Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Restless Legs Syndrome Susceptibility Loci on 2p14 and 16q12.1 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(8):10.1371/annotation/393ad2d3-df4f-4770-87bc-00bfabf79362.
doi:10.1371/annotation/393ad2d3-df4f-4770-87bc-00bfabf79362
PMCID: PMC3154083
6.  Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Restless Legs Syndrome Susceptibility Loci on 2p14 and 16q12.1 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(7):e1002171.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with an age-dependent prevalence of up to 10% in the general population above 65 years of age. Affected individuals suffer from uncomfortable sensations and an urge to move in the lower limbs that occurs mainly in resting situations during the evening or at night. Moving the legs or walking leads to an improvement of symptoms. Concomitantly, patients report sleep disturbances with consequences such as reduced daytime functioning. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWA) for RLS in 922 cases and 1,526 controls (using 301,406 SNPs) followed by a replication of 76 candidate SNPs in 3,935 cases and 5,754 controls, all of European ancestry. Herein, we identified six RLS susceptibility loci of genome-wide significance, two of them novel: an intergenic region on chromosome 2p14 (rs6747972, P = 9.03 × 10−11, OR = 1.23) and a locus on 16q12.1 (rs3104767, P = 9.4 × 10−19, OR = 1.35) in a linkage disequilibrium block of 140 kb containing the 5′-end of TOX3 and the adjacent non-coding RNA BC034767.
Author Summary
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common neurological disorders. Patients with RLS suffer from an urge to move the legs and unpleasant sensations located mostly deep in the calf. Symptoms mainly occur in resting situations in the evening or at night. As a consequence, initiation and maintenance of sleep become defective. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify common genetic variants increasing the risk for disease. The genome-wide phase included 922 cases and 1,526 controls, and candidate SNPs were replicated in 3,935 cases and 5,754 controls, all of European ancestry. We identified two new RLS–associated loci: an intergenic region on chromosome 2p14 and a locus on 16q12.1 in a linkage disequilibrium block containing the 5′-end of TOX3 and the adjacent non-coding RNA BC034767. TOX3 has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. The physiologic role of TOX3 and BC034767 in the central nervous system and a possible involvement of these two genes in RLS pathogenesis remain to be established.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002171
PMCID: PMC3136436  PMID: 21779176

Results 1-6 (6)