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1.  Loss of ability to work and ability to live independently in Parkinson’s Disease 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2011;18(2):130-135.
Objective
Ability to work and independent living capacity are of particular concern for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We utilized a series of PD patients able to work or live independently at baseline, and evaluated potential risk factors for the two separate outcomes of loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently.
Methods
The series was comprised of 495 PD patients followed prospectively. Ability to work and ability to live independently were based on clinical interview and examination. Cox regression models adjusted for age and disease duration were used to evaluate associations of baseline characteristics with loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently.
Results
Higher UPDRS dyskinesia score, UPDRS instability score, UPDRS total score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, and presence of intellectual impairment at baseline were all associated with increased risk of future loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently (P≤0.0033). Five years after initial visit, for patients ≤70 years of age with a disease duration ≤4 years at initial visit, 88% were still able to work and 90% to live independently. These estimates worsened as age and disease duration at initial visit increased; for patients >70 years of age with a disease duration >4 years, estimates at 5 years were 43% and 57%, respectively.
Conclusions
The information provided in this study can offer useful information for PD patients in preparing for future loss of ability to perform activities of daily living.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.08.022
PMCID: PMC3977346  PMID: 21975262
Parkinson disease; work ability; independence
2.  LINGO1 and LINGO2 variants are associated with essential tremor and Parkinson disease 
Neurogenetics  2010;11(4):401-408.
Genetic variation in the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 gene (LINGO1) was recently associated with an increased risk of developing essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD). Herein, we performed a comprehensive study of LINGO1 and its paralog LINGO2 in ET and PD by sequencing both genes in patients (ET, n=95; PD, n=96) and by examining haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in a multicenter North American series of patients (ET, n=1,247; PD, n=633) and controls (n=642). The sequencing study identified six novel coding variants in LINGO1 (p.S4C, p.V107M, p.A277T, p.R423R, p.G537A, p.D610D) and three in LINGO2 (p.D135D, p.P217P, p.V565V), however segregation analysis did not support pathogenicity. The association study employed 16 tSNPs at the LINGO1 locus and 21 at the LINGO2 locus. One variant in LINGO1 (rs9652490) displayed evidence of an association with ET (odds ratio (OR)=0.63; P=0.026) and PD (OR=0.54; P=0.016). Additionally, four other tSNPs in LINGO1 and one in LINGO2 were associated with ET and one tSNP in LINGO2 associated with PD (P<0.05). Further analysis identified one tSNP in LINGO1 and two in LINGO2 which influenced age at onset of ET and two tSNPs in LINGO1 which altered age at onset of PD (P<0.05). Our results support a role for LINGO1 and LINGO2 in determining risk for and perhaps age at onset of ET and PD. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved.
doi:10.1007/s10048-010-0241-x
PMCID: PMC3930084  PMID: 20369371
Essential tremor; Parkinson disease; LINGO1; LINGO2; Genetic association
3.  Depression in Parkinson’s Disease 
Objective
To examine predictive factors associated with onset of depression among individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Background
Depression may precede or follow symptomatic parkinsonism in PD. It is frequently treatable but often overlooked.
Methods
The clinical series comprised 685 individuals who were diagnosed with PD and followed by one neurologist (RJU) from 1994 to 2007. The primary outcome was time to depression following the onset of PD. Diagnosis of depression was based on clinical assessment of depressive symptoms from patients (and spouse/family/caregiver) and antidepressant usage. A number of demographic, historical and clinical predictive factors were examined, including gender, age at symptomatic onset, disease duration, onset characteristics, clinical ratings, antiparkinsonian medications, cognitive status, depression history, and familial history of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Results
Seventy-two percent of patients developed depression within ten years of symptomatic PD onset, and the mean time to depression was 7.9 years (median: 5.7 years). Factors associated with depression included longer PD duration, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and positive family history of motor neuron disease (MND).
Conclusions
A high rate of individuals with PD develop depressive symptoms during the course of the disease. Based on first clinic visit characteristics, most factors examined were not helpful in identifying individuals with an increased risk of depression. However, disease duration, functional limitations and family history of MND should lead clinicians to an increased vigilance for identifying depression.
PMCID: PMC3907778  PMID: 20169775
4.  Evaluation of gastric emptying in familial and sporadic Parkinson disease☆ 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2009;15(9):692-696.
Objective
To assess for the presence of gastric dysmotility in familial and sporadic Parkinson disease (PD).
Methods
10 subjects with familial Parkinson disease (fPD), 35 subjects with sporadic Parkinson disease (sPD), and 15 controls, all from academic tertiary care movement disorders centers, were studied. fPD was defined as the presence of at least 2 affected individuals within 2–3 consecutive generations in a family. Molecular genetic analysis has not revealed, thus far, any known genomic abnormality in these families. Gastric emptying was assessed by dynamic abdominal scintigraphy over 92 min following ingestion of a solid meal containing 99mTc-labeled colloid of 40 MBq activity. The main outcome measures were gastric emptying half-time and radiotracer activity over the gastric area at 46 and at 92 min.
Results
Gastric emptying time was delayed in 60% of subjects with PD. In comparison to mean t1/2 of 38 ± 7 min in controls, mean t1/2 was 58 ± 25 min in fPD (p = 0.02) and 46 ± 25 min in sPD (p = 0.10). Both fPD and sPD groups included subjects with delayed gastric emptying at an early stage of disease.
Conclusions
Patients with fPD showed significantly delayed gastric emptying in comparison to normal age-matched individuals. Further studies of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD, particularly fPD, are warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.04.003
PMCID: PMC3905598  PMID: 19451015
Gastric emptying; Familial; Parkinson disease; Radionuclide imaging
5.  PARK2 variability in Polish Parkinson’s disease patients - interaction with mitochondrial haplogroups 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2012;18(5):520-524.
Aims and objectives
A new pathomechanism of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involving regulation of mitochondrial functions was recently proposed. Parkin complexed with mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) binds mtDNA and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, which is abolished by PARK2 gene mutations. We have previously shown that mitochondrial haplogroups/clusters and TFAM common variation influenced PD risk. We investigate the role of PARK2 polymorphisms on PD risk and their interactions with mitochondrial haplogroups/clusters as well as with TFAM variability.
Methods
104 early-onset PD patients (EOPD, age at onset ≤ 50 years) were screened for PARK2 coding sequence changes including gene dosage alterations. Three selected PARK2 polymorphisms (S167N, V380L, D394N) were genotyped in 326 PD patients and 315 controls using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay.
Results
PARK2 screen revealed two heterozygous changes in two EOPD patients: exon 2 deletion and one novel synonymous variation (c.999C>A, P333P).
In association study no differences in genotype/allele frequencies of S167N, V380L, D394N were found between analyzed groups. Stratification by mitochondrial clusters revealed higher frequency of V380L G/G genotype and allele G in PD patients, within HV cluster (p=0.040; p=0.022, respectively). Moreover, interaction between genotypes G/G V380L of PARK2 and G/G rs2306604 of TFAM, within HV cluster was significant (OR 2.05; CI 1.04 – 4.04; p=0.038).
Conclusions
Our results indicate that co-occurence of G/G V380L PARK2 and G/G rs2306604 TFAM on the prooxidative HV cluster background can contribute to PD risk. We confirm low PARK2 mutation frequency in Polish EOPD patients.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.01.021
PMCID: PMC3358581  PMID: 22361577
Parkinson’s disease risk factors; PARK2; mitochondrial clusters; mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)
6.  An evaluation of the impact of MAPT, SNCA and APOE on the burden of Alzheimer and Lewy body pathology 
The study investigates the effects of genetic factors on the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Lewy body (LB) diseases, including Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. A multicenter autopsy series (762 brain samples) with AD, LB or vascular pathology was examined. We assessed the effects of the tau gene (MAPT) H1 haplotype, the H1-specific SNP rs242557, APOE and the α-synuclein gene (SNCA) 3′UTR SNP rs356165 on the burden of AD and LB pathology. We counted neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in four brain regions, senile plaques (SPs) in five and LBs in four. We also documented Braak NFT stage, brain weight and presence of vascular pathology. MAPT H1 associated with lower counts of NFTs in the middle frontal (P<0.001) and inferior parietal (P=0.005) cortices, and also with lower counts of SPs in the motor cortex (P=0.001). Associations of MAPT H1 with increased LB counts in the middle frontal cortex (P=0.011) and inferior parietal cortex (P=0.033) were observed but were not significant after multiple testing adjustment. The APOE ε4 allele was strongly associated with overall Alzheimer type pathology (all P≤0.001). SNCA rs356165 and the MAPT H1-specific SNP rs242557 did not associate with AD or LB pathology. This study shows for the first time that MAPT H1 is associated with reduced Alzheimer type pathology, which could have important implications for the understanding of disease mechanisms and their genetic determinants.
doi:10.1136/jnnp-2011-301413
PMCID: PMC3623699  PMID: 22291217
MAPT; SNCA; APOE; Alzheimer pathology; Lewy body
7.  Large-scale replication and heterogeneity in Parkinson disease genetic loci 
Sharma, Manu | Ioannidis, John P.A. | Aasly, Jan O. | Annesi, Grazia | Brice, Alexis | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Bertram, Lars | Bozi, Maria | Crosiers, David | Clarke, Carl | Facheris, Maurizio | Farrer, Matthew | Garraux, Gaetan | Gispert, Suzana | Auburger, Georg | Vilariño-Güell, Carles | Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M. | Hicks, Andrew A. | Hattori, Nobutaka | Jeon, Beom | Lesage, Suzanne | Lill, Christina M. | Lin, Juei-Jueng | Lynch, Timothy | Lichtner, Peter | Lang, Anthony E. | Mok, Vincent | Jasinska-Myga, Barbara | Mellick, George D. | Morrison, Karen E. | Opala, Grzegorz | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Pichler, Irene | Park, Sung Sup | Quattrone, Aldo | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Ross, Owen A. | Stefanis, Leonidas | Stockton, Joanne D. | Satake, Wataru | Silburn, Peter A. | Theuns, Jessie | Tan, Eng-King | Toda, Tatsushi | Tomiyama, Hiroyuki | Uitti, Ryan J. | Wirdefeldt, Karin | Wszolek, Zbigniew | Xiromerisiou, Georgia | Yueh, Kuo-Chu | Zhao, Yi | Gasser, Thomas | Maraganore, Demetrius | Krüger, Rejko | Boyle, R.S | Sellbach, A | O'Sullivan, J.D. | Sutherland, G.T. | Siebert, G.A | Dissanayaka, N.N.W | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Theuns, Jessie | Crosiers, David | Pickut, Barbara | Engelborghs, Sebastiaan | Meeus, Bram | De Deyn, Peter P. | Cras, Patrick | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Lang, Anthony E | Agid, Y | Anheim, M | Bonnet, A-M | Borg, M | Brice, A | Broussolle, E | Corvol, JC | Damier, P | Destée, A | Dürr, A | Durif, F | Lesage, S | Lohmann, E | Pollak, P | Rascol, O | Tison, F | Tranchant, C | Viallet, F | Vidailhet, M | Tzourio, Christophe | Amouyel, Philippe | Loriot, Marie-Anne | Mutez, Eugénie | Duflot, Aurélie | Legendre, Jean-Philippe | Waucquier, Nawal | Gasser, Thomas | Riess, Olaf | Berg, Daniela | Schulte, Claudia | Klein, Christine | Djarmati, Ana | Hagenah, Johann | Lohmann, Katja | Auburger, Georg | Hilker, Rüdiger | van de Loo, Simone | Dardiotis, Efthimios | Tsimourtou, Vaia | Ralli, Styliani | Kountra, Persa | Patramani, Gianna | Vogiatzi, Cristina | Hattori, Nobutaka | Tomiyama, Hiroyuki | Funayama, Manabu | Yoshino, Hiroyo | Li, Yuanzhe | Imamichi, Yoko | Toda, Tatsushi | Satake, Wataru | Lynch, Tim | Gibson, J. Mark | Valente, Enza Maria | Ferraris, Alessandro | Dallapiccola, Bruno | Ialongo, Tamara | Brighina, Laura | Corradi, Barbara | Piolti, Roberto | Tarantino, Patrizia | Annesi, Ferdinanda | Jeon, Beom S. | Park, Sung-Sup | Aasly, J | Opala, Grzegorz | Jasinska-Myga, Barbara | Klodowska-Duda, Gabriela | Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena | Tan, Eng King | Belin, Andrea Carmine | Olson, Lars | Galter, Dagmar | Westerlund, Marie | Sydow, Olof | Nilsson, Christer | Puschmann, Andreas | Lin, JJ | Maraganore, Demetrius M. | Ahlskog, J, Eric | de Andrade, Mariza | Lesnick, Timothy G. | Rocca, Walter A. | Checkoway, Harvey | Ross, Owen A | Wszolek, Zbigniew K. | Uitti, Ryan J.
Neurology  2012;79(7):659-667.
Objective:
Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown.
Methods:
Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry.
Results:
In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78–0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14–1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I2 estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD.
Conclusion:
Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity. Neurology® 2012;79:659–667
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318264e353
PMCID: PMC3414661  PMID: 22786590
8.  A multi-centre clinico-genetic analysis of the VPS35 gene in Parkinson disease indicates reduced penetrance for disease-associated variants 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2012;49(11):721-726.
Background
Two recent studies identified a mutation (p.Asp620Asn) in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene as a cause for an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease . Although additional missense variants were described, their pathogenic role yet remains inconclusive.
Methods and results
We performed the largest multi-center study to ascertain the frequency and pathogenicity of the reported vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene variants in more than 15,000 individuals worldwide. p.Asp620Asn was detected in 5 familial and 2 sporadic PD cases and not in healthy controls, p.Leu774Met in 6 cases and 1 control, p.Gly51Ser in 3 cases and 2 controls. Overall analyses did not reveal any significant increased risk for p.Leu774Met and p.Gly51Ser in our cohort.
Conclusions
Our study apart from identifying the p.Asp620Asn variant in familial cases also identified it in idiopathic Parkinson disease cases, and thus provides genetic evidence for a role of p.Asp620Asn in Parkinson disease in different populations worldwide.
doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101155
PMCID: PMC3488700  PMID: 23125461
Parkinson-s disease; Genome-wide; Genetics; Genetic epidemiology; Complex traits
9.  LRRK2 exonic variants and susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease 
Lancet neurology  2011;10(10):898-908.
Background
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is known to harbor highly penetrant mutations linked to familial parkinsonism. However, its full polymorphic variability in relationship to Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk has not been systematically assessed.
Methods
We examined the frequency pathogenicity of 121 exonic LRRK2 variants in three ethnic series (Caucasian [N=12,590], Asian [N=2,338] and Arab-Berber [N=612]) consisting of 8,611 patients and 6,929 control subjects from 23 separate sites of the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease Consortium.
Findings
Excluding carriers of previously known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were found for polymorphic variants in Caucasian (p.M1646T, OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.78, P=0.0012) and Asian (p.A419V, OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.35 – 3.83, P=0.0011) populations. In addition, a protective haplotype was observed at >5% frequency (p.N551K-p.R1398H-p.K1423K) in the Caucasian and Asian series’, with a similar finding in the small Arab-Berber series that requires further study (combined 3-series OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72 – 0.94, P=0.0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants p.G2385R was found to be associated with disease (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.20 – 2.49, P=0.0026) but no association was observed for p.R1628P (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.36 – 1.07, P=0.087). Also in the Arab-Berber series, p.Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (OR: 4.48, 95% CI: 1.33 – 15.09, P=0.012). Of note, two variants (p.I1371V and p.T2356I) which have been previously proposed as pathogenic were observed in patient and control subjects at the same frequency.
Interpretation
LRRK2 offers an example where multiple rare and common genetic variants in the same gene have independent effects on disease risk. Lrrk2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the etiology and pathogenesis of a greater proportion of patients with PD than previously believed.
Funding
The present study and original funding for the GEO-PD Consortium was supported by grants from Michael J. Fox Foundation. Studies at individual sites were supported by a number of funding agencies world-wide.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70175-2
PMCID: PMC3208320  PMID: 21885347
Parkinson disease; LRRK2; genetics
10.  Creation of an Open-Access, Mutation-Defined Fibroblast Resource for Neurological Disease Research 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43099.
Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of many neurological disorders has been greatly enhanced by the discovery of mutations in genes linked to familial forms of these diseases. These have facilitated the generation of cell and animal models that can be used to understand the underlying molecular pathology. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the use of patient-derived cells, due to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into neurons and glia. Access to patient cell lines carrying the relevant mutations is a limiting factor for many centres wishing to pursue this research. We have therefore generated an open-access collection of fibroblast lines from patients carrying mutations linked to neurological disease. These cell lines have been deposited in the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Repository at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and can be requested by any research group for use in in vitro disease modelling. There are currently 71 mutation-defined cell lines available for request from a wide range of neurological disorders and this collection will be continually expanded. This represents a significant resource that will advance the use of patient cells as disease models by the scientific community.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043099
PMCID: PMC3428297  PMID: 22952635
11.  Human leukocyte antigen variation and Parkinson’s disease 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2011;17(5):376-378.
A role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has previously been suggested. A recent genome-wide association (GWA) study identified an association between one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region (HLA-DRA rs3129882) and PD in a population of American patients with European ancestry. In that study, the minor rs3129882 allele (G) was associated with an increased risk of PD under an additive model. Due to the increased likelihood of obtaining false positive results in GWA studies compared to studies conducted based on a hypothesis-driven approach, repeated validation of findings from GWA studies are necessary. Herein, we evaluated the association between rs3129882 and PD in three different Caucasian patient-control series (combined 1,313 patients and 1,305 controls) from the US, Ireland, and Poland. We observed no association (OR: 0.96, P=0.50) between rs3129882 and PD when analyzing our data under an additive or dominant model. In contrast, when examined under a recessive model, the GG genotype was observed to be protective in the Irish (OR: 0.55, P=0.008), Polish (OR: 0.67, P=0.040) and combined (OR: 0.75, P=0.006) patient-control series. In view of these diverging results, the exact role of genetic variation at the HLA region and susceptibility to PD remains to be resolved.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.03.008
PMCID: PMC3109190  PMID: 21482477
Association studies; Parkinson’s disease; Human leukocyte antigen; HLA; HLA-DRA; Immune system; Genetics
12.  Independent and joint effects of the MAPT and SNCA genes in Parkinson's disease 
Annals of neurology  2011;69(5):778-792.
Objective
We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium.
Methods
Participants of Caucasian ancestry were genotyped for a total of four SNCA (rs2583988, rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074) and two MAPT (rs1052553, rs242557) SNPs. Individual and joint effects of SNCA and MAPT SNPs were investigated using fixed- and random-effects logistic regression models. Interactions were studied both on a multiplicative and an additive scale, and using a case-control and case-only approach.
Results
Fifteen GEO-PD sites contributed a total of 5302 cases and 4161 controls. All four SNCA SNPs and the MAPT H1-haplotype defining SNP (rs1052553) displayed a highly significant marginal association with PD at the significance level adjusted for multiple comparisons. For SNCA, the strongest associations were observed for SNPs located at the 3′ end of the gene. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between any of the four SNCA SNPs and rs1052553 or rs242557, neither on the multiplicative nor on the additive scale.
Interpretation
This study confirms the association between PD and both SNCA SNPs and the H1 MAPT haplotype. It shows, based on a variety of approaches, that the joint action of variants in these two loci is consistent with independent effects of the genes without additional interacting effects.
doi:10.1002/ana.22321
PMCID: PMC3082599  PMID: 21391235
Parkinson disease; SNCA; MAPT; genetics; interaction; case-control
13.  Heterodimerization of Lrrk1-Lrrk2: Implications for LRRK2-associated Parkinson disease 
LRRK2 mutations are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism identified to date. A remarkable feature of this form of parkinsonism is the variable penetrance of symptom manifestation resulting in a wide range of age-at-onset in patients. Herein we use a functional approach to identify the Lrrk1 protein as a potential disease modifier demonstrating an interaction and heterodimer formation with Lrrk2. In addition, evaluation of LRRK1 variants in our large Lrrk2 p.G2019S-parkinsonism series from a Tunisian (n=145) identified a missense mutation (p.L416M) resulting in an average 6.2 years younger age at disease onset. In conclusion we show for the first time that the interaction of Lrrk1-Lrrk2 can form protein dimers and this interaction may influence the age of symptomatic manifestation in Lrrk2-parkinsonism patients.
doi:10.1016/j.mad.2010.01.009
PMCID: PMC2847049  PMID: 20144646
LRRK2; PD; Dimerization; Genetics; p.G2019S
14.  LINGO1 rs9652490 is associated with Essential Tremor and Parkinson Disease 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2009;16(2):109-111.
Recently, a variant in LINGO1 (rs9652490) was found to associate with increased risk of essential tremor. We set out to replicate this association in an independent case-control series of essential tremor from North America. In addition, given the clinical and pathological overlap between essential tremor and Parkinson disease, we also evaluate the effect of LINGO1 rs9652490 in two case-control series of Parkinson disease. Our study demonstrates a significant association between LINGO1 rs9652490 and essential tremor (P=0.014) and Parkinson disease (P=0.0003), thus providing the first evidence of a genetic link between both diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.08.006
PMCID: PMC2844122  PMID: 19720553
LINGO1; Parkinson disease; essential tremor

Results 1-14 (14)