Diffuse brainstem gliomas (BSGs) and other high-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood carry a dismal prognosis despite current treatments, and new therapies are needed. Having identified a series of glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) commonly overexpressed in pediatric gliomas, we initiated a pilot study of subcutaneous vaccinations with GAA epitope peptides in HLA-A2–positive children with newly diagnosed BSG and HGG.
Patients and Methods
GAAs were EphA2, interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), and survivin, and their peptide epitopes were emulsified in Montanide-ISA-51 and given every 3 weeks with intramuscular polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose for eight courses, followed by booster vaccinations every 6 weeks. Primary end points were safety and T-cell responses against vaccine-targeted GAA epitopes. Treatment response was evaluated clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging.
Twenty-six children were enrolled, 14 with newly diagnosed BSG treated with irradiation and 12 with newly diagnosed BSG or HGG treated with irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy. No dose-limiting non-CNS toxicity was encountered. Five children had symptomatic pseudoprogression, which responded to dexamethasone and was associated with prolonged survival. Only two patients had progressive disease during the first two vaccine courses; 19 had stable disease, two had partial responses, one had a minor response, and two had prolonged disease-free status after surgery. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot analysis in 21 children showed positive anti-GAA immune responses in 13: to IL-13Rα2 in 10, EphA2 in 11, and survivin in three.
GAA peptide vaccination in children with gliomas is generally well tolerated and has preliminary evidence of immunologic and clinical responses. Careful monitoring and management of pseudoprogression is essential.
BACKGROUND: WHO grade II low-grade gliomas (LGGs) with high risk factors for recurrence are mostly lethal despite current treatments, and novel approaches are needed. We conducted a phase I study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of subcutaneous vaccinations with synthetic peptides for glioma-associated antigen (GAA) epitopes in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2+ adults with high-risk LGGs in the following three cohorts: 1) newly diagnosed patients without prior radiation therapy (RT); 2) newly diagnosed patients with prior RT, and 3) recurrent patients. METHODS: GAAs were interleukin-13 receptor (IL-13R)α2, EphA2, Wilms Tumor (WT)1, and Survivin, and synthetic peptides were emulsified in Montanide-ISA-51 and given every 3 weeks for 8 courses with intramuscular injections of Toll-like receptor 3 agonist Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Stabilized by Lysine and Carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), followed by q12-week booster vaccines. Primary endpoints were safety and CD8+ T-cell responses against vaccine-targeted GAAs. RESULTS: Cohorts 1, 2, and 3 enrolled 12, 1, and 10 patients, respectively. No regimen-limiting toxicity has been encountered except for one case with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Grade 3 fever (Cohort 1). Enzyme-linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT) assays demonstrated robust and sustained interferon (IFN)-γ responses against at least 3 of the 4 GAA epitopes in 10 and 4 cases of Cohorts 1 and 3, respectively. Cohort 1 patients demonstrated significantly higher IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than Cohort 3 patients, suggesting newly diagnosed patients have superior vaccine-responsiveness to recurrent patients. IFN-γ ELISPOT response levels in this study is significantly higher than those observed in our previous phase I/II study in high-grade glioma patients (Okada et al. JCO 2011). Furthermore, IFN-γ ELISPOT response levels were significantly higher than those for IL-5, indicating effective type-1 skewing by the current regimen. Median progression-free survival (PFS) periods are 21 months (Cohort 1; since diagnosis; range 10-42) and 12 months (Cohort 3; since the 1st vaccine; range 3-26). The only patient with large astrocytoma in Cohort 2 has been progression-free for over 58 months since diagnosis. There was a positive trend between IFN-γ ELISPOT responses and progression-free survival (PFS) in Cohort 3 patients (P = 0.08 by The Cox proportional hazards model). CONCLUSIONS: The current regimen is well tolerated and induces robust GAA-specific responses in WHO grade II LGG patients. These results suggest these patients may be suitable populations for vaccine therapy and warrant further evaluations of this approach. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Clinical Neuro-Oncology.
We used high-resolution SNP genotyping to identify regions of genomic gain and loss in the genomes of 212 medulloblastomas, malignant pediatric brain tumors. We found focal amplifications of 15 known oncogenes and focal deletions of 20 known tumor suppressor genes (TSG), most not previously implicated in medulloblastoma. Notably, we identified previously unknown amplifications and homozygous deletions, including recurrent, mutually exclusive, highly focal genetic events in genes targeting histone lysine methylation, particularly that of histone 3, lysine 9 (H3K9). Post-translational modification of histone proteins is critical for regulation of gene expression, can participate in determination of stem cell fates and has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Consistent with our genetic data, restoration of expression of genes controlling H3K9 methylation greatly diminishes proliferation of medulloblastoma in vitro. Copy number aberrations of genes with critical roles in writing, reading, removing and blocking the state of histone lysine methylation, particularly at H3K9, suggest that defective control of the histone code contributes to the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma.
Psychosis occurs in 40–60% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects, is heritable, and indicates amore rapidly progressive disease phenotype. Neuroimaging and postmortem evidence support an exaggerated prefrontal cortical synaptic deficit in AD with psychosis. Microtubule-associated protein tau is a key mediator of amyloid-β-induced synaptotoxicity in AD, and differential mechanisms of progressive intraneuronal phospho-tau accumulation and interneuronal spread of tau aggregates have recently been described. We hypothesized that psychosis in AD would be associated with greater intraneuronal concentration of phospho-tau and greater spread of tau aggregates in prefrontal cortex. We therefore evaluated prefrontal cortex phospho-tau in a cohort of 45 AD cases with and without psychosis. Intraneuronal phospho-tau concentration was higher in subjects with psychosis, while a measure of phospho-tau spread, volume fraction, was not. Across groups both measures were associated with lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Span Backwards test. These novel findings indicate that tau phosphorylation may be accelerated in AD with psychosis, indicating a more dynamic, exaggerated pathology in AD with psychosis.
Alzheimer's disease; Braak stage; Mini-Mental State Examination; psychosis; tau
Studies of primary cells from malignant brain tumors such as glioblastomas are limited by the small size of surgically resected specimens. However, glioblastomas are also frequently debulked via ultrasonic aspiration. In this study, we examined the functional competence and growth of their aspirated cells. Cells from minced tissue and aspirations were comparable in migration, formation of pseudopodia, development of cellular spheres with radial outgrowth, and neuroectodermal features. Cultures were maintained for more than six weeks without fibroblastic overgrowth. Our observations show that ultrasonically aspirated specimens contain cells useful for studies of tumor migration and growth of tumorspheres.
Ultrasonic aspiration technique; brain tumor; glioblastoma; cell migration; pseudopodia; tumorspheres
Previous data suggest heterogeneity in laminar distribution of the pathology in the molecular disorder frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). To study this heterogeneity, we quantified the changes in density across the cortical laminae of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), glial inclusions (GI), neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII), dystrophic neurites (DN), surviving neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and vacuoles in regions of the frontal and temporal lobe.
Changes in density of histological features across cortical gyri were studied in ten sporadic cases of FTLD-TDP using quantitative methods and polynomial curve-fitting.
Our data suggest that laminar neuropathology in sporadic FTLD-TDP is highly variable. Most commonly, NCI, DN, and vacuolation were abundant in the upper laminae and GI, NII, EN, and glial cell nuclei in the lower laminae. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions affected more of the cortical profile in longer duration cases, their distribution varied with disease subtype, but was unrelated to Braak tangle score. Different TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions were not spatially correlated.
Laminar distribution of pathological features in ten sporadic cases of FTLD-TDL is heterogeneous and may be accounted for, in part, by disease subtype and disease duration. In addition, the feed-forward and feed-back cortico-cortical connections may be compromised in FTLD-TDP.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP); FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U); Transactive response TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43); Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI); Laminar distribution
Glioblastoma (GBM) demonstrate down-regulated expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I, thereby escaping from cytotoxic T cells and limiting the efficacy of immunotherapy. LOH of HLA Class I (6p21) and/or Beta-2 microglobulin (B2m) (15q21) regions represent irreversible down-regulation. In this study, we examined the prevalence of these LOH events and their relations with overall survival in GBM.
In a cross-sectional analysis on 60 adult GBM patients, DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated for ten microsatellite regions of HLA Class I, B2m, HLA Class II, HLA Class III, and 6q by PCR as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of HLA Class I expression and CD8+ T cell infiltration.
LOH in HLA Class I, B2m, HLA Class II, HLA Class III, and 6q regions were present in 41.4%, 18.2%, 9.4%, 77.8%, and 36.0% of informative cases, respectively. LOH of HLA Class I was associated with shorter overall survival (HR = 4.89, p = 0.0078). HLA Class I was down-regulated in 22 to 43% of cases based on immunohistochemistry. Cases that displayed negative staining were significantly younger. HLA Class I expression correlated with intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration.
LOH in the HLA Class I region is frequent in adult GBMs. The association of shorter survival with LOH in this region suggest a crucial role for these genes in immunosurveillance.
Loss of Heterozygosity; Human Leukocyte Antigen; Beta-2 Microglobulin; tumor immunology; Glioblastoma
The authors present the first use of the novel positron emission tomography (PET) apoptosis tracer 18F-labeled 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (18F-ML-10) for early-therapy response assessment of a newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient.
A 71-year-old male with a newly diagnosed GBM received 18F-ML-10 PET scans prior to therapy initiation (baseline) and after completing 3 weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy (early-therapy assessment, ETA). The baseline 18F-ML-10 PET scan showed increased tracer uptake at the site of the GBM, with highest activity toward the central portion of the tumor. At the ETA time point, a new distribution of tracer uptake was observed compared to baseline. Normalized pixel-by-pixel subtraction of baseline from ETA was used to quantify change in tracer distribution between 18F-ML-10 PET imaging time points. Results of this analysis showed reduction in 18F-ML-10 uptake at the site of greatest baseline uptake, but increased uptake around the periphery of the tumor at the early-therapy time point.
The changing patterns of 18F-ML-10 uptake between baseline and ETA are suggestive for therapy-induced tumor cellular apoptosis.
18F-ML-10; early-therapy response assessment; glioblastoma multiforme; positron emission tomography
To test for an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and dementias with synucleinopathy.
Genetic case-control association study.
Autopsied subjects were classified into 5 categories: dementia with high-level Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (NCs) but without Lewy body disease (LBD) NCs (AD group; n=244), dementia with LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD group; n=224), dementia with LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure DLB [pDLB] group; n=91), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) with no or low levels of ADNCs (n=81), and control group (n=269).
Main Outcome Measure
The APOE allele frequencies.
The APOE ε4 allele frequency was significantly higher in the AD (38.1%), LBD-AD (40.6%), pDLB (31.9%), and PDD (19.1%) groups compared with the control group (7.2%; overall χ42=185.25; P=5.56×10−39), and it was higher in the pDLB group than the PDD group (P=.01). In an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted dominant model, ε4 was strongly associated with AD (odds ratio, 9.9; 95% CI, 6.4–15.3), LBD-AD (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% CI, 8.1–19.8), pDLB (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.5–10.5), and PDD (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7–5.6).
The APOE ε4 allele is a strong risk factor across the LBD spectrum and occurs at an increased frequency in pDLB relative to PDD. This suggests that ε4 increases the likelihood of presenting with dementia in the context of a pure synucleinopathy. The elevated ε4 frequency in the pDLB and PDD groups, in which the overall brain neuritic plaque burden was low, indicates that apoE might contribute to neurodegeneration through mechanisms unrelated to amyloid processing.
Despite surgery and radiotherapy, as many as 50 % of children with ependymomas will suffer from tumor recurrences that will ultimately lead to death. Our group’s initial peptide-based glioma vaccine targeting EphA2, IL-13Rα2, and Survivin, which are overexpressed in pediatric gliomas, has shown promise in its initial phase of testing. We therefore investigated whether EphA2, IL-13Raα2, Survivin, and, additionally, Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1), are overexpressed in pediatric ependymomas to determine if a similar immunotherapy approach could be applicable. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies specific for EphA2, IL-13Rα2, Survivin, and WT1 on paraffin-embedded specimens from 19 pediatric and 13 adult ependymomas. Normal brain and ependyma were used for background staining controls. Negative staining was defined as no staining or staining equaling the background intensity in normal brain tissues. In the 19 pediatric cases, 18 (95 %) demonstrated positive staining for EphA2, 16 (84 %) for IL-13Rα2, 18 (95 %) for Survivin, and only 7 (37 %) for WT1. Only 3 of 19 cases were positive for two or fewer tumor-associated antigens (TAAs); 16 of 19 cases were positive for three or more TAAs. In the 13 adult cases, all 13 demonstrated positive staining for EphA2, IL-13Rα2, and Survivin. Only 2 of 13 cases (15 %) demonstrated positive staining for WT1. All adult specimens were positive for three or more TAAs. Some ependymomas showed patchy variability in intensity. Pediatric and adult ependymomas frequently express EphA2, IL-13Rα2, and Survivin. This provides the basis for the utilization of an established multiple peptide vaccine for ependymoma in a clinical trial setting.
Tumor-associated antigen; EphA2; Survivin; Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2; Wilms’ Tumor 1; Ependymoma
Psychosis in Alzheimer disease differentiates a subgroup with more rapid decline, is heritable, and aggregates within families, suggesting a distinct neurobiology. Evidence indicates that greater impairments of cerebral cortical synapses, particularly in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis in AD phenotype. Soluble β-amyloid induces loss of dendritic spine synapses through impairment of long term potentiation. In contrast, the Rho GEF kalirin is an essential mediator of spine maintenance and growth in cerebral cortex. We therefore hypothesized that psychosis in AD would be associated with increased soluble β-amyloid and reduced expression of kalirin in the cortex. We tested this hypothesis in postmortem cortical gray matter extracts from fifty-two AD subjects with and without psychosis. In subjects with psychosis, the β-amyloid1-42/β-amyloid1-40 ratio was increased, due primarily to reduced soluble β-amyloid1-40, and kalirin-7, -9, and -12 were reduced. These findings suggest that increased cortical β-amyloid1-42/β-amyloid1-40 ratio and decreased kalirin expression may both contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis in AD.
β-amyloid; kalirin; psychosis; Alzheimer disease
Mutations in the GBA gene occur in 7% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and are a well-established susceptibility factor for PD, which is characterized by Lewy body disease (LBD) neuropathologic changes (LBDNCs). We sought to determine whether GBA influences risk of dementia with LBDNCs, Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (ADNCs), or both.
We screened the entire GBA coding region for mutations in controls and in subjects with dementia and LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure dementia with Lewy bodies [pDLB]), LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD), and high-level ADNCs but without LBDNCs (AD).
Among white subjects, pathogenic GBA mutations were identified in 6 of 79 pDLB cases (7.6%), 8 of 222 LBD-AD cases (3.6%), 2 of 243 AD cases (0.8%), and 3 of 381 controls (0.8%). Subjects with pDLB and LBD-AD were more likely to carry mutations than controls (pDLB: odds ratio [OR] = 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8–31.9; p = 0.006; LBD-AD: OR = 4.6; CI = 1.2–17.6; p = 0.025), but there was no significant difference in frequencies between the AD and control groups (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.2–6.6; p = 0.92). There was a highly significant trend test across groups (χ2(1) = 19.3; p = 1.1 × 10−5), with the likelihood of carrying a GBA mutation increasing in the following direction: control/AD < LBD-AD < pDLB.
GBA is a susceptibility gene across the LBD spectrum, but not in AD, and appears to convey a higher risk for PD and pDLB than for LBD-AD. PD and pDLB might be more similar to one another in genetic determinants and pathophysiology than either disease is to LBD-AD.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and often has amplification of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene. The value of EGFR as a prognostic marker in GBMs is unclear; some studies have shown an adverse correlation, while others indicated a neutral or even favorable association with longer survival. Furthermore, EGFR-amplified GBMs are usually regarded as a single subgroup of tumors, though the range of EGFR copy number varies greatly. In this study, 532 glioblastomas were analyzed for EGFR amplification via fluorescence in situ hybridization at the time of initial diagnosis. While there was no difference in survival by EGFR amplification (P = 0.33), stratification by amount of EGFR amplification showed that, surprisingly, median survival was 39% longer in the high-amplifier group (EGFR: chromosome 7 ratio > 20) versus non-amplified GBMs (P = 0.03), and 43% longer versus GBMs with low-to-moderate EGFR amplification (EGFR:chromosome 7 ratio = 2-20, P = 0.0007). Stratifying by postsurgical treatment regimens, this difference was seen only when temozolomide (TMZ) was used; tumors without amplification and high EGFR amplification both responded better to TMZ than those with low-to-moderate amplification (P = 0.01), whereas those without adjuvant therapy or adjuvant therapy without TMZ showed no survival differences (P = 0.63 and 0.91, respectively). These results suggest that glioblastomas with EGFR amplification are a heterogeneous group of tumors, and that behavior might differ according to degree of amplification, but not in a straightforward dose-response manner.
EGFR; amplification; temozolomide; glioblastoma
Arachnoid cysts are congenital lesions that contain fluid identical to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They usually do not communicate with CSF spaces. The vast majority of arachnoid cysts are congenital asymptomatic lesions that are discovered incidentally. Those lesions that do become symptomatic typically present in childhood with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits specific to cyst location.
A rare case of a parasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with oculomotor palsy is presented. The patient is a 45-year-old male who presented with acute onset diplopia and frontal headache. Neurologic examination revealed right ptosis, pupillary dilation, and opthalmoparesis consistent with an oculomotor palsy. Computed tomography (CT) scan and lumbar puncture failed to reveal evidence of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated a 1 cm right parasellar nonenhancing mass that was hyperintense on T2 flair and with a fluid-fluid level concerning for a thrombosed posterior communicating artery (PCommA) aneurysm. There was an additional finding of a left occipital pole intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the setting of multiple hereditary cavernomas. Formal cerebral angiography revealed normal intracranial and extracranial vasculature. The patient was taken to the operating room for a right frontotemporal craniotomy, which revealed compression of the right oculomotor nerve by an arachnoid cyst. The cyst was fenestrated and resected with decompression of the oculomotor nerve. Postoperatively, the third nerve palsy had completely resolved.
The above case demonstrates that arachnoid cysts should be considered in the differential for patients presenting with nonpupil sparing third nerve palsy and require timely surgical intervention. As is the case for an expanding PCommA aneurysm, prompt decompression results in the best chance for recovery of oculomotor nerve function.
Arachnoid cyst; cavernoma; oculomotor palsy
BRAF rearrangements and BRAF V600E point mutations are recurring events in pediatric low-grade gliomas. However, their clinical significance, including possible interactions between these markers and other glioma biomarkers, is unclear. In this study a retrospective cohort of 198 pediatric low-grade gliomas (including 40 treated with adjuvant therapy) was analyzed for BRAF rearrangements, BRAF V600E, p16/CDKN2A deletion, p53 expression, and MIB1 proliferation index. In tumors with BRAF rearrangement, homozygous p16 deletion correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .04). A high MIB1 proliferation index trended toward worse response to adjuvant radiotherapy compared to BRAF-rearranged, p16-intact tumors (P = .08). On multivariate analysis, the 2 most consistently powerful independent adverse prognostic markers were midline location (P = .0001) and p16 deletion (P = .03). Tumors with BRAF V600E had a strong trend toward an increased risk for progression (hazard ratio = 2.48, P = .07), whereas those with BRAF rearrangement had a milder trend toward reduced risk (hazard ratio = .54, P = .15). These data suggest that p16 deletion adversely impacts the outcomes of BRAF-driven gliomas, that high proliferation index may be a better marker of progression risk than BRAF, that BRAF rearrangement and BRAF V600E might not necessarily produce comparable outcomes, and that none of these markers is stronger than tumor location in determining prognosis in pediatric low-grade gliomas.
BRAF; MIB1; p16; p53; V600E
Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07.
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a chaperone-like protein that is highly implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD) as well as in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Rare forms of PD occur in individuals with mutations of α-Syn or triplication of wild type α-Syn, and in both PD and DLB the intraneuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies contain aggregated α-Syn that is highly phosphorylated on serine 129. In neuronal cells and in the brains of α-Syn overexpressing transgenic mice, soluble α-Syn stimulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine phosphatase. Serine 129 phosphorylation of α-Syn attenuates its stimulatory effects on PP2A and also accelerates α-Syn aggregation, however, it is unknown if aggregation of α-Syn into Lewy–bodies impairs PP2A activity. To assess for this, we measured the impact of α-Syn aggregation on PP2A activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell free assays, aggregated α-Syn had ~50 % less PP2A-stimulatory-effects than soluble recombinant α-Syn. Similarly in DLB and α-Syn triplication brains, which contain robust α-Syn aggregation with high levels of serine 129 phosphorylation, PP2A activity was also ~50% attenuated. As α-Syn normally stimulates PP2A activity, our data suggest that overexpression of α-Syn or sequestration of α-Syn into Lewy bodies has the potential to alter the phosphorylation state of key PP2A substrates; raising the possibility that all forms of synucleinopathy will benefit from treatments aimed at optimizing PP2A activity.
Synucleinopathy; hyperphosphorylation; dephosphorylation; phosphatase; enzymatic regulation
Up to 60% of the patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can have cortical or brainstem Lewy bodies (LB), and extrapyramidal signs (EPS) have been found to be associated with LB in AD patients. However, the relationship between EPS and brain volumes has not been studied in the LB variant of AD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patterns of brain atrophy and clinical EPS in patients with pathologically confirmed AD. We compared gray matter structure using voxel-based morphometry in 29 Definite AD cases, 16 (55%) of whom also had LBs identified with α-synuclein immunohistochemistry. Multivariate models analyzed brain volume at a voxel level accounting for subject group, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), EPS, total brain volume, and the time from MRI scan to death. There was no significant difference in gray matter volume in the Definite AD patients as a function of LB. There was a significant association between gray matter volumes and the MMSE in AD patients, both with and without LBs. There was a significant correlation between gray matter volume and EPS only in the group of AD patients with LBs, and not in those with pure AD. These findings suggest that that the etiology of EPS in patients with the LB variant of AD is associated with neuronal loss in the nigrostriatal tracts. By contrast, the source of the EPS in AD alone appears to be less well localized.
Alzheimer’s disease; extrapyramidal signs; imaging; Lewy bodies; magnetic resonance imaging; voxel-based morphometry
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11]PiB PET signal.
Alzheimer’s disease; Brain amyloidosis; Pittsburgh Compound B; Plaques; Imaging
1p/19q codeletion is a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendrogliomas. While fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are common methods to test for 1p/19q codeletion, it is unclear which test is better at prognostic stratification. This study analyzed outcomes of 111 oligodendrogliomas with both 1p/19q FISH and LOH done at the time of diagnosis. Overall concordance between the 2 assays was 81.1%. In grade III oligodendrogliomas, LOH was better than FISH at survival stratification (p < 0.0001 for LOH vs. p = 0.02 for FISH), although increasing the stringency of FISH interpretation criteria improved concordance and prognostic power. Oligodendrogliomas that were 1p/19q-codeleted by FISH but also had 10q LOH were negative for 1p/19q codeletion by PCR analysis in over 70% of cases, with very poor survival in the grade III subset. Thus, although PCR-based LOH is a better stratifier of 1p/19q status, FISH still has clinical and prognostic utility, especially if 10q data can be incorporated.
1p/19q; 10q; Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Loss of heterozygosity (LOH); Microsatellite; Oligodendroglioma
Defects in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component expression can have a negative impact on the clinical course of tumors and the response to T-cell-based immunotherapy. Since brain metastases of breast cancer are of increasing clinical significance, the APM component expression levels and CD8+ T-cell infiltration patterns were analyzed in primary breast and metastatic brain lesions of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Comparison of unpaired 50 primary and 33 brain metastases showed lower expression of β2-microgloblin, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) 1, TAP2 and calnexin in the brain lesions. Although no significant differences were found in APM component scores between primary breast and brain lesions in 15 paired cases, primary breast lesions of which patients eventually developed brain metastases showed lower levels of β2-microgloblin, TAP1 and calnexin compared with breast lesions without known brain metastases. The extent of CD8+ T cell infiltration was significantly higher in the lesions without metastasis compared with the ones with brain metastases, and was positively associated with the expression of TAP1 and calnexin. Furthermore, mouse tumor cells stably transfected with silencing hairpin (sh)RNA for TAP1 demonstrated a decreased susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro and enhanced spontaneous brain metastasis in vivo. These data support the functional significance of TAP1 expression in tumor cells. Taken together, our data suggest that patients with low or defective TAP1 or calnexin in primary breast cancers may be at higher risks for developing brain metastasis due to the defects in T cell-based immunosurveillance.
breast cancer; brain metastasis; antigen processing machinery (APM) components; CD8+ T cell; transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)1
Temozolomide (TMZ) is the preferred chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of glioma following surgical resection and/or radiation. Resistance to TMZ is attributed to efficient repair and/or tolerance of TMZ-induced DNA lesions. The majority of the TMZ-induced DNA base adducts are repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway and therefore modulation of this pathway can enhance drug sensitivity. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) initiates BER by removing TMZ-induced N3-methyladenine and N7-methylguanine base lesions, leaving abasic sites (AP sites) in DNA for further processing by BER. Using the human glioma cell lines LN428 and T98G, we report here that potentiation of TMZ via BER inhibition [methoxyamine (MX), the PARP inhibitors PJ34 and ABT-888 or depletion (knockdown) of PARG] is greatly enhanced by over-expression of the BER initiating enzyme MPG. We also show that methoxyamine-induced potentiation of TMZ in MPG expressing glioma cells is abrogated by elevated-expression of the rate-limiting BER enzyme DNA polymerase β (Polβ), suggesting that cells proficient for BER readily repair AP sites in the presence of MX. Further, depletion of Polβ increases PARP inhibitor-induced potentiation in the MPG over-expressing glioma cells, suggesting that expression of Polβ modulates the cytotoxic effect of combining increased repair initiation and BER inhibition. This study demonstrates that MPG overexpression, together with inhibition of BER, sensitizes glioma cells to the alkylating agent TMZ in a Polβ-dependent manner, suggesting that the expression level of both MPG and Polβ might be used to predict the effectiveness of MX and PARP-mediated potentiation of TMZ in cancer treatment.
base excision repair; methoxyamine; N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; temozolomide
To assess the relative frequency of unique mutations and their associated characteristics in 97 individuals with mutations in progranulin (GRN), an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Participants and Design
A 46-site International Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Collaboration was formed to collect cases of FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa (TDP-43)–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). We identified 97 individuals with FTLD-TDP with pathogenic GRN mutations (GRN+ FTLD-TDP), assessed their genetic and clinical characteristics, and compared them with 453 patients with FTLD-TDP in which GRN mutations were excluded (GRN− FTLD-TDP). No patients were known to be related. Neuropathologic characteristics were confirmed as FTLD-TDP in 79 of the 97 GRN+ FTLDTDP cases and all of the GRN− FTLD-TDP cases.
Age at onset of FTLD was younger in patients with GRN+ FTLD-TDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (median, 58.0 vs 61.0 years; P<.001), as was age at death (median, 65.5 vs 69.0 years; P<.001). Concomitant motor neuron disease was much less common in GRN+ FTLDTDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (5.4% vs 26.3%; P<.001). Fifty different GRN mutations were observed, including 2 novel mutations: c.139delG (p.D47TfsX7) and c.378C>A (p.C126X). The 2 most common GRN mutations were c.1477C>T (p.R493X, found in 18 patients, representing 18.6% of GRN cases) and c.26C>A (p.A9D, found in 6 patients, representing 6.2% of cases). Patients with the c.1477C>T mutation shared a haplotype on chromosome 17; clinically, they resembled patients with other GRN mutations. Patients with the c.26C>A mutation appeared to have a younger age at onset of FTLD and at death and more parkinsonian features than those with other GRN mutations.
GRN+ FTLD-TDP differs in key features from GRN− FTLD-TDP.
Epidemiological studies have highlighted associations between the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and reduced glioma risks in humans. Most NSAIDs function as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors that prevent production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Since PGE2 induces expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), we hypothesized that COX-2 blockade would suppress gliomagenesis by inhibiting MDSC development and accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In mouse models of glioma, treatment with the COX-2 inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or celecoxib inhibited systemic PGE2 production and delayed glioma development. ASA treatment also reduced the MDSC-attracting chemokine CCL2 in the TME along with numbers of CD11b+Ly6GhiLy6Clo granulocytic MDSCs in both the bone marrow and TME. In support of this evidence that COX-2 blockade blocked systemic development of MDSCs and their CCL2-mediated accumulation in the TME, there were defects in these processes in glioma-bearing Cox2-deficient and Ccl2-deficient mice. Conversely, these mice or ASA-treated wild-type mice displayed enhanced expression of CXCL10 and infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the TME, consistent with a relief of MDSC-mediated immune suppression. Antibody-mediated depletion of MDSCs delayed glioma growth in association with an increase in CXCL10 and CTLs in the TME, underscoring a critical role for MDSCs in glioma development. Lastly, Cxcl10-deficient mice exhibited reduced CTL infiltration of tumors, establishing that CXCL10 limited this pathway of immune suppression. Taken together, our findings show that the COX-2 pathway promotes gliomagenesis by directly supporting systemic development of MDSC and their accumulation in the TME, where they limit CTL infiltration.