Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins.
Expanded hexanucleotide repeats in C9ORF72 are a common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Repeat expansions have also been detected infrequently in other disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsonian disorders.
To assess the incidence of the expanded C9ORF72 repeat in cases of depressive pseudodementia.
An immunohistochemical screen of autopsied brains collected between 1998 and 2013.
Brain bank at Mayo Clinic Florida, a large tertiary care research institution.
Thirty one neuropathologically normal individuals (no atrophy, neuronal loss, or gliosis beyond what would be expected for age) with an antemortem clinical history or diagnosis of depression and/or dementia.
Main Outcome Measures
Presence of the hexanucleotide repeat was established using immunohistochemistry with a highly disease-specific antibody (C9RANT), and was further validated in carriers using repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting.
Of the 31 cases studied, 2 (6.45%) individuals harbored the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. Both patients were men with refractory depression. One patient experienced drug-induced Parkinsonism and sudden-onset dementia, while the other patient had a more insidious disease course suspected to be Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical and neuropathologic features are described.
Conclusions and Relevance
This report expands the range of clinicopathologic presentations of C9ORF72 expanded hexanucleotide repeat to include psychiatric disorders such as depressive pseudodementia.
adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia; CSF1R; calcification; computed tomography; white matter; differential diagnosis
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) are currently the major genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and motor neuron disease (MND). Presently, it is unknown whether expansion size affects disease severity or phenotypes.
We performed a cross-sectional Southern blot characterization study (Xpansize-72) in a cohort of subjects obtained at the Mayo Clinic and Banner Sun Health Research Institute. All subjects carried GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72, and high quality DNA was available from the frontal cortex, cerebellum and/or blood. Southern blotting techniques and densitometry were employed to estimate the repeat size of the most abundant expansion species. Comparisons of repeat sizes between tissues were made using Wilcoxon rank sum and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and between disease subgroups using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum tests. The association of repeat size with age at onset and age at collection was evaluated using a Spearman’s test of correlation; whereas the association between repeat size and survival after disease onset was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Our cohort consisted of 84 C9ORF72 expansion carriers, including FTD patients (n=35), FTD/MND patients (n=16), MND patients (n=30), and unaffected subjects (n=3). We focused our analysis on three major tissue subgroups: frontal cortex (41 subjects [21 FTD, 11 FTD/MND, 9 MND]), cerebellum (40 subjects [20 FTD, 12 FTD/MND, 8 MND]), and blood (50 subjects [15 FTD, 9 FTD/MND, 23 MND, 3 unaffected expansion carriers]). Repeat lengths in the cerebellum were significantly smaller (median 12·3 kb [~1667 repeat units], IQR 11·1–14·3) than in the frontal cortex (median 33·8 kb [~5250 repeat units], IQR 23·5–44·9, p<0·0001), or in blood (median 18·6 kb [~2717 repeat units], IQR 13·9–28·1, p=0·0002). Within these tissues, there was no significant difference in repeat length between disease subgroups (cerebellum p=0·96, frontal cortex p=0·27, blood p=0·10). In the frontal cortex of FTD patients, repeat length correlated with age at onset (r=0·63, p=0·003) and age at collection (r=0·58, p=0·006); this correlation was not detected in the cerebellum or blood. Finally, only in the cerebellum, survival after disease onset was poorer in patients from our overall cohort with repeat lengths greater than 1467 repeat units (25th percentile, HR 3·27, 95% CI 1·34–7·95, p=0·009): the median survival was 4·8 years (IQR 3·0–7·4) in the group with longer expansions versus 7·4 years (IQR 6·3–10·9) in the group with smaller expansions.
Substantial variation in repeat size is observed between cerebellum, frontal cortex, and blood; relatively long repeat sizes in the cerebellum confer an important survival disadvantage. Our findings indicate that expansion size does affect disease severity, which could be relevant for genetic counseling.
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) are causative for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and motor neuron disease (MND). Substantial phenotypic heterogeneity has been described in patients with these expansions. We set out to identify genetic modifiers of disease risk, age at onset, and survival after onset that may contribute to this clinical variability.
We examined a cohort of 330 C9ORF72 expansion carriers and 374 controls. In these individuals, we assessed variants previously implicated in FTD and/or MND; 36 variants were included in our analysis. After adjustment for multiple testing, our analysis revealed three variants significantly associated with age at onset (rs7018487 [UBAP1; p-value = 0.003], rs6052771 [PRNP; p-value = 0.003], and rs7403881 [MT-Ie; p-value = 0.003]), and six variants significantly associated with survival after onset (rs5848 [GRN; p-value = 0.001], rs7403881 [MT-Ie; p-value = 0.001], rs13268953 [ELP3; p-value = 0.003], the epsilon 4 allele [APOE; p-value = 0.004], rs12608932 [UNC13A; p-value = 0.003], and rs1800435 [ALAD; p-value = 0.003]).
Variants identified through this study were previously reported to be involved in FTD and/or MND, but we are the first to describe their effects as potential disease modifiers in the presence of a clear pathogenic mutation (i.e. C9ORF72 repeat expansion). Although validation of our findings is necessary, these variants highlight the importance of protein degradation, antioxidant defense and RNA-processing pathways, and additionally, they are promising targets for the development of therapeutic strategies and prognostic tests.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1750-1326-9-38) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
C9ORF72; Frontotemporal dementia; Motor neuron disease; Genetic modifier; Repeat expansion
Mutations in profilin-1 (PFN1) have recently been
identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because of
the considerable overlap between ALS and the common subtype of
frontotemporal dementia, which is characterized by transactive response
DNA-binding protein 43 pathology (FTLD-TDP), we tested cohorts of ALS and
FTLD-TDP patients for PFN1 mutations.
DNA was obtained from 342 ALS patients and 141 FTLD-TDP patients at
our outpatient clinic and brain bank for neurodegenerative diseases at the
Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, USA. We screened these patients for
mutations in coding regions of PFN1 by Sanger sequencing.
Subsequently, we used TaqMan genotyping assays to investigate the identified
variant in 1167 control subjects.
One variant, p.E117G, was detected in 1 ALS patient, 1 FTLD-TDP
patient, and 2 control subjects. The mutation frequency of patients versus
control subjects was not significantly different (p-value
= 0.36). Moreover, PFN1 and TDP-43 staining of autopsy material did
not differ between patients with or without this variant.
The p.E117G variant appears to represent a benign polymorphism.
PFN1 mutations, in general, are rare in ALS and
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; frontotemporal dementia; profilin-1; TDP-43; genetics
The conformational preferences of polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences are of major interest because of their central importance in the expanded CAG repeat diseases that include Huntington’s disease (HD). Here we explore the response of various biophysical parameters to the introduction of β-hairpin motifs within polyQ sequences. These motifs (trpzip, disulfide, D-Pro-Gly, Coulombic attraction, L-Pro-Gly) enhance formation rates and stabilities of amyloid fibrils with degrees of effectiveness well-correlated with their known abilities to enhance β-hairpin formation in other peptides. These changes led to decreases in the critical nucleus for amyloid formation from a value of n* = 4 for a simple, unbroken Q23 sequence to approximate unitary n* values for similar length polyQs containing β-hairpin motifs. At the same time, the morphologies, secondary structures, and bioactivities of the resulting fibrils were essentially unchanged from simple polyQ aggregates. In particular, the signature pattern of SSNMR 13C Gln resonances that appears to be unique to polyQ amyloid is replicated exactly in fibrils from a β-hairpin polyQ. Importantly, while β-hairpin motifs do produce enhancements in the equilibrium constant for nucleation in aggregation reactions, these Kn* values remain quite low (~ 10−10) and there is no evidence for significant embellishment of β-structure within the monomer ensemble. The results indicate an important role for β-turns in the nucleation mechanism and structure of polyQ amyloid and have implications for the nature of the toxic species in expanded CAG repeat diseases.
In this prospective cohort study, we investigated cerebral glucose metabolism reductions on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in progranulin (GRN) mutation carriers prior to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) onset.
Nine mutation carriers (age 51.5 ± 13.5 years) and 11 noncarriers (age 52.7 ± 9.5 years) from 5 families with FTD due to GRN mutations underwent brain scanning with FDG-PET and MRI and clinical evaluation. Normalized FDG uptake values were calculated with reference to the pons. PET images were analyzed with regions of interest (ROI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approaches.
Compared with noncarriers, GRN mutation carriers had a lowered anterior-to-posterior (AP) ratio of FDG uptake (0.86 ± 0.09 vs 0.92 ± 0.05) and less left-right asymmetry, consistent with an overall pattern of right anterior cerebral hypometabolism. This pattern was observed regardless of whether they were deemed clinically symptomatic no dementia or asymptomatic. Individual ROIs with lowered FDG uptake included right anterior cingulate, insula, and gyrus rectus. SPM analysis supported and extended these findings, demonstrating abnormalities in the right and left medial frontal regions, right insular cortex, right precentral and middle frontal gyri, and right cerebellum. Right AP ratio was correlated with cognitive and clinical scores (modified Mini-Mental State Examination r = 0.74; Functional Rating Scale r = −0.73) but not age and years to estimated onset in mutation carriers.
The frontotemporal lobar degenerative process associated with GRN mutations appears to begin many years prior to the average age at FTD onset (late 50s–early 60s). Right medial and ventral frontal cortex and insula may be affected in this process but the specific regional patterns associated with specific clinical variants remain to be elucidated.
To identify potential genetic modifiers contributing to the phenotypic variability that is detected in patients with repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), we investigated the frequency of these expansions in a cohort of 334 subjects previously found to carry mutations in genes known to be associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases.
A 2-step protocol, with a fluorescent PCR and a repeat-primed PCR, was used to determine the presence of hexanucleotide expansions in C9ORF72. For one double mutant, we performed Southern blots to assess expansion sizes, and immunohistochemistry to characterize neuropathology.
We detected C9ORF72 repeat expansions in 4 of 334 subjects (1.2% [or 1.8% of 217 families]). All these subjects had behavioral phenotypes and also harbored well-known pathogenic mutations in either progranulin (GRN: p.C466LfsX46, p.R493X, p.C31LfsX35) or microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT: p.P301L). Southern blotting of one double mutant with a p.C466LfsX46 GRN mutation demonstrated a long repeat expansion in brain (>3,000 repeats), and immunohistochemistry showed mixed neuropathology with characteristics of both C9ORF72 expansions and GRN mutations.
Our findings indicate that co-occurrence of 2 evidently pathogenic mutations could contribute to the pleiotropy that is detected in patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. These findings suggest that patients with known mutations should not be excluded from further studies, and that genetic counselors should be aware of this phenomenon when advising patients and their family members.
The past few decades have seen tremendous advances in single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). The field has matured to the point that near-atomic resolution density maps can be generated for icosahedral viruses without the need for crystallization. In parallel, substantial progress has been made in determining the structures of non-icosahedrally arranged proteins in viruses by employing either single particle cryo-EM or cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). Implicit in this course has been the availability of a new generation of electron cryo-microscopes and the development of the computational tools that are essential for generating these maps and models. This methodology has enabled structural biologists to analyze structures in increasing detail for virus particles that are in different morphogenetic and biochemical states. Furthermore, electron imaging of frozen, hydrated cells, in the process of being infected by viruses, has also opened up a new avenue for studying virus structures “in situ”. Here we present the common techniques used to acquire and process cryo-EM and cryo-ET data and discuss their implications for structural virology both now and in the future.
Microscopy; Cryo-EM; Cryo-ET; Subnanometer Resolution; Near-Atomic Resolution; Modeling; Virus Structure
An expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). In addition to TDP-43-positive neuronal and glial inclusions, C9ORF72-linked FTLD-TDP has characteristic TDP-43-negative neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions as well as dystrophic neurites in the hippocampus and cerebellum. These lesions are immunopositive for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins, such as sequestosome-1/p62 and ubiquilin-2. Studies examining the frequency of the C9ORF72 mutation in clinically probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have found a small proportion of AD cases with the mutation. This prompted us to systematically explore the frequency of Alzheimer type pathology in a series of 17 FTLD-TDP cases with mutations in C9ORF72 (FTLD-C9ORF72). We identified 4 cases with sufficient Alzheimer type pathology to meet criteria for intermediate-to-high likelihood AD. We compared AD pathology in the 17 FTLD-C9ORF72 to 13 cases of FTLD-TDP linked to mutations in the gene for progranulin (FTLD-GRN) and 36 cases of sporadic FTLD (sFTLD). FTLD-C9ORF72 cases had higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage than FTLD-GRN. Increased tau pathology in FTLD-C9ORF72 was assessed with thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy-based neurofibrillary tangle counts and with image analysis of tau burden in temporal cortex and hippocampus. FTLD-C9ORF72 had significantly more neurofibrillary tangles and higher tau burden compared with FTLD-GRN. The differences were most marked in limbic regions. On the other hand, sFTLD and FTLD-C9ORF72 had a similar burden of tau pathology. These results suggest FTLD-C9ORF72 has increased propensity for tau pathology compared to FTLD-GRN, but not sFTLD. The accumulation of tau as well as lesions immunoreactive for ubiquitin and ubiquitin binding proteins (p62 and ubiquilin-2) suggests that mutations in C9ORF72 may involve disrupted protein degradation that favors accumulation of multiple different proteins.
frontotemporal lobar degeneration; C9ORF72; ubiquitin; p62; ubiquilin-2; tau
We describe a method based on Rosetta structure refinement for generating high-resolution all-atom protein models from electron cryo-microscopy density maps. A local measure of the fit of a model to the density is used to directly guide structure refinement and to identify regions incompatible with the density that are then targeted for extensive rebuilding. Over a range of test cases using both simulated and experimentally generated data, the method consistently increases the accuracy of starting models generated either by comparative modeling or by hand-tracing the density. The method can achieve near atomic resolution starting from density maps at 4-6Å resolution.
The complex interplay of proteins and other molecules, often in the form of large transitory assemblies, are critical to cellular function. Today, X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) are routinely used to image these macromolecular complexes, though often at limited resolutions. Despite the rapidly growing number of macromolecular structures, few tools exist for modeling and annotating structures in the range of 3-10Å resolution. To address this need, we have developed a number of utilities specifically targeting subnanometer resolution density maps. As part of the 2010 Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge, we demonstrated two of our latest de novo modeling tools, Pathwalking and Gorgon, as well as a tool for secondary structure identification (SSEHunter) and a new rigid-body/flexible fitting tool in Gorgon. In total, we submitted 30 structural models from ten different subnanometer resolution data sets in four of the six challenge categories. Each of our utlities produced accurate structural models and annotations across the various density maps. In the end, the utilities that we present here offer users a robust toolkit for analyzing and modeling protein structure in macromolecular assemblies at non-atomic resolutions.
Individuals carrying (GGGGCC) expanded repeats in the C9orf72 gene represent a significant portion of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Elucidating how these expanded repeats cause “c9FTD/ALS” has since become an important goal of the field. Toward this end, we sought to investigate whether epigenetic changes are responsible for the decrease in C9orf72 expression levels observed in c9FTD/ALS patients. We obtained brain tissue from ten c9FTD/ALS individuals, nine FTD/ALS cases without a C9orf72 repeat expansion, and nine disease control participants, and generated fibroblastoid cell lines from seven C9orf72 expanded repeat carriers and seven participants carrying normal alleles. Chromatin immunoprecipitation using antibodies for histone H3 and H4 trimethylated at lysines 9 (H3K9), 27 (H3K27), 79 (H3K79), and 20 (H4K20) revealed that these trimethylated residues bind strongly to C9orf72 expanded repeats in brain tissue, but not to non-pathogenic repeats. Our finding that C9orf72 mRNA levels are reduced in the frontal cortices and cerebella of c9FTD/ALS patients is consistent with trimethylation of these histone residues, an event known to repress gene expression. Moreover, treating repeat carrier-derived fibroblasts with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, a DNA and histone demethylating agent, not only decreased C9orf72 binding to trimethylated histone residues, but also increased C9orf72 mRNA expression. Our results provide compelling evidence that trimethylation of lysine residues within histones H3 and H4 is a novel mechanism involved in reducing C9orf72 mRNA expression in expanded repeat carriers. Of importance, we show that mutant C9orf72 binding to trimethylated H3K9 and H3K27 is detectable in blood of c9FTD/ALS patients. Confirming these exciting results using blood from a larger cohort of patients may establish this novel epigenetic event as a biomarker for c9FTD/ALS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1199-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Frontotemporal dementia; C9orf72; Epigenetic modification; Repeat expansion; Histone methylation
Describe the clinical features of a Brazilian
C9orf72 frontotemporal dementia – amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) kindred, and compare them to other reported
C9orf72 families and FTD-ALS causing mutations.
Report of a kindred.
Dementia center at an University hospital.
One kindred encompassing 3 generations.
The presence of a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) expansion in
C9orf72 was confirmed by repeat-primed PCR and Southern
blot. The observed phenotypes were behavioral variant FTD and ALS with
dementia, with significant variability in age of onset and duration of
disease. Parkinsonian features with focal dystonia, visual hallucinations
and more posterior atrophy on neuroimaging than is typical for FTD were
bvFTD due to C9orf72 expansions displays some
phenotypic heterogeneity, and may be associated with hallucinations,
parkinsonism, focal dystonia, and posterior brain atrophy. Personality
changes may precede by many years the diagnosis of dementia and may be a
distinguishing feature of this mutation.
Random mutagenesis combined with phenotypic screening using carefully crafted functional tests has successfully led to the discovery of genes that are essential for a number of functions. This approach does not require prior knowledge of the identity of the genes that are involved and is a way to ascribe function to the nearly 6000 genes for which knowledge of the DNA sequence has been inadequate to determine the function of the gene product. In an effort to identify genes involved in the visual system via this approach, we have tested over 9000 first and third generation offspring of mice treated with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for visual defects, as evidenced by abnormalities in the electroretinogram and appearance of the fundus. We identified 61 putative mutations with this procedure and outline the steps needed to identify the affected genes.
Mutagenesis; Forward genetics; Screening for visual function; Electroretinogram; Visual function in mouse; Mouse; Ethynitrosourea; ENU; a-wave; b-wave; c-wave; STR; Functional test for vision
Exploitation of fisheries resources has unintended consequences, not only in the bycatch and discard of non-target organisms, but also in damage to targeted fish that are injured by gear but not landed (non-retention). Delayed mortality due to non-retention represents lost reproductive potential in exploited stocks, while not contributing to harvest. Our study examined the physiological mechanisms by which delayed mortality occurs and the extent to which injuries related to disentanglement from commercial gear compromise reproductive success in spawning stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We found evidence for elevated stress in fish injured via non-retention in gillnet fisheries. Plasma cortisol levels correlated with the severity of disentanglement injury and were elevated in fish that developed infections related to disentanglement injuries. We also analyzed sex steroid concentrations in females (estradiol-17β and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) to determine whether non-retention impairs reproductive potential in escaped individuals. We demonstrate evidence for delayed or inhibited maturation in fish with disentanglement injuries. These findings have important implications for effective conservation and management of exploited fish stocks and suggest means to improve spawning success in such stocks if retention in commercial fisheries is improved and incidental mortality reduced.
Targeted T cells are emerging as effective non-toxic therapies for cancer. Multiple elements, however, contribute to the overall pathogenesis of cancer through both distinct and redundant mechanisms. Hence, targeting multiple cancer-specific markers simultaneously could result in better therapeutic efficacy. We created a functional chimeric antigen receptor—the TanCAR, a novel artificial molecule that mediates bispecific activation and targeting of T cells. We demonstrate the feasibility of cumulative integration of structure and docking simulation data using computational tools to interrogate the design and predict the functionality of such a complex bispecific molecule. Our prototype TanCAR induced distinct T cell reactivity against each of two tumor restricted antigens, and produced synergistic enhancement of effector functions when both antigens were simultaneously encountered. Furthermore, the TanCAR preserved the cytolytic ability of T cells upon loss of one of the target molecules and better controlled established experimental tumors by recognition of both targets in an animal disease model. This proof-of-concept approach can be used to increase the specificity of effector cells for malignant versus normal target cells, to offset antigen escape or to allow for targeting the tumor and its microenvironment.
bispecific chimeric antigen receptor; CAR; cancer immunotherapy; molecular modeling; T-cell therapy
A significant number of macromolecular structures solved by electron cryo-microscopy and X-ray crystallography obtain resolutions of 3.5–6Å, at which direct atomistic interpretation is difficult. To address this, we developed pathwalking, a semi-automated protocol to enumerate reasonable Cα models from near-atomic resolution density maps without a structural template or sequence-structure correspondence. Pathwalking uses a novel approach derived from the Traveling Salesman Problem to rapidly generate an ensemble of initial models for individual proteins, which can later be optimized to produce full atomic models. Pathwalking can also be used to validate and identify potential structural ambiguities in models generated from near-atomic resolution density maps. In this work, examples from the EMDB and PDB are used to assess the broad applicability and accuracy of our method. With the growing number of near-atomic resolution density maps from cryo-EM and X-ray crystallography, pathwalking can become an important tool in modeling protein structures.
Subunit “a” is associated with the membrane-bound (VO) complex of eukaryotic vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) acidification machinery. It has also been shown recently to be involved in diverse membrane fusion/secretory functions independent of acidification. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal cytosolic domain from the Meiothermus ruber subunit “I” homolog of subunit a. The structure is composed of a curved long central α-helix bundle capped on both ends by two lobes with similar α/β architecture. Based on the structure, a reasonable model of its eukaryotic subunit a counterpart was obtained. The crystal structure and model fit well into reconstruction densities from electron microscopy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic V-ATPases, respectively, clarifying their orientations and interactions and revealing features that could enable subunit a to play a role in membrane fusion/secretion.
A/V-type ATPase; EM fit; membrane fusion/secretion; protein structure; proton pumping
Medical devices increasingly depend on computing functions such as wireless communication and Internet connectivity for software-based control of therapies and network-based transmission of patients’ stored medical information. These computing capabilities introduce security and privacy risks, yet little is known about the prevalence of such risks within the clinical setting.
We used three comprehensive, publicly available databases maintained by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate recalls and adverse events related to security and privacy risks of medical devices.
Review of weekly enforcement reports identified 1,845 recalls; 605 (32.8%) of these included computers, 35 (1.9%) stored patient data, and 31 (1.7%) were capable of wireless communication. Searches of databases specific to recalls and adverse events identified only one event with a specific connection to security or privacy. Software-related recalls were relatively common, and most (81.8%) mentioned the possibility of upgrades, though only half of these provided specific instructions for the update mechanism.
Our review of recalls and adverse events from federal government databases reveals sharp inconsistencies with databases at individual providers with respect to security and privacy risks. Recalls related to software may increase security risks because of unprotected update and correction mechanisms. To detect signals of security and privacy problems that adversely affect public health, federal postmarket surveillance strategies should rethink how to effectively and efficiently collect data on security and privacy problems in devices that increasingly depend on computing systems susceptible to malware.
Background: Aggregated biotherapeutics have the potential to induce an immune response.
Results: Aggregates can enhance innate and adaptive immune responses of PBMC.
Conclusion: The response depends on aggregate type, immunogenicity of the monomer, donor immune status, and high particle numbers in the in vitro assay.
Significance: This is the first study showing the impact of aggregate characteristics on the potential immune response of PBMC.
Aggregation of biotherapeutics has the potential to induce an immunogenic response. Here, we show that aggregated therapeutic antibodies, previously generated and determined to contain a variety of attributes (Joubert, M. K., Luo, Q., Nashed-Samuel, Y., Wypych, J., and Narhi, L. O. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 25118–25133), can enhance the in vitro innate immune response of a population of naive human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This response depended on the aggregate type, inherent immunogenicity of the monomer, and donor responsiveness, and required a high number of particles, well above that detected in marketed drug products, at least in this in vitro system. We propose a cytokine signature as a potential biomarker of the in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to aggregates. The cytokines include IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MMP-2, and TNF-α. IL-6 and IL-10 might have an immunosuppressive effect on the long term immune response. Aggregates made by stirring induced the highest response compared with aggregates made by other methods. Particle size in the 2–10 μm range and the retention of some folded structure were associated with an increased response. The mechanism of aggregate activation at the innate phase was found to occur through specific cell surface receptors (the toll-like receptors TLR-2 and TLR-4, FcγRs, and the complement system). The innate signal was shown to progress to an adaptive T-cell response characterized by T-cell proliferation and secretion of T-cell cytokines. Investigating the ability of aggregates to induce cytokine signatures as biomarkers of immune responses is essential for determining their risk of immunogenicity.
Aggregation; Antibodies; Biomarkers; Cytokine Induction; Innate Immunity; PBMC; Biotherapeutics; Immunogenicity; Particle Numbers; Secondary Structure
Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. Typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. With recent advances in cryo-EM, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies from which models have been manually constructed. In this work, we describe a new interactive modeling toolkit called Gorgon targeted at intermediate to near-atomic resolution density maps (10-3.5 Å), particularly from cryo-EM. Gorgon's de novo modeling procedure couples sequence-based secondary structure prediction with feature detection and geometric modeling techniques to generate initial protein backbone models. Beyond model building, Gorgon is an extensible interactive visualization platform with a variety of computational tools for annotating a wide variety of 3D volumes. Examples from cryo-EM maps of Rotavirus and Rice Dwarf Virus are used to demonstrate its applicability to modeling protein structure.
cryo-EM; Gorgon; modeling; protein structure; near-atomic resolution
Human land cover can degrade estuaries directly through habitat loss and fragmentation or indirectly through nutrient inputs that reduce water quality. Strong precipitation events are occurring more frequently, causing greater hydrological connectivity between watersheds and estuaries. Nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion that occur following these events are known to limit populations of benthic macroinvertebrates and commercially harvested species, but the consequences for top consumers such as birds remain largely unknown. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to understand how land cover and annual variation in rainfall interact to shape waterbird community composition in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The MDS ordination indicated that urban subestuaries shifted from a mixed generalist-specialist community in 2002, a year of severe drought, to generalist-dominated community in 2003, of year of high rainfall. The SEM revealed that this change was concurrent with a sixfold increase in nitrate-N concentration in subestuaries. In the drought year of 2002, waterbird community composition depended only on the direct effect of urban development in watersheds. In the wet year of 2003, community composition depended both on this direct effect and on indirect effects associated with high nitrate-N inputs to northern parts of the Bay, particularly in urban subestuaries. Our findings suggest that increased runoff during periods of high rainfall can depress water quality enough to alter the composition of estuarine waterbird communities, and that this effect is compounded in subestuaries dominated by urban development. Estuarine restoration programs often chart progress by monitoring stressors and indicators, but rarely assess multivariate relationships among them. Estuarine management planning could be improved by tracking the structure of relationships among land cover, water quality, and waterbirds. Unraveling these complex relationships may help managers identify and mitigate ecological thresholds that occur with increasing human land cover.
To report the clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiologic findings in a kindred with a novel insertion in the prion protein gene (PRNP).
Clinical description of a kindred.
Mayo Clinic Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (Rochester).
Two pathologically-confirmed cases and their relatives.
Main outcome measures
Clinical features, electroencephalographic patterns, magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, genetic analyses and neuropathological features.
The proband presented with clinical and neuroimaging features of atypical frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and ataxia. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed later in her course, and electroencephalography revealed spike and wave discharges but no periodic sharp wave complexes. Her affected sister and father also exhibited FTD-like features, and both experienced generalized tonic-clonic seizures and gait ataxia late in their course. Genetic analyses in the proband identified a novel defect in PRNP with one mutated allele carrying a 288 base pair insertion (BPI) consisting of 12 octapeptide repeats. Neuropathologic examination of the sister and proband revealed PrP-positive plaques and widespread tau-positive tangles.
This kindred has a unique combination of clinical and neuropathologic features associated with the largest BPI identified to date in PRNP, and underscores the need to consider familial prion disease in the differential diagnosis of a familial FTD-like syndrome.
frontotemporal dementia; FTD; nonfluent aphasia; Gerstmann–Straüssler–Scheinker syndrome (GSS); Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); prion; PRNP