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1.  Jet lag syndrome: circadian organization, pathophysiology, and management strategies 
Nature and Science of Sleep  2010;2:187-198.
The circadian system regulates the cyclical occurrence of wakefulness and sleep through a series of oscillatory networks that comprise two different theoretical processes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus contains the master oscillatory network necessary for coordinating these daily rhythms, and in addition to its ability to robustly generate rhythms, it can also synchronize to environmental light cues. During jet lag, abrupt shifts in the environmental light–dark cycle temporarily desynchronize the SCN and downstream oscillatory networks from each other, resulting in increased sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. Polysomnographic data show that not only does jet lag result in changes of sleep–wake timing, but also in different aspects of sleep architecture. This type of circadian misalignment can further lead to a cluster of symptoms including major metabolic, cardiovascular, psychiatric, and neurological impairments. There are a number of treatment options for jet lag involving bright light exposure, melatonin, and use of hypnotics, but their efficacy greatly depends on their time of use, the length of time in the new time zone, and the specific circadian disturbance involved. The aim of this review is to provide mechanistic links between the fields of sleep and circadian rhythms to understand the biological basis of jet lag and to apply this information to clinical management strategies.
doi:10.2147/NSS.S6683
PMCID: PMC3630947  PMID: 23616709
circadian rhythms; sleep; sleep disturbances; jet lag
2.  Sleep Disturbance in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Analysis 
Background/Aims
Evidence suggests that patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may have more nocturnal sleep disturbance than patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to confirm such observations using a large, prospectively collected, standardized, multicenter-derived database, i.e. the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set.
Methods
Nocturnal sleep disturbance (NSD) data, as characterized by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), were derived from 4,531 patients collected between September 2005 and November 2008 from 32 National Institute on Aging participating AD centers. Patient and informant characteristics were compared between those with and without NSD by dementia diagnosis (DLB and probable AD). Finally, a logistic regression model was created to quantify the association between NSD status and diagnosis while adjusting for these patient/informant characteristics, as well as center.
Results
NSD was more frequent in clinically diagnosed DLB relative to clinically diagnosed AD (odds ratio = 2.93, 95% confidence interval = 2.22–3.86). These results were independent from the gender of the patient or informant, whether the informant lived with the patient, and other patient characteristics, such as dementia severity, depressive symptoms, and NPI-Q-derived measures of hallucinations, delusions, agitation and apathy. In AD, but not DLB, patients, NSD was associated with more advanced disease. Comorbidity of NSD with hallucinations, agitation and apathy was higher in DLB than in AD. There was also evidence that the percentage of DLB cases with NSD showed wide variation across centers.
Conclusion
As defined by the NPI-Q, endorsement of the nocturnal behavior item by informants is more likely in patients with DLB when compared to AD, even after the adjustment of key patient/informant characteristics.
doi:10.1159/000326238
PMCID: PMC3085031  PMID: 21474933
Dementia with Lewy bodies; Alzheimer's disease; Sleep; Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire
3.  Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population 
Objective:
This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist).
Methods:
This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years) with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006). Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.
Results:
Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR]), short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR), or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR) had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all). A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.
doi:10.2147/DHPS.S14955
PMCID: PMC3108703  PMID: 21701634
insomnia; accidental events; benzodiazepine receptor agonist; melatonin receptor agonist; older adults

Results 1-3 (3)