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1.  Does APOE Explain the Linkage of Alzheimer’s Disease to Chromosome 19q13? 
We have studied the impact of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) on the chromosome 19 linkage peak from an analysis of sib-pairs affected by Alzheimer’s disease. We genotyped 417 affected sib-pairs (ASPs) collected in Sweden and Norway (SWE), the UK and the USA for 10 microsatellite markers on chromosome 19. The highest Zlr (3.28, chromosome-wide P-value 0.036) from the multipoint linkage analysis was located approximately 1 Mb from APOE, at marker D19S178. The linkage to chromosome 19 was well explained by APOE in the whole sample as well as in the UK and USA subsamples, as identity by descent (IBD) increased with the number of ε4 alleles in ASPs. There was a suggestion from the SWE subsample that linkage was higher than would be expected from APOE alone, although the test for this did not reach formal statistical significance. There was also a significant age at onset (aao) effect on linkage to chromosome 19q13 in the whole sample, which manifested itself as increased IBD sharing in relative pairs with lower mean aao. This effect was partially, although not completely, explained by APOE. The aao effect varied considerably between the different subsamples, with most of the effect coming from the UK sample. The other samples showed smaller effects in the same direction, but these were not significant.
PMCID: PMC2726752  PMID: 18161859
Alzheimer’s disease; APOE; linkage; age at onset; apolipoprotein E
2.  IL1RN VNTR Polymorphism in Ischemic Stroke 
Background and Purpose
Genetic factors influence risk for ischemic stroke and likely do so at multiple steps in the pathogenic process. Variants in genes related to inflammation contribute to risk of stroke. The purpose of this study was to confirm our earlier finding of an association between allele 2 of a variable number tandem repeat of the IL-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) and cerebrovascular disease.
An association study of the variable number tandem repeat genotype with ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes was performed on samples from a North American study of affected sibling pairs concordant for ischemic stroke and 2 North American cohorts of prospectively ascertained ischemic stroke cases and unrelated controls. DNA analysis was performed on cases and controls, stratified by race.
After adjustment for age, sex, and stroke risk factors, the odds ratio for association of allele 2 and ischemic stroke was 2.80 (95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 6.11; P=0.03) for the white participants. The effect of allele 2 of IL1RN on stroke risk most closely fits a recessive genetic model (P=0.009). For the smaller sample of nonwhite participants, the results were not significant.
Allele 2 of IL1RN, present in nearly one-quarter of stroke patients, may contribute to genetic risk for ischemic stroke and confirm the previously identified association with cerebrovascular disease. These results are driven by the association in the white participants. Further exploration in a larger nonwhite sample is warranted.
PMCID: PMC2629799  PMID: 17332449
atherosclerosis; genetics; IL-1 receptor antagonist; ischemia; stroke
3.  Linkage and Association Analyses of Type 2 Diabetes/Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Adiponectin Serum Levels in Japanese Americans From Hawaii 
Diabetes  2007;56(2):537-540.
Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder associated with obesity. Lower plasma levels of adiponectin were associated with type 2 diabetes. Candidate regions on chromosomes 1 (~70 cM) and 14 (~30 cM) were evaluated for replication of suggestive linkage results for type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose homeostasis in an independent sample of Japanese Americans. Replication of independent linkage evidence for serum levels of adiponectin on chromosome 14 was also evaluated. We investigated 529 subjects from 175 sibships who were originally part of the Honolulu Heart Program. Analyses included nonparametric linkage and association using SAGE (Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology) and FBAT (family-based test of association) programs and Monte Carlo simulation of Fisher’s exact test in SAS. For type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose metabolism, nominal linkage evidence (P < 0.02) followed-up by genotypic association (P = 0.016) was found with marker D14S297 at 31.8 cM; linkage analyses using only diabetes phenotype were also nominally significant at this marker (P < 0.02). Nominal evidence for genotypic association to adiponectin serum level phenotype (P = 0.04) was found with the marker D14S1032 at 23.2 cM. The present study was limited by relatively small sample size. Nevertheless, these results corroborate earlier studies, suggesting that further research is warranted in the candidate region ~30 cM on chromosome 14.
PMCID: PMC2435496  PMID: 17259404

Results 1-3 (3)