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1.  Essential Role for the C5a Receptor in Regulating the Effector Phase of Synovial Infiltration and Joint Destruction in Experimental Arthritis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2002;196(11):1461-1471.
A characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis is the abundance of inflammatory cells in the diseased joint. Two major components of this infiltrate are neutrophils in the synovial fluid and macrophages in the synovial tissue. These cells produce cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α and other proinflammatory mediators that likely drive the disease through its effector phases. To investigate what mechanisms underlie the recruitment of these cells into the synovial fluid and tissue, we performed expression analyses of chemoattractant receptors in a related family that includes the anaphylatoxin receptors and the formyl-MetLeuPhe receptor. We then examined the effect of targeted disruption of two abundantly expressed chemoattractant receptors, the receptors for C3a and C5a, on arthritogenesis in a mouse model of disease. We report that genetic ablation of C5a receptor expression completely protects mice from arthritis.
PMCID: PMC2194257  PMID: 12461081
arthritis; C5a receptors; granulocytes; chemoattractants; monocytes
2.  Modulation of LIGHT-HVEM Costimulation Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival 
LIGHT (TNFSF14), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member expressed by activated T cells, binds to herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which is constitutively expressed by T cells and costimulates T cell activation in a CD28-independent manner. Given interest in regulating the effector functions of T cells in vivo, we examined the role of LIGHT-HVEM costimulation in a murine cardiac allograft rejection model. Normal hearts lacked LIGHT or HVEM mRNA expression, but allografts showed strong expression of both genes from day 3 after transplant, and in situ hybridization and immunohistology-localized LIGHT and HVEM to infiltrating leukocytes. To test the importance of LIGHT expression on allograft survival, we generated LIGHT−/− mice by homologous recombination. The mean survival of fully major histocompatibility complex–mismatched vascularized cardiac allografts in LIGHT−/− mice (10 days, P < 0.05) or cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated LIGHT+/+ mice (10 days, P < 0.05) was only slightly prolonged compared with LIGHT+/+ mice (7 days). However, mean allograft survival in CsA-treated LIGHT−/− allograft recipients (30 days) was considerably enhanced (P < 0.001) compared with the 10 days of mean survival in either untreated LIGHT−/− mice or CsA-treated LIGHT+/+ controls. Molecular analyzes showed that the beneficial effects of targeting of LIGHT in CsA-treated recipients were accompanied by decreased intragraft expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, plus IFN-γ–induced chemokine, inducible protein-10, and its receptor, CXCR3. Treatment of LIGHT+/+ allograft recipients with HVEM-Ig plus CsA also enhanced mean allograft survival (21 days) versus wild-type controls receiving HVEM-Ig (mean of 7 days) or CsA alone (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that T cell to T cell–mediated LIGHT/HVEM-dependent costimulation is a significant component of the host response leading to cardiac allograft rejection.
PMCID: PMC2193745  PMID: 11901205
transplantation; allograft rejection; T cell activation; costimulation; TNF superfamily
3.  Inhibition of T1/St2 during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Prevents T Helper Cell Type 2 (Th2)- but Not Th1-Driven Immunopathology 
T cells secreting interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (T helper cell type 2 [Th2] cells) play a detrimental role in a variety of diseases, but specific methods of regulating their activity remain elusive. T1/ST2 is a surface ligand of the IL-1 receptor family, expressed on Th2- but not on interferon (IFN)-γ–producing Th1 cells. Prior exposure of BALB/c mice to the attachment (G) or fusion (F) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) increases illness severity during intranasal RSV challenge, due to Th2-driven lung eosinophilia and exuberant Th1-driven pulmonary infiltration, respectively. We used these polar models of viral illness to study the recruitment of T1/ST2 cells to the lung and to test the effects of anti-T1/ST2 treatment in vivo. T1/ST2 was present on a subset of CD4+ cells from mice with eosinophilic lung disease. Monoclonal anti-T1/ST2 treatment reduced lung inflammation and the severity of illness in mice with Th2 (but not Th1) immunopathology. These results show that inhibition of T1/ST2 has a specific effect on virally induced Th2 responses and suggests that therapy targeted at this receptor might be of value in treating Th2-driven illness.
PMCID: PMC2193366  PMID: 11283151
bronchiolitis, viral; immunity, mucosal; immunity, cellular; pulmonary infection; eosinophil
4.  Inducible Costimulator Protein (Icos) Controls T Helper Cell Subset Polarization after Virus and Parasite Infection 
It has been shown that certain pathogens can trigger efficient T cell responses in the absence of CD28, a key costimulatory receptor expressed on resting T cells. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Here, we show that in the absence of CD28 both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses were impaired but not abrogated after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Inhibition of ICOS in CD28-deficient mice further reduced Th1/Th2 polarization. Blocking of ICOS alone had a limited but significant capacity to downregulate Th subset development. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which are regulated to a minor and major extent by CD28 after LCMV and VSV infection, respectively, remained unaffected by blocking ICOS. Together, our results demonstrate that ICOS regulates both CD28-dependent and CD28-independent CD4+ subset (Th1 and Th2) responses but not CTL responses in vivo.
PMCID: PMC1887704  PMID: 10880526
ICOS; CD28; Th1/Th2; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; LCMV
5.  A major role for VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, in early atherosclerosis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;107(10):1255-1262.
VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are endothelial adhesion molecules of the Ig gene superfamily that may participate in atherogenesis by promoting monocyte accumulation in the arterial intima. Both are expressed in regions predisposed to atherosclerosis and at the periphery of established lesions, while ICAM-1 is also expressed more broadly. To evaluate functions of VCAM-1 in chronic disease, we disrupted its fourth Ig domain, producing the murine Vcam1D4D allele. VCAM-1D4D mRNA and protein were reduced to 2–8% of wild-type allele (Vcam1+) levels but were sufficient to partially rescue the lethal phenotype of VCAM-1–null embryos. After crossing into the LDL receptor–null background, Vcam1+/+ and Vcam1D4D/D4D paired littermates were generated from heterozygous intercrosses and fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 weeks. The area of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta, quantified by en face oil red O staining, was reduced significantly in Vcam1D4D/D4D mice, although cholesterol levels, lipoprotein profiles, and numbers of circulating leukocytes were comparable to wild-type. In contrast, deficiency of ICAM-1 either alone or in combination with VCAM-1 deficiency did not alter nascent lesion formation. Therefore, although expression of both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions, our data indicate that VCAM-1 plays a dominant role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC209298  PMID: 11375415
6.  Myeloid dendritic cells induce Th2 responses to inhaled antigen, leading to eosinophilic airway inflammation 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2000;106(4):551-559.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether dendritic cells (DCs) can induce sensitization to aeroallergen in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Ovalbumin-pulsed (OVA-pulsed) or unpulsed myeloid DCs that were injected into the airways of naive mice migrated into the mediastinal lymph nodes. When challenged 2 weeks later with an aerosol of OVA, activated CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils were recruited to the lungs of actively immunized mice. These CD4+ lymphocytes produced predominantly IL-4 and IL-5 but also IFN-γ, whereas CD8+ lymphocytes produced predominantly IFN-γ. Histological analysis revealed perivascular and peribronchial eosinophilic infiltrates and goblet cell hyperplasia. Studies in IL-4–/– and CD28–/– mice revealed that production of IL-4 by host cells and provision of costimulation to T cells by DCs were critical for inducing the response. Lung CD4+ T cells strongly expressed the Th2 marker T1/ST2, and signaling through this molecule via a ligand expressed on DCs was essential for the establishment of airway eosinophilia. These data demonstrate that DCs in the airways induce sensitization to inhaled antigen and that molecules expressed on the surface of these cells are critical for the development of Th2-dependent airway eosinophilia.
PMCID: PMC380243  PMID: 10953030
7.  Cc Chemokine Receptor (Ccr)3/Eotaxin Is Followed by Ccr4/Monocyte-Derived Chemokine in Mediating Pulmonary T Helper Lymphocyte Type 2 Recruitment after Serial Antigen Challenge in Vivo 
Isolated peripheral blood CD4 cells from allergic individuals express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 and CCR4 after expansion in vitro. In addition, human T helper type 2 (Th2) cells polarized in vitro selectively express CCR3 and CCR4 at certain stages of activation/differentiation and respond preferentially to the ligands eotaxin and monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC). However, controversy arises when the in vivo significance of this distinct expression is discussed. To address the functional role of CCR3/eotaxin and CCR4/MDC during the in vivo recruitment of Th2 cells, we have transferred effector Th cells into naive mice to induce allergic airway disease. Tracking of these cells after repeated antigen challenge has established that both CCR3/eotaxin and CCR4/MDC axes contribute to the recruitment of Th2 cells to the lung, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of the expression of these receptors on Th2 cells. We have shown that involvement of the CCR3/eotaxin pathway is confined to early stages of the response in vivo, whereas repeated antigen stimulation results in the predominant use of the CCR4/MDC pathway. We propose that effector Th2 cells respond to both CCR3/eotaxin and CCR4/MDC pathways initially, but that a progressive increase in CCR4-positive cells results in the predominance of the CCR4/MDC axis in the long-term recruitment of Th2 cells in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2195756  PMID: 10637271
chemokines; effector T helper type 2 cells; migration; allergic airway disease; chemokine receptors
8.  Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;103(4):469-474.
Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin–deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I–deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I–deficient arteries, and that of α-actin–positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.
PMCID: PMC408097  PMID: 10021454
9.  Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1  
We have used intravital microscopy to study physiologically perfused microvessels in murine bone marrow (BM). BM sinusoids and venules, but not adjacent bone vessels, supported rolling interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Rolling did not involve L-selectin, but was partially reduced in wild-type mice treated with antibodies to P- or E-selectin and in mice that were deficient in these two selectins. Selectin-independent rolling was mediated by α4 integrins, which interacted with endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Parallel contribution of the endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 is not known to direct blood cell trafficking to other noninflamed tissues. This combination of constitutively expressed adhesion molecules may thus constitute a BM-specific recruitment pathway for progenitor cells analogous to the vascular addressins that direct selective lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs.
PMCID: PMC2212463  PMID: 9687524
bone marrow; selectins; α4 integrin; intravital microscopy; homing
10.  The Coordinated Action of CC Chemokines in the Lung Orchestrates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness  
The complex pathophysiology of lung allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) that characterize asthma is achieved by the regulated accumulation and activation of different leukocyte subsets in the lung. The development and maintenance of these processes correlate with the coordinated production of chemokines. Here, we have assessed the role that different chemokines play in lung allergic inflammation and BHR by blocking their activities in vivo. Our results show that blockage of each one of these chemokines reduces both lung leukocyte infiltration and BHR in a substantially different way. Thus, eotaxin neutralization reduces specifically BHR and lung eosinophilia transiently after each antigen exposure. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-5 neutralization abolishes BHR not by affecting the accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the airways, but rather by altering the trafficking of the eosinophils and other leukocytes through the lung interstitium. Neutralization of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) receptor(s) with a receptor antagonist decreases significantly lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration as well as mRNA expression of eotaxin and RANTES. In contrast, neutralization of one of the ligands for RANTES receptors, macrophage-inflammatory protein 1α, reduces only slightly lung eosinophilia and BHR. Finally, MCP-1 neutralization diminishes drastically BHR and inflammation, and this correlates with a pronounced decrease in monocyte- and lymphocyte-derived inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that different chemokines activate different cellular and molecular pathways that in a coordinated fashion contribute to the complex pathophysiology of asthma, and that their individual blockage results in intervention at different levels of these processes.
PMCID: PMC2525544  PMID: 9653092
chemokines; allergic inflammation; bronchial hyperresponsiveness; eosinophilia; leukocytes
11.  A Role for Mac-1 (CDIIb/CD18) in Immune Complex–stimulated Neutrophil Function In Vivo: Mac-1 Deficiency Abrogates Sustained Fcγ Receptor–dependent Neutrophil Adhesion and Complement-dependent Proteinuria in Acute Glomerulonephritis  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1997;186(11):1853-1863.
Mac-1 (αmβ2), a leukocyte adhesion receptor, has been shown in vitro to functionally interact with Fcγ receptors to facilitate immune complex (IC)–stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions. To investigate the relevance of Mac-1–FcγR interactions in IC-mediated injury in vivo, we induced a model of Fc-dependent anti–glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in wild-type and Mac-1–deficient mice by the intravenous injection of anti-GBM antibody. The initial glomerular PMN accumulation was equivalent in Mac-1 null and wild-type mice, but thereafter increased in wild-type and decreased in mutant mice. The absence of Mac-1 interactions with obvious ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and C3 complement, is not responsible for the decrease in neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1– deficient mice since glomerular PMN accumulation in mice deficient in these ligands was comparable to those in wild-type mice. In vitro studies showed that spreading of Mac-1–null PMNs to IC-coated dishes was equivalent to that of wild-type PMNs at 5–12 min but was markedly reduced thereafter, and was associated with an inability of mutant neutrophils to redistribute filamentous actin. This suggests that in vivo, Mac-1 is not required for the initiation of Fc-mediated PMN recruitment but that Mac-1–FcγR interactions are required for filamentous actin reorganization leading to sustained PMN adhesion, and this represents the first demonstration of the relevance of Mac-1–FcγR interactions in vivo. PMN-dependent proteinuria, maximal in wild-type mice at 8 h, was absent in Mac-1 mutant mice at all time points. Complement C3–deficient mice also had significantly decreased proteinuria compared to wild-type mice. Since Mac-1 on PMNs is the principal ligand for ic3b, an absence of Mac-1 interaction with C3 probably contributed to the abrogation of proteinuria in Mac-1–null mice.
PMCID: PMC2211718  PMID: 9382884
12.  RANTES and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 (MCP-1) Play an Important Role in the Inflammatory Phase of Crescentic Nephritis, but Only MCP-1 Is Involved in Crescent Formation and Interstitial Fibrosis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1997;185(7):1371-1380.
The involvement of chemokines in inflammation is well established, but their functional role in disease progression, and particularly in the development of fibrosis, is not yet understood. To investigate the functional role that the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) and RANTES play in inflammation and the progression to fibrosis during crescentic nephritis we have developed and characterized a murine model for this syndrome. Significant increases in T-lymphocytes and macrophages were observed within glomeruli and interstitium, paralleled by an induction of mRNA expression of MCP-1 and RANTES, early after disease initiation. Blocking the function of MCP-1 or RANTES resulted in significant decreases in proteinuria as well as in numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, indicating that both MCP-1 and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted) play an important role in the inflammatory phase of crescentic nephritis. In addition, neutralization of MCP-1 resulted in a dramatic decrease in both glomerular crescent formation and deposition of type I collagen. These results highlight a novel role for MCP-1 in crescent formation and development of interstitial fibrosis, and indicate that in addition to recruiting inflammatory cells this chemokine is critically involved in irreversible tissue damage.
PMCID: PMC2196251  PMID: 9104823
13.  Crucial Role of the Interleukin 1 Receptor Family Member T1/St2 in T Helper Cell Type 2–Mediated Lung Mucosal Immune Responses 
T1/ST2 is an orphan receptor of unknown function that is expressed on the surface of murine T helper cell type 2 (Th2), but not Th1 effector cells. In vitro blockade of T1/ST2 signaling with an immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein suppresses both differentiation to and activation of Th2, but not Th1 effector populations. In a nascent Th2-dominated response, anti-T1/ST2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibited eosinophil infiltration, interleukin 5 secretion, and IgE production. To determine if these effects were mediated by a direct effect on Th2 cells, we next used a murine adoptive transfer model of Th1- and Th2-mediated lung mucosal immune responses. Administration of either T1/ST2 mAb or T1/ST2-Ig abrogated Th2 cytokine production in vivo and the induction of an eosinophilic inflammatory response, but failed to modify Th1-mediated inflammation. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of T1/ST2 in Th2-mediated inflammatory responses and suggest that T1/ST2 may prove to be a novel target for the selective suppression of Th2 immune responses.
PMCID: PMC2195643  PMID: 10510079
inflammation; eosinophil; asthma; cytokines; immunoglobulin superfamily

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