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author:("Liao, sumai")
1.  Psr is involved in regulation of glucan production, and double deficiency of BrpA and Psr is lethal in Streptococcus mutans 
Microbiology  2013;159(Pt 3):493-506.
Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of dental caries, contains two paralogues of the LytR-CpsA-Psr family proteins encoded by brpA and psr, respectively. Previous studies have shown that BrpA plays an important role in cell envelope biogenesis/homeostasis and affects stress responses and biofilm formation by Strep. mutans, traits critical to cariogenicity of this bacterium. In this study, a Psr-deficient mutant, TW251, was constructed. Characterization of TW251 showed that deficiency of Psr did not have any major impact on growth rate. However, when subjected to acid killing at pH 2.8, the survival rate of TW251 was decreased dramatically compared with the parent strain UA159. In addition, TW251 also displayed major defects in biofilm formation, especially during growth with sucrose. When compared to UA159, the biofilms of TW251 were mainly planar and devoid of extracellular glucans. Real-time-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that deficiency of Psr significantly decreased the expression of glucosyltransferase C, a protein known to play a major role in biofilm formation by Strep. mutans. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that deficiency of BrpA caused alterations in cell envelope and cell division, and the most significant defects were observed in TW314, a Psr-deficient and BrpA-down mutant. No such effects were observed with Psr mutant TW251 under similar conditions. These results suggest that while there are similarities in functions between BrpA and Psr, distinctive differences also exist between these two paralogues. Like Bacillus subtilis but different from Staphylococcus aureus, a functional BrpA or Psr is required for viability in Strep. mutans.
doi:10.1099/mic.0.063032-0
PMCID: PMC3709821  PMID: 23288544
2.  Novel amelogenin-releasing hydrogel for remineralization of enamel artificial caries 
Recently, the use of recombinant full-length amelogenin protein in combination with fluoride has shown promising results in the formation of densely packed enamel-like structures. In this study, amelogenin (rP172)-releasing hydrogels containing calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were investigated for remineralization efficacy using in vitro early enamel caries models. The hydrogels were applied to artificial caries lesions on extracted human third molars, and the remineralization efficacy was tested in different models: static gel remineralization in the presence of artificial saliva, pH cyclic treatment at pH 5.4 acetic buffer and pH 7.3 gel remineralization, and treatment with multispecies oral biofilms grown in a continuous flowing constant-depth film fermenter. The surface microhardness of remineralized enamel increased significantly when amelogenin was released from hydrogel. No cytotoxicity was observed when periodontal ligament cells were cultured with the mineralized hydrogels.
doi:10.1177/0883911512458050
PMCID: PMC3548329  PMID: 23338820
Remineralization; biocompatibility; enamel-like crystals; amelogenin; oral bacterial biofilm
3.  Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial dental monomers and composites 
The objective of this study is to synthesize antibacterial methacrylate and methacrylamide monomers and formulate antibacterial fluoride-releasing dental composites. Three antibacterial methacrylate or methacrylamide monomers containing long-chain quaternary ammonium fluoride, 1,2-methacrylamido-N,N,N-trimethyldodecan-1-aminium fluoride (monomer I), N-benzyl-11-(methacryloyloxy)-N,N-dimethylundecan-1-aminium fluoride (monomer II), and methacryloxyldecylpyridinium fluoride (monomer III) have been synthesized and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The cytotoxicity test and bactericidal test against Streptococcus mutans indicate that antibacterial monomer II is superior to monomers I and III. A series of dental composites containing 0–6% of antibacterial monomer II have been formulated and tested for degree of conversion (DC), flexure strength, water sorption, solubility, and inhibition of S. mutans biofilms. An antibacterial fluoride-releasing dental composite has also been formulated and tested for flexure strength and fluoride release. The dental composite containing 3% of monomer II has a significant effect against S. mutans biofilm formation without major adverse effects on its physical and mechanical properties. The new antibacterial monomers can be used together with the fluoride-releasing monomers containing a ternary zirconiun- fluoride chelate to formulate a new antibacterial fluoride- releasing dental composite. Such a new dental composite is expected to have higher anticaries efficacy and longer service life.
doi:10.1002/jbm.b.32683
PMCID: PMC3407682  PMID: 22447582
synthesis; antibacterial monomers; dental composites; biofilm; mechanical properties
4.  The Redox-Sensing Regulator Rex Modulates Central Carbon Metabolism, Stress Tolerance Response and Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44766.
The Rex repressor has been implicated in regulation of central carbon and energy metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria. We have previously shown that Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of dental caries, alters its transcriptome upon Rex-deficiency and renders S. mutans to have increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, aberrations in glucan production, and poor biofilm formation. In this study, we showed that rex in S. mutans is co-transcribed as an operon with downstream guaA, encoding a putative glutamine amidotransferase. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that recombinant Rex bound promoters of target genes avidly and specifically, including those down-regulated in response to Rex-deficiency, and that the ability of recombinant Rex to bind to selected promoters was modulated by NADH and NAD+. Results suggest that Rex in S. mutans can function as an activator in response to intracellular NADH/NAD+ level, although the exact binding site for activator Rex remains unclear. Consistent with a role in oxidative stress tolerance, hydrogen peroxide challenge assays showed that the Rex-deficient mutant, TW239, and the Rex/GuaA double mutant, JB314, were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide killing than the wildtype, UA159. Relative to UA159, JB314 displayed major defects in biofilm formation, with a decrease of more than 50-fold in biomass after 48-hours. Collectively, these results further suggest that Rex in S. mutans regulates fermentation pathways, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in response to intracellular NADH/NAD+ level. Current effort is being directed to further investigation of the role of GuaA in S. mutans cellular physiology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044766
PMCID: PMC3441419  PMID: 23028612
5.  Inactivation of the fliY gene encoding a flagellar motor switch protein attenuates mobility and virulence of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:253.
Background
Pathogenic Leptospira species cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of global importance. The spirochete displays active rotative mobility which may contribute to invasion and diffusion of the pathogen in hosts. FliY is a flagellar motor switch protein that controls flagellar motor direction in other microbes, but its role in Leptospira, and paricularly in pathogenicity remains unknown.
Results
A suicide plasmid for the fliY gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Lai that was disrupted by inserting the ampicillin resistance gene (bla) was constructed, and the inactivation of fliY gene in a mutant (fliY-) was confirmed by PCR and Western Blot analysis. The inactivation resulted in the mRNA absence of fliP and fliQ genes which are located downstream of the fliY gene in the same operon. The mutant displayed visibly weakened rotative motion in liquid medium and its migration on semisolid medium was also markedly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain. Compared to the wild-type strain, the mutant showed much lower levels of adhesion to murine macrophages and apoptosis-inducing ability, and its lethality to guinea pigs was also significantly decreased.
Conclusion
Inactivation of fliY, by the method used in this paper, clearly had polar effects on downstream genes. The phentotypes observed, including lower pathogenicity, could be a consequence of fliY inactivation, but also a consequence of the polar effects.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-253
PMCID: PMC3224694  PMID: 20003186

Results 1-5 (5)