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1.  Finding Our Way through Phenotypes 
Deans, Andrew R. | Lewis, Suzanna E. | Huala, Eva | Anzaldo, Salvatore S. | Ashburner, Michael | Balhoff, James P. | Blackburn, David C. | Blake, Judith A. | Burleigh, J. Gordon | Chanet, Bruno | Cooper, Laurel D. | Courtot, Mélanie | Csösz, Sándor | Cui, Hong | Dahdul, Wasila | Das, Sandip | Dececchi, T. Alexander | Dettai, Agnes | Diogo, Rui | Druzinsky, Robert E. | Dumontier, Michel | Franz, Nico M. | Friedrich, Frank | Gkoutos, George V. | Haendel, Melissa | Harmon, Luke J. | Hayamizu, Terry F. | He, Yongqun | Hines, Heather M. | Ibrahim, Nizar | Jackson, Laura M. | Jaiswal, Pankaj | James-Zorn, Christina | Köhler, Sebastian | Lecointre, Guillaume | Lapp, Hilmar | Lawrence, Carolyn J. | Le Novère, Nicolas | Lundberg, John G. | Macklin, James | Mast, Austin R. | Midford, Peter E. | Mikó, István | Mungall, Christopher J. | Oellrich, Anika | Osumi-Sutherland, David | Parkinson, Helen | Ramírez, Martín J. | Richter, Stefan | Robinson, Peter N. | Ruttenberg, Alan | Schulz, Katja S. | Segerdell, Erik | Seltmann, Katja C. | Sharkey, Michael J. | Smith, Aaron D. | Smith, Barry | Specht, Chelsea D. | Squires, R. Burke | Thacker, Robert W. | Thessen, Anne | Fernandez-Triana, Jose | Vihinen, Mauno | Vize, Peter D. | Vogt, Lars | Wall, Christine E. | Walls, Ramona L. | Westerfeld, Monte | Wharton, Robert A. | Wirkner, Christian S. | Woolley, James B. | Yoder, Matthew J. | Zorn, Aaron M. | Mabee, Paula
PLoS Biology  2015;13(1):e1002033.
Imagine if we could compute across phenotype data as easily as genomic data; this article calls for efforts to realize this vision and discusses the potential benefits.
Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility.
PMCID: PMC4285398  PMID: 25562316
2.  Data Standards for Omics Data: The Basis of Data Sharing and Reuse 
To facilitate sharing of Omics data, many groups of scientists have been working to establish the relevant data standards. The main components of data sharing standards are experiment description standards, data exchange standards, terminology standards, and experiment execution standards. Here we provide a survey of existing and emerging standards that are intended to assist the free and open exchange of large-format data.
PMCID: PMC4152841  PMID: 21370078
Data sharing; Data exchange; Data standards; MGED; MIAME; Ontology; Data format; Microarray; Proteomics; Metabolomics
3.  Accessing data from the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: state of the art and future plans 
The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) ( will reveal the pleiotropic functions of every gene in the mouse genome and uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. Comprehensive informatics solutions are vital to ensuring that this vast array of data is captured in a standardised manner and made accessible to the scientific community for interrogation and analysis. Here we review the existing EuroPhenome and WTSI phenotype informatics systems and the IKMC portal, and present plans for extending these systems and lessons learned to the development of a robust IMPC informatics infrastructure.
PMCID: PMC4106044  PMID: 22991088
4.  The Software Ontology (SWO): a resource for reproducibility in biomedical data analysis, curation and digital preservation 
Biomedical ontologists to date have concentrated on ontological descriptions of biomedical entities such as gene products and their attributes, phenotypes and so on. Recently, effort has diversified to descriptions of the laboratory investigations by which these entities were produced. However, much biological insight is gained from the analysis of the data produced from these investigations, and there is a lack of adequate descriptions of the wide range of software that are central to bioinformatics. We need to describe how data are analyzed for discovery, audit trails, provenance and reproducibility.
The Software Ontology (SWO) is a description of software used to store, manage and analyze data. Input to the SWO has come from beyond the life sciences, but its main focus is the life sciences. We used agile techniques to gather input for the SWO and keep engagement with our users. The result is an ontology that meets the needs of a broad range of users by describing software, its information processing tasks, data inputs and outputs, data formats versions and so on. Recently, the SWO has incorporated EDAM, a vocabulary for describing data and related concepts in bioinformatics. The SWO is currently being used to describe software used in multiple biomedical applications.
The SWO is another element of the biomedical ontology landscape that is necessary for the description of biomedical entities and how they were discovered. An ontology of software used to analyze data produced by investigations in the life sciences can be made in such a way that it covers the important features requested and prioritized by its users. The SWO thus fits into the landscape of biomedical ontologies and is produced using techniques designed to keep it in line with user’s needs.
The Software Ontology is available under an Apache 2.0 license at; the Software Ontology blog can be read at
PMCID: PMC4098953  PMID: 25068035
5.  Toward richer metadata for microbial sequences: replacing strain-level NCBI taxonomy taxids with BioProject, BioSample and Assembly records 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2014;9(3):1275-1277.
Microbial genome sequence submissions to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) have been annotated with organism names that include the strain identifier. Each of these strain-level names has been assigned a unique ‘taxid’ in the NCBI Taxonomy Database. With the significant growth in genome sequencing, it is not possible to continue with the curation of strain-level taxids. In January 2014, NCBI will cease assigning strain-level taxids. Instead, submitters are encouraged provide strain information and rich metadata with their submission to the sequence database, BioProject and BioSample.
PMCID: PMC4149001  PMID: 25197497
6.  The EBI RDF platform: linked open data for the life sciences 
Bioinformatics  2014;30(9):1338-1339.
Motivation: Resource description framework (RDF) is an emerging technology for describing, publishing and linking life science data. As a major provider of bioinformatics data and services, the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) is committed to making data readily accessible to the community in ways that meet existing demand. The EBI RDF platform has been developed to meet an increasing demand to coordinate RDF activities across the institute and provides a new entry point to querying and exploring integrated resources available at the EBI.
PMCID: PMC3998127  PMID: 24413672
7.  The NHGRI GWAS Catalog, a curated resource of SNP-trait associations 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D1001-D1006.
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) Catalog provides a publicly available manually curated collection of published GWAS assaying at least 100 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and all SNP-trait associations with P <1 × 10−5. The Catalog includes 1751 curated publications of 11 912 SNPs. In addition to the SNP-trait association data, the Catalog also publishes a quarterly diagram of all SNP-trait associations mapped to the SNPs’ chromosomal locations. The Catalog can be accessed via a tabular web interface, via a dynamic visualization on the human karyotype, as a downloadable tab-delimited file and as an OWL knowledge base. This article presents a number of recent improvements to the Catalog, including novel ways for users to interact with the Catalog and changes to the curation infrastructure.
PMCID: PMC3965119  PMID: 24316577
8.  Expression Atlas update—a database of gene and transcript expression from microarray- and sequencing-based functional genomics experiments 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D926-D932.
Expression Atlas ( is a value-added database providing information about gene, protein and splice variant expression in different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other biological and experimental conditions. The database consists of selected high-quality microarray and RNA-sequencing experiments from ArrayExpress that have been manually curated, annotated with Experimental Factor Ontology terms and processed using standardized microarray and RNA-sequencing analysis methods. The new version of Expression Atlas introduces the concept of ‘baseline’ expression, i.e. gene and splice variant abundance levels in healthy or untreated conditions, such as tissues or cell types. Differential gene expression data benefit from an in-depth curation of experimental intent, resulting in biologically meaningful ‘contrasts’, i.e. instances of differential pairwise comparisons between two sets of biological replicates. Other novel aspects of Expression Atlas are its strict quality control of raw experimental data, up-to-date RNA-sequencing analysis methods, expression data at the level of gene sets, as well as genes and a more powerful search interface designed to maximize the biological value provided to the user.
PMCID: PMC3964963  PMID: 24304889
9.  Updates to BioSamples database at European Bioinformatics Institute 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D50-D52.
The BioSamples database at the EBI ( provides an integration point for BioSamples information between technology specific databases at the EBI, projects such as ENCODE and reference collections such as cell lines. The database delivers a unified query interface and API to query sample information across EBI’s databases and provides links back to assay databases. Sample groups are used to manage related samples, e.g. those from an experimental submission, or a single reference collection. Infrastructural improvements include a new user interface with ontological and key word queries, a new query API, a new data submission API, complete RDF data download and a supporting SPARQL endpoint, accessioning at the point of submission to the European Nucleotide Archive and European Genotype Phenotype Archives and improved query response times.
PMCID: PMC3965081  PMID: 24265224
10.  The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D802-D809.
The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal ( provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated ‘data wranglers’ work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases.
PMCID: PMC3964955  PMID: 24194600
11.  ArrayExpress update—trends in database growth and links to data analysis tools 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(Database issue):D987-D990.
The ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data ( is one of three international functional genomics public data repositories, alongside the Gene Expression Omnibus at NCBI and the DDBJ Omics Archive, supporting peer-reviewed publications. It accepts data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies and currently contains data from almost a million assays, from over 30 000 experiments. The proportion of sequencing-based submissions has grown significantly over the last 2 years and has reached, in 2012, 15% of all new data. All data are available from ArrayExpress in MAGE-TAB format, which allows robust linking to data analysis and visualization tools, including Bioconductor and GenomeSpace. Additionally, R objects, for microarray data, and binary alignment format files, for sequencing data, have been generated for a significant proportion of ArrayExpress data.
PMCID: PMC3531147  PMID: 23193272
12.  MageComet—web application for harmonizing existing large-scale experiment descriptions 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(10):1402-1403.
Motivation: Meta-analysis of large gene expression datasets obtained from public repositories requires consistently annotated data. Curation of such experiments, however, is an expert activity which involves repetitive manipulation of text. Existing tools for automated curation are few, which bottleneck the analysis pipeline.
Results: We present MageComet, a web application for biologists and annotators that facilitates the re-annotation of gene expression experiments in MAGE-TAB format. It incorporates data mining, automatic annotation, use of ontologies and data validation to improve the consistency and quality of experimental meta-data from the ArrayExpress Repository.
Availability and implementation: Source and tutorials for MageComet are openly available at under the GNU GPL v3 licenses. An implementation can be found at
Contact: or
PMCID: PMC3348561  PMID: 22474121
13.  The BioSample Database (BioSD) at the European Bioinformatics Institute 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D64-D70.
The BioSample Database ( is a new database at EBI that stores information about biological samples used in molecular experiments, such as sequencing, gene expression or proteomics. The goals of the BioSample Database include: (i) recording and linking of sample information consistently within EBI databases such as ENA, ArrayExpress and PRIDE; (ii) minimizing data entry efforts for EBI database submitters by enabling submitting sample descriptions once and referencing them later in data submissions to assay databases and (iii) supporting cross database queries by sample characteristics. Each sample in the database is assigned an accession number. The database includes a growing set of reference samples, such as cell lines, which are repeatedly used in experiments and can be easily referenced from any database by their accession numbers. Accession numbers for the reference samples will be exchanged with a similar database at NCBI. The samples in the database can be queried by their attributes, such as sample types, disease names or sample providers. A simple tab-delimited format facilitates submissions of sample information to the database, initially via email to
PMCID: PMC3245134  PMID: 22096232
14.  Gene Expression Atlas update—a value-added database of microarray and sequencing-based functional genomics experiments 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D1077-D1081.
Gene Expression Atlas ( is an added-value database providing information about gene expression in different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, disease states, sample treatments and other biological/experimental conditions. The content of this database derives from curation, re-annotation and statistical analysis of selected data from the ArrayExpress Archive and the European Nucleotide Archive. A simple interface allows the user to query for differential gene expression either by gene names or attributes or by biological conditions, e.g. diseases, organism parts or cell types. Since our previous report we made 20 monthly releases and, as of Release 11.08 (August 2011), the database supports 19 species, which contains expression data measured for 19 014 biological conditions in 136 551 assays from 5598 independent studies.
PMCID: PMC3245177  PMID: 22064864
15.  Anatomy ontologies and potential users: bridging the gap 
Journal of Biomedical Semantics  2011;2(Suppl 4):S3.
To evaluate how well current anatomical ontologies fit the way real-world users apply anatomy terms in their data annotations.
Annotations from three diverse multi-species public-domain datasets provided a set of use cases for matching anatomical terms in two major anatomical ontologies (the Foundational Model of Anatomy and Uberon), using two lexical-matching applications (Zooma and Ontology Mapper).
Approximately 1500 terms were identified; Uberon/Zooma mappings provided 286 matches, compared to the control and Ontology Mapper returned 319 matches. For the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Zooma returned 312 matches, and Ontology Mapper returned 397.
Our results indicate that for our datasets the anatomical entities or concepts are embedded in user-generated complex terms, and while lexical mapping works, anatomy ontologies do not provide the majority of terms users supply when annotating data. Provision of searchable cross-products for compositional terms is a key requirement for using ontologies.
PMCID: PMC3194170  PMID: 21995944
16.  OntoCAT -- simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12:218.
Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups.
OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application.
OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases.
PMCID: PMC3129328  PMID: 21619703
17.  Meeting Report from the Second “Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations” (MIBBI) workshop 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2010;3(3):259-266.
This report summarizes the proceedings of the second workshop of the ‘Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations’ (MIBBI) consortium held on Dec 1-2, 2010 in Rüdesheim, Germany through the sponsorship of the Beilstein-Institute. MIBBI is an umbrella organization uniting communities developing Minimum Information (MI) checklists to standardize the description of data sets, the workflows by which they were generated and the scientific context for the work. This workshop brought together representatives of more than twenty communities to present the status of their MI checklists and plans for future development. Shared challenges and solutions were identified and the role of MIBBI in MI checklist development was discussed. The meeting featured some thirty presentations, wide-ranging discussions and breakout groups. The top outcomes of the two-day workshop as defined by the participants were: 1) the chance to share best practices and to identify areas of synergy; 2) defining a series of tasks for updating the MIBBI Portal; 3) reemphasizing the need to maintain independent MI checklists for various communities while leveraging common terms and workflow elements contained in multiple checklists; and 4) revision of the concept of the MIBBI Foundry to focus on the creation of a core set of MIBBI modules intended for reuse by individual MI checklist projects while maintaining the integrity of each MI project. Further information about MIBBI and its range of activities can be found at
PMCID: PMC3035314  PMID: 21304730
18.  Large scale comparison of global gene expression patterns in human and mouse 
Genome Biology  2010;11(12):R124.
It is widely accepted that orthologous genes between species are conserved at the sequence level and perform similar functions in different organisms. However, the level of conservation of gene expression patterns of the orthologous genes in different species has been unclear. To address the issue, we compared gene expression of orthologous genes based on 2,557 human and 1,267 mouse samples with high quality gene expression data, selected from experiments stored in the public microarray repository ArrayExpress.
In a principal component analysis (PCA) of combined data from human and mouse samples merged on orthologous probesets, samples largely form distinctive clusters based on their tissue sources when projected onto the top principal components. The most prominent groups are the nervous system, muscle/heart tissues, liver and cell lines. Despite the great differences in sample characteristics and experiment conditions, the overall patterns of these prominent clusters are strikingly similar for human and mouse. We further analyzed data for each tissue separately and found that the most variable genes in each tissue are highly enriched with human-mouse tissue-specific orthologs and the least variable genes in each tissue are enriched with human-mouse housekeeping orthologs.
The results indicate that the global patterns of tissue-specific expression of orthologous genes are conserved in human and mouse. The expression of groups of orthologous genes co-varies in the two species, both for the most variable genes and the most ubiquitously expressed genes.
PMCID: PMC3046484  PMID: 21182765
19.  The MOLGENIS toolkit: rapid prototyping of biosoftware at the push of a button 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11(Suppl 12):S12.
There is a huge demand on bioinformaticians to provide their biologists with user friendly and scalable software infrastructures to capture, exchange, and exploit the unprecedented amounts of new *omics data. We here present MOLGENIS, a generic, open source, software toolkit to quickly produce the bespoke MOLecular GENetics Information Systems needed.
The MOLGENIS toolkit provides bioinformaticians with a simple language to model biological data structures and user interfaces. At the push of a button, MOLGENIS’ generator suite automatically translates these models into a feature-rich, ready-to-use web application including database, user interfaces, exchange formats, and scriptable interfaces. Each generator is a template of SQL, JAVA, R, or HTML code that would require much effort to write by hand. This ‘model-driven’ method ensures reuse of best practices and improves quality because the modeling language and generators are shared between all MOLGENIS applications, so that errors are found quickly and improvements are shared easily by a re-generation. A plug-in mechanism ensures that both the generator suite and generated product can be customized just as much as hand-written software.
In recent years we have successfully evaluated the MOLGENIS toolkit for the rapid prototyping of many types of biomedical applications, including next-generation sequencing, GWAS, QTL, proteomics and biobanking. Writing 500 lines of model XML typically replaces 15,000 lines of hand-written programming code, which allows for quick adaptation if the information system is not yet to the biologist’s satisfaction. Each application generated with MOLGENIS comes with an optimized database back-end, user interfaces for biologists to manage and exploit their data, programming interfaces for bioinformaticians to script analysis tools in R, Java, SOAP, REST/JSON and RDF, a tab-delimited file format to ease upload and exchange of data, and detailed technical documentation. Existing databases can be quickly enhanced with MOLGENIS generated interfaces using the ‘ExtractModel’ procedure.
The MOLGENIS toolkit provides bioinformaticians with a simple model to quickly generate flexible web platforms for all possible genomic, molecular and phenotypic experiments with a richness of interfaces not provided by other tools. All the software and manuals are available free as LGPLv3 open source at
PMCID: PMC3040526  PMID: 21210979
20.  ArrayExpress update—an archive of microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based functional genomics experiments 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D1002-D1004.
The ArrayExpress Archive ( is one of the three international public repositories of functional genomics data supporting publications. It includes data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies. Data are submitted by users and imported directly from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus. The ArrayExpress Archive is closely integrated with the Gene Expression Atlas and the sequence databases at the European Bioinformatics Institute. Advanced queries provided via ontology enabled interfaces include queries based on technology and sample attributes such as disease, cell types and anatomy.
PMCID: PMC3013660  PMID: 21071405
21.  A global map of human gene expression 
Nature biotechnology  2010;28(4):322-324.
PMCID: PMC2974261  PMID: 20379172
22.  Annotare—a tool for annotating high-throughput biomedical investigations and resulting data 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(19):2470-2471.
Summary: Computational methods in molecular biology will increasingly depend on standards-based annotations that describe biological experiments in an unambiguous manner. Annotare is a software tool that enables biologists to easily annotate their high-throughput experiments, biomaterials and data in a standards-compliant way that facilitates meaningful search and analysis.
Availability and Implementation: Annotare is available from under the terms of the open-source MIT License ( It has been tested on both Mac and Windows.
PMCID: PMC2944206  PMID: 20733062
23.  Modeling biomedical experimental processes with OBI 
Journal of Biomedical Semantics  2010;1(Suppl 1):S7.
Experimental descriptions are typically stored as free text without using standardized terminology, creating challenges in comparison, reproduction and analysis. These difficulties impose limitations on data exchange and information retrieval.
The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI), developed as a global, cross-community effort, provides a resource that represents biomedical investigations in an explicit and integrative framework. Here we detail three real-world applications of OBI, provide detailed modeling information and explain how to use OBI.
We demonstrate how OBI can be applied to different biomedical investigations to both facilitate interpretation of the experimental process and increase the computational processing and integration within the Semantic Web. The logical definitions of the entities involved allow computers to unambiguously understand and integrate different biological experimental processes and their relevant components.
OBI is available at
PMCID: PMC2903726  PMID: 20626927
24.  XGAP: a uniform and extensible data model and software platform for genotype and phenotype experiments 
Genome Biology  2010;11(3):R27.
XGAP, a software platform for the integration and analysis of genotype and phenotype data.
We present an extensible software model for the genotype and phenotype community, XGAP. Readers can download a standard XGAP ( or auto-generate a custom version using MOLGENIS with programming interfaces to R-software and web-services or user interfaces for biologists. XGAP has simple load formats for any type of genotype, epigenotype, transcript, protein, metabolite or other phenotype data. Current functionality includes tools ranging from eQTL analysis in mouse to genome-wide association studies in humans.
PMCID: PMC2864567  PMID: 20214801
25.  Modeling sample variables with an Experimental Factor Ontology 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(8):1112-1118.
Motivation: Describing biological sample variables with ontologies is complex due to the cross-domain nature of experiments. Ontologies provide annotation solutions; however, for cross-domain investigations, multiple ontologies are needed to represent the data. These are subject to rapid change, are often not interoperable and present complexities that are a barrier to biological resource users.
Results: We present the Experimental Factor Ontology, designed to meet cross-domain, application focused use cases for gene expression data. We describe our methodology and open source tools used to create the ontology. These include tools for creating ontology mappings, ontology views, detecting ontology changes and using ontologies in interfaces to enhance querying. The application of reference ontologies to data is a key problem, and this work presents guidelines on how community ontologies can be presented in an application ontology in a data-driven way.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
PMCID: PMC2853691  PMID: 20200009

Results 1-25 (42)