To determine if augmenting podocyte injury promotes the development of advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN), we created mice that expressed the enzyme cytosine deaminase (CD) specifically in podocytes of diabetic Akita mice (Akita-CD mice). In these mice, treatment with the prodrug 5-flucytosine (5-FC) causes podocyte injury as a result of conversion to the toxic metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We found that treatment of 4-5 week old Akita mice with 5-FC for 5 days caused robust albuminuria at 16 and 20 weeks of age compared to 5-FC treated Akita controls, which do not express CD (Akita CTLs). By 20 weeks of age, there was a significant increase in mesangial expansion in Akita-CD mice compared to Akita CTLs, which was associated with a variable increase in glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width and interstitial fibrosis. At 20 weeks of age, podocyte number was similarly reduced in both groups of Akita mice, and was inversely correlated with the albuminuria and mesangial expansion. Thus, enhancing podocyte injury early in the disease process promotes the development of prominent mesangial expansion, interstitial fibrosis, increased GBM thickness and robust albuminuria. These data suggest that podocytes play a key role in the development of advanced features of diabetic kidney disease.
diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; podocyte
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV16, is considered a main causative agent of cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, the viral oncoprotein E6 disrupts the host tumor-suppressor protein p53, thus promoting malignant transformation of normal cervical cells. Here, we used the newly developed programmable ribonucleic acid-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system to disrupt the HPV16 E6 gene. We showed that HPV16 E6 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at specific sites, leading to apoptosis and growth inhibition of HPV16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells, but not HPV-negative C33A or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also observed downregulation of the E6 protein and restoration of the p53 protein. These data proved that the HPV16 E6 ribonucleic acid-guided CRISPR/Cas system might be an effective therapeutic agent in treating HPV infection-related cervical malignancy.
CRISPR/Cas system; E6; p53; SiHa; CaSki; cervical cancer
Coronary endarterectomy (CE) is an alternative for the diffusely diseased left anterior descending (LAD), but its mid and long term results are largely questionable. This study is to compare the early to mid-term results between off-pump and on-pump coronary endarterectomy with coronary artery bypass grafting.
212 consecutive patients underwent CE and bypass grafting for diffusely diseased LAD. Ninety-two patients undergoing CE with off-pump (group off-pump) were compared with 120 patients undergoing CE with on-pump (group on-pump). The main preference for selection to an off-pump CE surgery were the preoperative high risk factors, especially previous cerebrovascular accident、chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)、calcified ascending aorta and right coronary artery (RCA) critical stenosis >90%.
There were three deaths in this group with total operative mortality of 1.4%. The perioperative mortality of group off-pump (1.1%) was similar with that of group on-pump (1.7%). The postoperative myocardial infarctions rate was 2.8%. There was no significant difference as for the morbidity between the group off-pump and group on-pump. Among survivors, the patency rate of the LIMA–LAD anastomosis was 89.4%. There was no difference as for the grafts patency rate between the two groups. Kaplan–Meier survival revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier freedom from cardiac events requiring hospital re-admission and angina recurrence were similar in both groups.
On-pump or off-pump CE is a good technique with the same early and mid-term outcomes. In the series of off-pump CE, we have shown that the effect of OPCABG with CE appears to be durable, and mid-term clinical outcomes are encouraging. Despite the higher risk profile, hospital mortality and major complications in our study are comparable to those for CCE.
Coronary endarterectomy; Off-pump; On-pump; Diffused coronary disease; Left internal mammary artery
Previously, we observed that mir-155 is induced during dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. We now demon-strated convincing evidence indicating that mir-155 promotes DC maturation and regulates its capacity for antigen presentation and induction of alloreactive T cell activation. Interestingly, the induction of miR-155 expression in DCs is dependent on the TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB signaling. Our mechanistic studies further revealed that SOCS1 is a direct target for mir-155, and by binding to its 3’UTR, mir-155 is likely to affect SOCS1 translation. Suppression of mir-155 expression in DCs significantly attenuated LPS-induced DC maturation along with reduced capability to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation. As a result, administration of antagomiR-155 provided protection for cardiac allografts from rejection. Together, our data support that suppression of miR-155 in DCs could be a viable therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of allograft rejection in clinical setting of transplantation.
miR-155; dendritic cells; immune response; allograft
Cardiac myxoma, the most common primary heart tumor, is located mainly in the left atrium. We reported a rare case of left ventricular myxoma incidentally found on echocardiography in an asymptomatic 60-year-old male. The tumor was carefully resected without fragmentation. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on the 4th postoperative day. Surgical resection of this type of cardiac myxoma is recommended due to the rarity of tumor location.
left ventricular myxoma; echocardiography; resection
Metformin exhibits anti-proliferative effects in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The present study investigated the ability of metformin to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402/5-fluorouracil (5-Fu; Bel/Fu) cells. The synergistic anti-proliferative effect of metformin combined with 5-Fu was evaluated using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay. The variation in apoptotic rates and cell cycle distribution were evaluated using a flow cytometric assay and variations in target gene and protein expression were monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that metformin had a synergistic anti-proliferative effect with 5-Fu in the Bel/Fu cells. The variations in the number of apoptotic cells and distribution of the cell cycle were consistent with the variability in cell viability. Metformin targeted the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, suppressed the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and transcriptionally downregulated the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Collectively, these findings suggested that metformin may target the AMPK/mTOR/HIF-1α/P-gp and MRP1 pathways to reverse MDR in hepatocellular carcinoma.
metformin; liver neoplasms; multidrug resistance; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; P-glycoprotein; multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Background and Aim
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly tumors. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is effective for unresectable HCC. In recent years, miRNAs have been proposed as novel diagnostic and prognostic tools for HCC. This study aimed to identify whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as biomarkers to reliably predict outcome before HCC patients are treated with TACE.
Eleven miRNAs (miR-, miR-19a, miR-101-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-200a, miR-21, miR-214, miR-221, miR-222, miR-223 and miR-, -5p) were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 136 HCC patients’ serum before they received TACE therapy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the prognostic value of clinical parameters and miRNAs. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the prediction potency.
The levels of some miRNAs were dramatically associated with clinicopathologic features regarding Child-Puge class, AFP, tumor size and satellite nodules. Univariate analysis revealed that miR-200a, miR-21, miR-122 and miR-224-5p were significantly associated with patients’ survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AFP, satellite nodules and miR-200a were the independent prognostic factors associated with survival in this cohort (p = 0.000, 0.001, 0.000, respectively). The probability of the prognostic accuracy of miR-200a was 81.64% (74.47% specificity and 88.76% sensitivity), which was higher than the classifier established by combination of AFP and satellite nodules (76.87% probability, 70.21% specificity and 69.66% sensitivity). Furthermore, the combination of AFP, satellite nodules and miR-200a demonstrated as a classifier for HCC prognosis, yielding a ROC curve area of 88.19% (93.62% specificity and 68.54% sensitivity).
Our study indicated that serum miR-200a may prognosticate disease outcome in HCC patients with TACE therapy. Therefore, miR-200a can potentially guide individualized treatment for HCC patients with a high risk of TACE treatment failures.
As a network transmission protocol, Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) is widely used in GPS and Global Orbiting Navigational Satellite System (GLONASS) Augmentation systems, such as Continuous Operational Reference System (CORS), Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). With the deployment of BeiDou Navigation Satellite system (BDS) to serve the Asia-Pacific region, there are increasing needs for ground monitoring of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite system and the development of the high-precision real-time BeiDou products. This paper aims to optimize the decoding algorithm of NTRIP Client data streams and the user authentication strategies of the NTRIP Caster based on NTRIP. The proposed method greatly enhances the handling efficiency and significantly reduces the data transmission delay compared with the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) NTRIP. Meanwhile, a transcoding method is proposed to facilitate the data transformation from the BINary EXchange (BINEX) format to the RTCM format. The transformation scheme thus solves the problem of handing real-time data streams from Trimble receivers in the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System indigenously developed by China.
NTRIP; real-time; BeiDou; GNSS; international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System; RTCM
Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) is expressed in lung endothelial cells and regulates water transport; thus, AQP-1 plays an important role in a number of edema-associated lung diseases. Qing Yin Tang (QYT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to effectively reduce the mortality rate of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The current study aimed to investigate the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of QYT on ALI induced by SAP, particularly the effects on the expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue. ALI was established in Wister rats who were subsequently divided into four groups: SHAM, ALI, dexamethasone (DEX) and QYT groups (n=8 per group). In the QYT group, 20 ml/kg QYT was administered by gavage immediately following the induction of SAP. Blood and lung tissues were collected 8 h following the induction of pancreatitis. The lung wet/dry ratio, as well as the levels of blood gases, serum amylase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured at 4, 8 and 12 h following SAP-associated ALI induction surgery. The expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to the levels of serum amylase, wet/dry ratio, partial pressure of oxygen, serum TNF-α and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue between the QYT and DEX groups; however, a statistically significant difference was observed when compared with the ALI group. The expression levels of AQP-1 significantly increased (P<0.05) and lung edema was alleviated in the QYT and DEX groups, when compared with ALI group. Therefore, the expression level of AQP-1 is associated with pulmonary edema. QYT protects the lungs from injury induced by SAP via the upregulation of AQP-1, which suppresses TNF-α expression.
aquaporin-1; qing yin tang; acute lung injury; severe acute pancreatitis
This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA.
Femoral neck fracture; osteoarthritis; elderly patients; articular cartilage degeneration; available sample
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an effective molecular target of anti-cancer therapies. Curcumin is known to inhibit growth, invasion and metastasis by downregulating EGFR expression in some cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of curcumin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of curcumin on proliferation and invasion in SCC-25 cell line. We also explored the effect of curcumin on the activition of EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3. Furthermore, we examined the inhibition effect of curcumin on EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation and SCC-25 cells invasion. Our results showed that curcumin inhibited SCC-25 cells proliferation and induced G2/M phase arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also inhibited SCC-25 cells invasion and downregulated MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA and uPAR expression. We further revealed that curcumin regulated the p-EGFR and EGFR downstream signaling molecules including Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3. Finally, our data showed that crucumin reduced the EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and suppressed EGF-triggered SCC-25 cells invasion. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin reduced SCC-25 cells proliferation and invasion through inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and EGFR downstream signaling molecules Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3.
OSCC; curcumin; EGFR; proliferation; invasion
The luminal A subtype of breast cancer has a good prognosis and is sensitive to endocrine therapy but is less sensitive to chemotherapy. It is necessary to identify biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity and avoid over-treatment. We hypothesized that miRNAs in the serum might be associated with chemosensitivity.
Sixty-eight breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus paclitaxel. The serum of the patients was collected before chemotherapy and stored at −80°C. The samples were classified into two groups in term of the chemosensitivity. We identified the differential expression patterns of miRNAs between the chemotherapy sensitive and resistant groups using microRNA profiling. Four miRNAs that were differentially expressed between the two groups were further validated in another 56 samples. We created a model fitting formula and a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve using logistic regression analysis to evaluate the prediction potency.
We identified 8 miRNAs differentially expressed between the two groups: 6 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 2 miRNAs were down-regulated in the resistant group compared with the sensitive group. The expression of miR-19a and miR-205 were determined to have significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). A predictive model of these two miRNAs was created by the logistic regression analysis. The probability of this model was 89.71%. Based on the ROC curve, the specificity was 75.00%, and the sensitivity was 81.25%.
The combination of miR-19a and miR-205 in the serum may predict the chemosensitivity of luminal A subtype of breast cancer to epirubicin plus paclitaxel neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been recognized as a major causative agent for cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, early genes E6 and E7 play important roles in maintaining malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. By using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats- (CRISPR-) associated protein system (CRISPR/Cas system), a widely used genome editing tool in many organisms, to target HPV16-E7 DNA in HPV positive cell lines, we showed for the first time that the HPV16-E7 single-guide RNA (sgRNA) guided CRISPR/Cas system could disrupt HPV16-E7 DNA at specific sites, inducing apoptosis and growth inhibition in HPV positive SiHa and Caski cells, but not in HPV negative C33A and HEK293 cells. Moreover, disruption of E7 DNA directly leads to downregulation of E7 protein and upregulation of tumor suppressor protein pRb. Therefore, our results suggest that HPV16-E7 gRNA guided CRISPR/Cas system might be used as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer.
Esophageal cancer remains the sixth leading cause of cancer associated death and eighth most common cancer worldwide. Genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may contribute to the carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer. Here, we conducted a hospital based case-control study to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of functional SNPs on the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 629 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 686 controls were enrolled for this study. The OPG rs3102735 T>C, rs2073618 G>C, RANK rs1805034 T>C, RANKL rs9533156 T>C and rs2277438 A>G were determined by ligation detection reaction method. Our findings suggested that RANK rs1805034 T>C is associated with the susceptibility of ESCC, which is more evident in male and elder (≥63) patients. Our study provides the first evidence that functional polymorphisms RANK rs1805034 T>C may be an indicator for individual susceptibility to ESCC. However, further larger studies among different ethnic populations are warranted to verify our conclusion.
Esophageal cancer was the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in China in 2009. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for more than 90 percent of esophageal cancers. Genetic factors probably play an important role in the ESCC carcinogenesis.
We conducted a hospital based case-control study to evaluate functional hTERT rs2736098 G>A and TERT-CLPTM1L rs401681 C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of ESCC. Six hundred and twenty-nine ESCC cases and 686 controls were recruited. Their genotypes were determined using the ligation detection reaction (LDR) method.
When the TERT-CLPTM1L rs401681 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the CT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58–0.94, p = 0.012); the CT/TT variants were associated with a 26% decreased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59–0.93, P = 0.009). The significantly decreased risk of ESCC associated with the TERT-CLPTM1L rs401681 C>T polymorphism was associated with male sex, young age (<63 years in our study) and alcohol consumption. No association between the hTERT rs2736098 G>A polymorphism and ESCC risk was observed.
TERT-CLPTM1L rs401681 CT and CT/TT genotypes were associated with decreased risk of ESCC, particularly among men, young patients and those reported to be drinkers. However, our results are preliminary conclusions. Larger studies with more rigorous study designs are required to confirm the current findings.
Dysregulation of glycoproteins is closely related with many diseases. Quantitative proteomics methods are powerful tools for the detection of glycoprotein alterations. However, in almost all quantitative glycoproteomics studies, trypsin is used as the only protease to digest proteins. This conventional method is unable to quantify N-glycosites in very short or long tryptic peptides and so comprehensive glycoproteomics analysis cannot be achieved.
In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the difference of N-glycoproteome between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal human liver tissues was performed by an integrated workflow combining the multiple protease digestion and solid phase based labeling. The quantified N-glycoproteins were analyzed by GoMiner to obtain a comparative view of cellular component, biological process and molecular function.
An integrated workflow was developed which enabled the processes of glycoprotein coupling, protease digestion and stable isotope labeling to be performed in one reaction vessel. This workflow was firstly evaluated by analyzing two aliquots of the same protein extract from normal human liver tissue. It was demonstrated that the multiple protease digestion improved the glycoproteome coverage and the quantification accuracy. This workflow was further applied to the differential analysis of N-glycoproteome of normal human liver tissue and that with hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 2,329 N-glycosites on 1,052 N-glycoproteins were quantified. Among them, 858 N-glycosites were quantified from more than one digestion strategy with over 99% confidence and 1,104 N-glycosites were quantified from only one digestion strategy with over 95% confidence. By comparing the GoMiner results of the N-glycoproteins with and without significant changes, the percentage of membrane and secreted proteins and their featured biological processes were found to be significant different revealing that protein glycosylation may play the vital role in the development of HCC.
N-glycoproteome; N-glycosite; Multiple protease digestion; Quantitative analysis
Nowadays, there is a greater need for energy efficient and stable underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Underwater sensors usually do not have enough power, so the goal of underwater sensor networks is to make the network have a long lifetime. An underwater heterogeneous sensor network (UWHSN) is one way to cluster the sensors, and the application of UWHSNs is simple and fast, but robots, lifetime and energy-partition are all drawbacks of UWHSNs. In this paper we propose the underwater isomorphic sensor network (UWISN) clustering technology. By analyzing the characteristics of UWISNs, we determine that an UWISN has strong expansibility, mobility, energy-efficiency and long lifetime. An UWISN adopts normal sensor nodes to be cluster heads, and these cluster heads communicate with each other. This paper seeks the optimal number of clusters and uses FCM to elect cluster heads and establish the network. In addition, an idea of real cluster heads and the method to elect them have been proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the solution is effective and UWISNs can improve the energy consumption of an UWSN.
underwater sensors; UWHSN; UWISN; clustering; energy efficient; energy balance
Optimal sensor distribution in explosion testing is important in saving test costs and improving experiment efficiency. Aiming at travel time tomography in an explosion, an optimizing method in sensor distribution is proposed to improve the inversion stability. The influence factors of inversion stability are analyzed and the evaluating function on optimizing sensor distribution is proposed. This paper presents a sub-region and multi-scale cell partition method, according to the characteristics of a shock wave in an explosion. An adaptive escaping particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to achieve the optimal sensor distribution. The experimental results demonstrate that optimal sensor distribution has improved both indexes and inversion stability.
sensor distribution design; travel time tomography; explosion; sub-region and multi-scale cells; adaptive escaping particle swarm optimization
The objectives of this work were to develop an antibiotic coating on the surface of a titanium plate to determine its antibacterial properties in vitro and in vivo. To prepare vancomycin-coated titanium implants, we adopted the electrospinning nanotechnique. The surface structure of the coating implants was observed using a scanning electron microscope. An elution method and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay were used to characterize the release behavior of vancomycin from the coating. The antibacterial efficacy and the cytotoxicity of the coated titanium implants on osteoblasts were investigated in vitro. In addition, X-ray, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and pathological examination were performed to validate its antimicrobial efficacy in vivo. The antibiotic coating released 82.7% (approximately 528.2 μg) of total vancomycin loading in the coating in vitro. The release behavior of vancomycin from nanofiber coatings exhibited a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst on day 1, followed by a slow and controlled release over 28 days. There was no cytotoxicity observed in vitro for the vancomycin-loaded coating. The vancomycin-coated titanium implants were active in treating implant-associated infection in vivo. Thus, vancomycin-coated titanium implants may be a promising approach to prevent and treat implant-associated infections.
electrospinning; vancomycin; implant; infection; coating; nanofibers
Esophageal cancer was the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in China in 2009. Genetic factors might play an important role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carcinogenesis.
Designs and Methods
To evaluate the effect p21, p53, TP53BP1 and p73 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of ESCC, we conducted a hospital based case–control study. A total of 629 ESCC cases and 686 controls were recruited. Their genotypes were determined using ligation detection reaction (LDR) method.
When the p21 rs3176352 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the CC genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC. When the p73 rs1801173 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the CT genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC. After Bonferroni correction, for p21 rs3176352 G>C, the pcorrect was still significant. For the other six SNPs, in all comparison models, no association between the polymorphisms and ESCC risk was observed.
p21 rs3176352 G>C and p73 rs1801173 C>T SNPs are associated with increased risk of ESCC. To confirm the current findings, additional, larger studies and tissue-specific biological characterization are required.
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly considered to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) after liver transplantation. Rapid regeneration is also considered essential for the survival of SFS grafts.
Mouse models of full-size orthotopic liver transplantation, 50% partial liver transplantation and 30% partial liver transplantation were established. Survival rate and serum alanine aminotransferase were observed. IRI was assessed by hepatic pathologic alterations, apoptosis and necrosis. Regeneration response was detected by mitotic index, BrdU incorporation and PCNA, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E expression. The expression of mTOR, AKT, ERK, JNK2 and p70S6K, also involved in regeneration signaling pathways, were analyzed as well.
30% partial liver graft resulted in a significantly low 7-day survival rate (P = 0.002) with no marked difference in tissue injury compared with the 50% partial graft group. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels were not significantly different between partial transplantation and full-size transplantation. Western blot analysis of caspase-3 and TUNEL staining also indicated no significant difference in apoptosis response between 30% partial transplantation and half-size or full-size transplantation (P = 0.436, P = 0.113, respectively). However, liver regeneration response indicators, mitotic index (P<0.0001) and BrdU (P = 0.0022), were markedly lower in 30% LTx compared with 50% LTx. Suppressed expression of PCNA, cyclin D1, cyclin E, mTOR, JNK2, AKT, ERK and p70S6K was also detected by western blot.
Liver regeneration is markedly suppressed in SFSS, and is more likely the primary cause of SFSS, rather than ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therapy for recovering graft regeneration could be a potentially important strategy to reduce the incidence of SFSS.
Aplastic anemia is a heterogeneous disorder of bone marrow failure syndrome. Accumulating evidence indicates that both acquired and congenital aplastic anemia is linked to telomerase activity and telomere length. Chinese herbal medicine Tianshengyuan-1 (TSY-1), a liquid extraction of multiple Chinese herbs, appears to stimulate hematopoiesis in patients with bone marrow deficiencies; however, the exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of TSY-1 on telomere length and telomerase activity. We first investigated the effects of TSY on in vitro cultured cell lines including CD34+ hepatic stem cells and CD4+/CD8- Jurkat cells. An immune-mediated murine aplastic anemia model and human samples, including peripheral blood samples of 4 healthy donors and bone marrow hematopoietic cells from 4 patients with hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), were also used to test the efficacy of TSY on hematopoiesis, telomerase activity and telomere length. Our results indicated that TSY-1 increased the telomerase activity and telomere length in a dose-response manner in vitro, in vivo, and in human samples including 3 of 4 healthy individuals and 3 of 4 bone marrow samples from MDS patients. In immune-mediated murine aplastic anemia model, TSY-1 activity on Telomere length was parallel to the significant increasing of the RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count in peripheral blood, increasing of CD34+ cell count and hematopoiesis, and decreasing of fatty infiltration in bone marrow samples. Our study demonstrated that TSY-1 may exert its effects by modulating telomerase activity of hematopoietic cells. Further studies are warranted to explore the precise molecular mechanisms of how TSY-1 regulates telomerase activity and telomere length, and also to test the TSY-1 in randomized control trials.
TSY-1; hematopoietic cells; telomerase; telomere
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industrial, household, and healthcare-related products due to their excellent antimicrobial activity. With increased exposure of AgNPs to human beings, the risk of safety has attracted much attention from the public and scientists. In review of recent studies, we discuss the potential impact of AgNPs on individuals at the cell level. In detail, we highlight the main effects mediated by AgNPs on the cell, such as cell uptake and intracellular distribution, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunological responses, as well as some of the major factors that influence these effects in vivo and in vivo, such as dose, time, size, shape, surface chemistry, and cell type. At the end, we summarize the main influences on the cell and indicate the challenges in this field, which may be helpful for assessing the risk of AgNPs in future.
Silver nanoparticles; cell effects; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; immunological response; risk assessment
Esophageal cancer was the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in China in 2009. Genetic factors might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate ten NAT2 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of ESCC. Six hundred and twenty-nine ESCC cases and 686 controls were recruited. Their genotypes were determined using the ligation detection reaction method. In the single locus analyses, there was a borderline statistically significant difference in genotype frequencies of NAT2 rs1565684 T>C SNP between the cases and the controls (p = 0.057). The NAT2 rs1565684 CC genotype was associated with a borderline significantly increased risk for ESCC (CC vs. TT: adjusted OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 0.97–3.21, p = 0.063 and CC vs. TT/TC: adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.93–3.04, p = 0.085). The association was evident among older patients and patients who never drunk. After the Bonferroni correction, in all comparison models, NAT2 rs1565684 T>C SNP was not associated with ESCC risk (p>0.05). For the other nine NAT2 SNPs, after Bonferroni correction, in all comparison models, the nine SNPs were also not associated with ESCC risk (p>0.05). Thus, nine NAT2 tagging SNPs were not associated with risk of ESCC. NAT2 rs1565684 T>C SNP might play a slight role in ESCC etiology. Additional, larger studies and tissue-specific biological characterization are required to confirm the current findings.
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer associated death worldwide. Besides environmental risk factors, genetic factors might play an important role in the esophageal cancer carcinogenesis. We conducted a hospital based case–control study to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the microRNAs on the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 629 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 686 controls were recruited for this study. The hsa-miR-34b/c rs4938723 T>C, pri-miR-124-1 rs531564 C>G, pre-miR-125a rs12975333 G>T and hsa-miR-423 rs6505162 C>A genotypes were determined using Ligation Detection Reaction (LDR) method. Our results demonstrated that hsa-miR-34b/c rs4938723 CC genotype had a decreased risk of ESCC. The association was evident among patients who never drinking. Hsa-miR-423 rs6505162 C>A might associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC in patients who smoking. These findings indicated that functional polymorphisms hsa-miR-34b/c rs4938723 T>C and hsa-miR-423 rs6505162 C>A might alter individual susceptibility to ESCC. However, our results were obtained with a limited sample size. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm current findings.