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1.  Control of Sexual Differentiation and Behavior by the doublesex gene in Drosophila melanogaster 
Nature neuroscience  2010;13(4):458-466.
Doublesex proteins, part of the structurally and functionally conserved Dmrt gene family, play essential roles in sex determination throughout the animal kingdom. We targeted the insertion of GAL4 into the doublesex (dsx) locus of Drosophila melanogaster, allowing visualization and manipulation of dsx cells in various tissues. In the nervous system, significant differences between the sexes were detected in dsx neuronal numbers, axonal projections, and synaptic density. We show that dsx is required for the development of male-specific neurons that co-express fruitless (fru), a key regulator of male sexual behavior. We propose that both dsx and fru act together to form the neuronal framework necessary for male sexual behavior. Significantly, we show that disrupting dsx neuronal function has profound effects on male sexual behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate a role for dsx neurons in pre- through to post-copulatory female reproductive behaviors.
doi:10.1038/nn.2515
PMCID: PMC3092424  PMID: 20305646
2.  The Sex-Determination Genes fruitless and doublesex Specify a Neural Substrate Required for Courtship Song 
Current biology : CB  2007;17(17):1473-1478.
Summary
Courtship song is a critical component of male courtship behavior in Drosophila, making the female more receptive to copulation and communicating species-specific information [1-6]. Sex mosaic studies have shown that the sex of certain regions of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to song production [7]. Our examination of one of these regions, the mesothoracic ganglion (Msg), revealed the coexpression of two sex-determination genes, fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx). Because both genes are involved in creating a sexually dimorphic CNS [8, 9] and are necessary for song production [10-13], we investigated the individual contributions of fru and dsx to the specification of a male CNS and song production. We show a novel requirement for dsx in specifying a sexually dimorphic population of fru-expressing neurons in the Msg. Moreover, by using females constitutively expressing the male-specific isoforms of fru (FruM), we show a critical requirement for the male isoform of dsx (DsxM), alongside FruM, in the specification of courtship song. Therefore, although FruM expression is sufficient for the performance of many male-specific behaviors [14], we have shown that without DsxM, the determination of a male-specific CNS and thus a full complement of male behaviors are not realized.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.047
PMCID: PMC2583281  PMID: 17716899
3.  The Sex-Determination Genes fruitless and doublesex Specify a Neural Substrate Required for Courtship Song 
Current Biology  2007;17(17-3):1473-1478.
Summary
Courtship song is a critical component of male courtship behavior in Drosophila, making the female more receptive to copulation and communicating species-specific information [1–6]. Sex mosaic studies have shown that the sex of certain regions of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to song production [7]. Our examination of one of these regions, the mesothoracic ganglion (Msg), revealed the coexpression of two sex-determination genes, fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx). Because both genes are involved in creating a sexually dimorphic CNS [8, 9] and are necessary for song production [10–13], we investigated the individual contributions of fru and dsx to the specification of a male CNS and song production. We show a novel requirement for dsx in specifying a sexually dimorphic population of fru-expressing neurons in the Msg. Moreover, by using females constitutively expressing the male-specific isoforms of fru (FruM), we show a critical requirement for the male isoform of dsx (DsxM), alongside FruM, in the specification of courtship song. Therefore, although FruM expression is sufficient for the performance of many male-specific behaviors [14], we have shown that without DsxM, the determination of a male-specific CNS and thus a full complement of male behaviors are not realized.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.047
PMCID: PMC2583281  PMID: 17716899
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