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1.  Impact of surgical ventricular reconstruction on sphericity index in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: follow-up from the STICH trial 
European journal of heart failure  2015;17(4):453-463.
Aims
We sought to evaluate associations between baseline sphericity index (SI) and clinical outcome, and changes in SI after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients enrolled in the SVR study (Hypothesis 2) of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial.
Methods and results
Among 1,000 patients in the STICH SVR study, we evaluated 546 patients (255 randomized to CABG alone and 291 to CABG+SVR) whose baseline SI values were available. SI was not significantly different between treatment groups at baseline. After 4 months, SI had increased in the CABG+SVR group, but was unchanged in the CABG alone group (0.69 ± 0.10 to 0.77 ± 0.12 versus 0.67 ± 0.07 to 0.66 ± 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). SI did not significantly change from 4 months to 2 years in either group. Although LV end-systolic volume and ejection fraction improved significantly more in the CABG+SVR group compared to CABG alone, the severity of mitral regurgitation significantly improved only in the CABG alone group and estimated LV filling pressure (E/A ratio) increased only in the CABG+SVR group. Higher baseline SI was associated with worse survival after surgery (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.02−1.43; P = 0.026). Survival was not significantly different by treatment strategy.
Conclusion
Although SVR was designed to improve LV geometry, SI worsened after SVR despite improved LV ejection fraction and smaller LV volume. Survival was significantly better in patients with lower SI regardless of treatment strategy. (THE STICH TRIAL: Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure trial; NCT00023595)
doi:10.1002/ejhf.256
PMCID: PMC4664050  PMID: 25779355
Sphericity index; Surgical ventricular reconstruction and STICH
2.  Reduction in Overall Occurrences of Ischemic Events With Vorapaxar: Results From TRACER 
Background
Clinical trials traditionally use time‐to‐first‐event analysis embedded within the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. However, many patients have >1 event, and this approach may not reflect overall experience. We addressed this by analyzing all cardiovascular events in TRACER.
Methods and Results
TRACER randomized 12 944 patients with non‐ST‐segment elevation acute coronary syndromes to placebo or to protease‐activated receptor 1 antagonist vorapaxar with a median follow‐up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667). Analysis of vorapaxar's effect on recurrent CVD, MI, or stroke was prespecified using the Wei, Lin, and Weissfeld approach. Vorapaxar did not reduce the first occurrence of the primary endpoint of CVD, MI, stroke, revascularization, or rehospitalization for recurrent ischemia, but reduced the secondary composite endpoint of CVD, MI, or stroke (14.7% vorapaxar vs. 16.4% placebo; hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02; number needed to treat [NNT], 81). Recurrent secondary events occurred in 2.7% of patients. Vorapaxar reduced overall occurrences of ischemic events, first and subsequent (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; P=0.02; NNT, 51). Also, there was a trend indicating that vorapaxar reduced the expanded endpoint, including revascularization and rehospitalization for recurrent ischemia (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.01; P=0.09). Vorapaxar increased overall occurrences of moderate and severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries bleeding (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.66; P<0.001) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction clinically significant bleeding (HR, 1.550; 95% CI, 1.403 to 1.713; P<0.001).
Conclusions
Vorapaxar reduced overall occurrences of ischemic events, but increased bleeding. These exploratory findings broaden our understanding of vorapaxar's potential and expand our understanding of the value of capturing recurrent events.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00527943.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001032
PMCID: PMC4310394  PMID: 25012288
acute coronary syndromes; recurrent events; vorapaxar
3.  The effect of cangrelor and access site on ischaemic and bleeding events: insights from CHAMPION PHOENIX 
European Heart Journal  2015;37(14):1122-1130.
Aims
To assess whether the use of the femoral or radial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) interacted with the efficacy and safety of cangrelor, an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor, in CHAMPION PHOENIX.
Methods and results
A total of 11 145 patients were randomly assigned in a double-dummy, double-blind manner either to a cangrelor bolus and 2-h infusion or to clopidogrel at the time of PCI. The primary endpoint, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis, and the primary safety endpoint, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) defined severe bleeding, were evaluated at 48 h. Of the patients undergoing PCI and receiving study drug treatment, a total of 8064 (74%) and 2855 (26%) patients underwent femoral or radial PCI, respectively. Among the femoral cohort, the primary endpoint rate was 4.8% with cangrelor vs. 6.0% with clopidogrel (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.79 [0.65–0.96]); among the radial cohort, the primary endpoint was 4.4% with cangrelor vs. 5.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 0.76 [0.54–1.06]), P-interaction 0.83. The rate of GUSTO severe bleeding in the femoral cohort was 0.2% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.73 [0.51–5.93]). Among the radial cohort, the rate of GUSTO severe bleeding was 0.1% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [0.14–7.28]), P-interaction 0.65. The evaluation of safety endpoints with the more sensitive ACUITY-defined bleeding found major bleeding in the femoral cohort to be 5.2% with cangrelor vs. 3.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35–2.12]); among the radial cohort the rate of ACUITY major bleeding was 1.5% with cangrelor vs. 0.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 2.17 [1.02–4.62], P-interaction 0.54).
Conclusion
In CHAMPION PHOENIX, cangrelor reduced ischaemic events with no significant increase in GUSTO-defined severe bleeding. The absolute rates of bleeding, regardless of the definition, tended to be lower when PCI was performed via the radial artery.
Clinical trial registration
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01156571.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv498
PMCID: PMC4823635  PMID: 26400827
Percutaneous coronary intervention; Platelet inhibition; Radial artery
4.  New ST-depression: an under-recognized high-risk category of ‘complete’ ST-resolution after reperfusion therapy 
Aim:
It is not known if there is an association between resolution of ST-elevation to ST-depression following fibrinolysis and 30-day mortality.
Methods:
In an ECG substudy of HERO-2, which compared bivalirudin to unfractionated heparin following streptokinase in 12,556 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction ECGs were recorded at baseline and at 60 minutes after commencing fibrinolysis. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality.
Results:
Using summed ST-segment elevation and five categories of changes in the infarct leads, further ST-elevation, 0–30% ST-resolution, >30–70% (partial) ST-resolution, >70% (complete) ST-resolution, and new ST-depression occurred in 21.7, 24.9, 36.8, 14.8, and 1.8% of patients, with 30-day mortality of 12.3, 11.7, 8.0, 4.2, and 8.1%, respectively. For the comparison of new ST-depression with complete ST-resolution and no ST-depression, p<0.01 with 24-hour mortality 4.5 vs. 1.3%, respectively (p=0.0003). Patients with new ST-depression had similar peak cardiac enzyme elevations as patients with complete ST-resolution without ST-depression. On multivariate analysis including summed ST-elevation at baseline, age, sex, and infarct location, new ST-depression was a significant predictor of 30-day mortality (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.42–4.29).
Conclusions:
In patients with complete ST-resolution following fibrinolysis, new ST-depression at 60 minutes developed in 10.8% of patients. These patients had higher mortality than patients with complete ST-resolution without ST-depression and represent a high-risk group which could benefit from rapid triage to early angiography and revascularization as appropriate.
doi:10.1177/2048872612454841
PMCID: PMC3760535  PMID: 24062909
Fibrinolysis; mortality; new ST-depression
5.  Effects of timing, location and definition of reinfarction on mortality in patients with totally occluded infarct related arteries late after myocardial infarction 
Structured Abstract
Background
The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) randomized stable patients (n=2,201) >24 hours (calendar days 3–28) after myocardial infarction (MI) with totally occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA), to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with optimal medical therapy, or optimal medical therapy alone (MED). PCI had no impact on the composite of death, reinfarction, or class IV heart failure over extended follow-up of up to 9 years. We evaluated the impact of early and late reinfarction and definition of MI on subsequent mortality.
Methods and Results
Reinfarction was adjudicated according to an adaptation of the 2007 universal definition of MI and the OAT definition (≥2 of the following - symptoms, EKG and biomarkers). Cox regression models were used to analyze the effect of post-randomization reinfarction and baseline variables on time to death.
After adjustment for baseline characteristics the 169 (PCI: n=95; MED: n=74) patients who developed reinfarction by the universal definition had a 4.15-fold (95% CI 3.03–5.69, p<0.001) increased risk of death compared to patients without reinfarction. This risk was similar for both treatment groups (interaction p=0.26) and when MI was defined by the stricter OAT criteria. Reinfarctions occurring within 6 months of randomization had similar impact on mortality as reinfarctions occurring later, and the impact of reinfarction due to the same IRA and a different epicardial vessel was similar.
Conclusions
For stable post-MI patients with totally occluded infarct arteries, reinfarction significantly independently increased the risk of death regardless of the initial management strategy (PCI vs. MED), reinfarction definition, location and early or late occurrence.
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.03.149
PMCID: PMC4067126  PMID: 24726166
Reinfarction; late revascularization; myocardial infarction; mortality
6.  Meta-Analysis of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Incidence, Predictors, and Clinical Outcomes 
Background
Little is known about the incidence, predictors, or outcomes of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). We aimed to determine the incidence and timing of ICH, characterize the location of ICH, and identify independent baseline predictors of ICH in NSTE ACS patients.
Methods and Results
We pooled patient-level data from 4 contemporary antithrombotic therapy trials. Multivariable modeling identified independent predictors of ICH. ICHs were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. Of 37 815 patients, 135 (0.4%) had an ICH. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) follow-up was 332 (184, 434) days but differed across trials. Locations of ICH were intracerebral (50%), subdural (31%), subarachnoid (18.5%), and intraventricular (11%). Independent predictors of ICH were older age (HR per 10 years, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.91); prior stroke/transient ischemic attack; HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.35), higher systolic blood pressure; HR per 10 mm Hg increase, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18), and larger number of antithrombotic agents (HR per each additional agent, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.84). Of all ICHs, 45 (33%) were fatal.
Conclusions
In patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in recent clinical trials of antithrombotic therapies, ICH was uncommon. Patients with older age, prior transient ischemic attack/stroke, higher systolic blood pressure, or larger number of antithrombotic agents were at increased risk. One-third of patients with ICH died. These data may be useful to trialists and data and safety monitoring committees for trial conduct and monitoring.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifiers: TRACER: NCT00527943, PLATO: NCT00391872, APPRAISE-2: NCT00831441, TRILOGY ACS: NCT00699998.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001512
PMCID: PMC4599523  PMID: 26089177
acute coronary syndromes; clinical outcomes; intracranial hemorrhage; systematic review
7.  Renal impairment and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction early post-myocardial infarction 
World Journal of Cardiology  2010;2(1):13-18.
AIM: To study if impaired renal function is associated with increased risk of peri-infarct heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF).
METHODS: Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs) between 1 to 28 d after myocardial infarction (MI) were grouped into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rates of early post-MI HF were compared among eGFR groups. Logistic regression was used to explore independent predictors of HF.
RESULTS: Reduced eGFR was present in 71.1% of 2160 patients, with significant renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min every 1.73 m2) in 14.8%. The prevalence of HF was higher with worsening renal function: 15.5%, 17.8% and 29.4% in patients with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 or 4, respectively (P < 0.0001), despite a small absolute difference in mean EF across eGFR groups: 48.2 ± 10.0, 47.9 ± 11.3 and 46.2 ± 12.1, respectively (P = 0.02). The prevalence of HF was again higher with worsening renal function among patients with preserved EF: 10.1%, 13.6% and 23.6% (P < 0.0001), but this relationship was not significant among patients with depressed EF: 27.1%, 26.2% and 37.9% (P = 0.071). Moreover, eGFR was an independent correlate of HF in patients with preserved EF (P = 0.003) but not in patients with depressed EF (P = 0.181).
CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of post-MI patients with occluded IRAs have impaired renal function. Impaired renal function was associated with an increased rate of early post-MI HF, the association being strongest in patients with preserved EF. These findings have implications for management of peri-infarct HF.
doi:10.4330/wjc.v2.i1.13
PMCID: PMC2946261  PMID: 20885993
Heart failure; Myocardial infarction; Kidney disease
8.  Impact of Human Development Index on the profile and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome 
Heart  2014;101(4):279-286.
Objective
To study the impact of national economic and human development status on patient profiles and outcomes in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes trial (TRILOGY ACS) population (51 countries; 9301 patients). Outcome measures compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes through 30 months by 2010 country-level United Nations Human Development Indices (HDIs) and per-capita gross national income.
Results
TRILOGY ACS enrolled 3659 patients from 27 very-high HDI countries, 3744 from 18 high-HDI countries and 1898 from 6 medium-HDI countries. Baseline characteristics of groups varied significantly, with the medium-HDI group having a lower mean age (63.0 years, vs 65.0 and 68.0 years for high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively; p<0.001), lower baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and lower rate of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (58.0%, vs 62.2% and 83.9% among high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively). Medium-HDI and high-HDI patients had lower unadjusted 30-month rates for the composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke (17.6%, 16.9% and 23.1% for medium-HDI, high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively); this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Adjusted HRs for the composite endpoint were lower in lower-income/middle-income countries vs upper-income/middle-income (0.791(95% CI 0.632 to 0.990)) and high-income countries (0.756 (95% CI 0.616 to 0.928)), with differences largely attributable to myocardial infarction rates.
Conclusions
Clinical patient profiles differed substantially by country HDI groupings. Lower unadjusted event rates in medium-HDI countries may be explained by younger age and lower comorbidity burden among these countries’ patients. This heterogeneity in patient recruitment across country HDI groupings may have important implications for future global ACS trial design.
Trial registration number
NCT00699998.
doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306389
PMCID: PMC4345920  PMID: 25538134
9.  Ischaemic cardiac outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonism or factor Xa inhibition: results from the ROCKET AF trial 
European Heart Journal  2013;35(4):233-241.
Aims
We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients.
Methods and results
In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59–3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10).
Conclusion
Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht428
PMCID: PMC3896862  PMID: 24132190
Atrial fibrillation; Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Outcomes; Factor Xa; Rivaroxaban; Warfarin
10.  Reinfarction Following PCI or Medical Management using the Universal Definition in Patients With Total Occlusion After Myocardial Infarction: Results from Long Term Follow up of the OAT Cohort 
American heart journal  2012;163(4):563-571.
Background
The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) randomized 2201 patients with a totally occluded infarct-related artery on days 3–28 (>24 hours) following myocardial infarction (MI) to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or medical treatment (MED). There was no difference in the primary endpoint of death, reinfarction or heart failure at 2.9 year or 6-year mean follow-up. However in patients randomized to PCI there was a trend for an increase in reinfarction.
Methods
We analyzed the characteristics and types of reinfarction according to the universal definition. Independent predictors of reinfarction were determined using Cox proportional hazard models with follow up to 9 years.
Results
There were 169 reinfarctions; 9.4% PCI vs 8.0% MED, HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.97 −1.77, p=0.08. Spontaneous reinfarction (type 1) occurred with similar frequency in the groups; 4.9% PCI vs 6.7% MED, HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 – 1.15, p=0.21. Rates of type 2 (secondary) and 3 (sudden death) MI were similar in both groups. There was an increase in type 4a reinfarctions (related to protocol or repeat PCI), 0.8% PCI vs 0.1% MED, p=0.01 and type 4b reinfarctions (stent thrombosis); 2.7% PCI vs 0.6% MED, p<0.001.
Multivariate predictors of reinfarction were history of PCI prior to study entry (p=0.001), diabetes (p=0.005), and absence of new Q waves with the index infarction (p=0.01).
Conclusions
There was a trend for reMI to be more frequent with PCI. Opening an occluded infarct-related artery in stable patients late post-MI exposes them to a risk of subsequent reinfarction related to reocclusion and stent thrombosis.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2012.01.016
PMCID: PMC4238915  PMID: 22520521
reinfarction; universal definition; occluded infarct artery
11.  A SEVERITY SCORING SYSTEM FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIOGENIC SHOCK: A REPORT FROM THE SHOCK TRIAL AND REGISTRY 
American heart journal  2010;160(3):443-450.
Background
Early revascularization (ERV) is beneficial in the management of CS complicating myocardial infarction. The severity of CS varies widely, and identification of independent risk factors for outcome is needed. The effect of ERV on mortality in different risk strata is also unknown. We created a severity scoring system for cardiogenic shock (CS) and used it to examine the potential benefit of ERV in different risk strata using data from the SHOCK Trial and Registry.
Methods
Data from 1217 patients (294 from the randomized trial and 923 from the registry) with CS due to pump failure were included in a Stage 1 severity scoring system using clinical variables. A Stage 2 scoring system was developed using data from 872 patients who had invasive hemodynamic measurements. The outcome was in-hospital mortality at 30 days.
Results
In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 57%. Multivariable modeling identified eight risk factors (Stage 1): age, shock on admission, clinical evidence of end-organ hypoperfusion, anoxic brain damage, systolic BP, prior CABG, non-inferior MI, and creatinine≥1.9 mg/dl (c-statistic=0.74). Mortality ranged from 22–88% by score category. ERV benefit was greatest in moderate-to-high-risk patients (p=0.02). The Stage 2 model based on patients with pulmonary artery catheterization included age, end-organ hypoperfusion, anoxic brain damage, stroke work and LVEF<28% (c-statistic=0.76). In this cohort the effect of ERV did not vary by risk stratum.
Conclusions
Simple clinical predictors provide good discrimination of mortality risk in CS complicating MI. ERV is associated with improved survival across a broad range of risk strata.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.06.024
PMCID: PMC4229030  PMID: 20826251
cardiogenic shock; myocardial infarction; risk assessment
12.  Factors Associated With Major Bleeding Events 
Objectives
This study sought to report additional safety results from the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation).
Background
The ROCKET AF trial demonstrated similar risks of stroke/systemic embolism and major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding (principal safety endpoint) with rivaroxaban and warfarin.
Methods
The risk of the principal safety and component bleeding endpoints with rivaroxaban versus warfarin were compared, and factors associated with major bleeding were examined in a multivariable model.
Results
The principal safety endpoint was similar in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups (14.9 vs. 14.5 events/100 patient-years; hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.11). Major bleeding risk increased with age, but there were no differences between treatments in each age category (<65, 65 to 74, ≥75 years; pinteraction = 0.59). Compared with those without (n = 13,455), patients with a major bleed (n = 781) were more likely to be older, current/prior smokers, have prior gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, mild anemia, and a lower calculated creatinine clearance and less likely to be female or have a prior stroke/transient ischemic attack. Increasing age, baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were independently associated with major bleeding risk; female sex and DBP <90 mm Hg were associated with a decreased risk.
Conclusions
Rivaroxaban and warfarin had similar risk for major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding. Age, sex, DBP, prior GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were associated with the risk of major bleeding. (An Efficacy and Safety Study of Rivaroxaban With Warfarin for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: NCT00403767)
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.013
PMCID: PMC4206565  PMID: 24315894
anticoagulants; atrial fibrillation; hemorrhage
14.  Cardiogenic SHOCK Without Flow-Limiting Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease – (From The SHOCK Trial And Registry) 
Myocardial infarction (MI) often develops when thrombosis occurs at lesions which have not previously been flow-limiting. However, the development of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction in such circumstances has received little attention. We studied the characteristics of 15 patients with cardiogenic shock who had no flow-limiting angiographic stenosis compared to 767 patients with at least one stenosis, who were enrolled in the SHOCK Trial and Registry. Compared to patients with at least one flow-limiting stenosis, patients with no flow-limiting stenosis were less likely to have pulmonary edema on chest x-ray (29% v 62%, P=0.008), and to have white ethnicity (53% v 82%, P = 0.011), and had lower median highest creatine kinase levels (702 v 2731 u/l; P = 0.018). For SHOCK Trial patients 1-year survival was 49% for patients with at least one flow-limiting stenosis and 71% for those with no flow-limiting stenosis (P= 0.268).
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.03.002
PMCID: PMC4060258  PMID: 19576316
no flow-limiting stenosis; myocardial infarction; cardiogenic shock
15.  Outcomes among non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with no angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease: observations from 37,101 patients 
Aims:
Limited data exist concerning outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) with no angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease (non-obstructive CAD). We assessed the frequency of clinical outcomes among patients with non-obstructive CAD compared with obstructive CAD.
Methods and results:
We pooled data from eight NSTE ACS randomized clinical trials from 1994 to 2008, including 37,101 patients who underwent coronary angiography. The primary outcome was 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 30-day death or MI for non-obstructive versus obstructive CAD were generated for each trial. Summary ORs (95% CIs) across trials were generated using random effects models. Overall, 3550 patients (9.6%) had non-obstructive CAD. They were younger, more were female, and fewer had diabetes mellitus, previous MI or prior percutaneous coronary intervention than patients with obstructive CAD. Thirty-day death or MI was less frequent among patients with non-obstructive CAD (2.2%) versus obstructive CAD (13.3%) (ORadj 0.15; 95% CI, 0.11–0.20); 30-day death or spontaneous MI and six-month mortality were also less frequent among patients with non-obstructive CAD (ORadj 0.19 (0.14–0.25) and 0.37 (0.28–0.49), respectively).
Conclusion:
Among patients with NSTE ACS, one in 10 had non-obstructive CAD. Death or MI occurred in 2.2% of these patients by 30 days. Compared with patients with obstructive CAD, the rate of major cardiac events was lower in patients with non-obstructive CAD but was not negligible, prompting the need to better understand management strategies for this group.
doi:10.1177/2048872613489315
PMCID: PMC3932771  PMID: 24562802
Acute coronary syndromes; angiography; atherosclerosis; coronary disease; infarction
16.  Diagnosis of MI after CABG with high-sensitivity troponin T and new ECG or echocardiogram changes: relationship with mortality and validation of the Universal Definition of MI 
Aims:
Criteria for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are controversial. Uncertainties remain around the optimal threshold for biomarker elevation and the need for associated criteria. There are no studies of high-sensitivity troponin (hs-TnT) after CABG. We assessed whether using hs-TnT to define MI after CABG was associated with 30-day and medium-term mortality and evaluated the utility of adding to the troponin criteria new Q-waves or imaging evidence of new wall motion abnormality as suggested in the Universal Definition of MI.
Methods:
Isolated CABG was performed in 818 patients from July 2010 to June 2012 and hs-TnT was measured 12–24 hours after CABG. Patients with rising baseline or missing troponins (n=258) were excluded. Thresholds of 140 ng/l (10-times 99th percentile upper reference limit) and 500 ng/l (10-times coefficient of variation of 10% for fourth-generation troponin T applied to hs-TnT) were prespecified.
Results:
Mean follow up was 1.8±0.6 years. On multivariate analyses, isolated hs-TnT rise >140 ng/l (n=360) or >500 ng/l (n=162) were not associated with mortality. Additional ECG and/or echocardiographic criteria plus hs-TnT >140 ng/l was associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, HR, 4.92, 95% CI 1.34–18.1; p=0.017) and medium-term mortality (HR 3.44, 95% CI 1.13–10.5; p=0.030), whereas ECG and/or echocardiographic abnormalities with hs-TnT >500 ng/l was not (p=0.281 and p=0.123 for 30-day and medium-term mortality, respectively).
Conclusions:
A definition for MI following CABG using hs-TnT with a cut point of 10-times 99th percentile upper reference limit and ECG and/or echocardiographic criteria predicts 30-day and medium-term mortality. These findings validate the Third Universal Definition of type 5 MI.
doi:10.1177/2048872613496941
PMCID: PMC3821829  PMID: 24338291
Coronary artery bypass surgery; high-sensitivity troponin; myocardial infarction; Universal Definition
17.  Changes in Lipoprotein‐Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity Predict Coronary Events and Partly Account for the Treatment Effect of Pravastatin: Results From the Long‐term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease Study 
Background
Lipoprotein‐associated phospholipase A2 (Lp‐PLA2) levels are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy individuals and in patients who have had ischemic events.
Methods and Results
The Long‐term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) study randomized 9014 patients with cholesterol levels of 4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L to placebo or pravastatin 3 to 36 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina and showed a reduction in CHD and total mortality. We assessed the value of baseline and change in Lp‐PLA2 activity to predict outcomes over a 6‐year follow‐up, the effect of pravastatin on Lp‐PLA2 levels, and whether pravastatin treatment effect was related to Lp‐PLA2 activity change. Lp‐PLA2 was measured at randomization and 1 year, and levels were grouped as quartiles. The prespecified end point was CHD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Baseline Lp‐PLA2 activity was positively associated with CHD events (P<0.001) but not after adjustment for 23 baseline factors (P=0.66). In 6518 patients who were event free at 1 year, change in Lp‐PLA2 was a significant independent predictor of subsequent CHD events after adjustment for these risk factors, including LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol changes (P<0.001). Pravastatin reduced Lp‐PLA2 by 16% compared with placebo (P<0.001). After adjustment for Lp‐PLA2 change, the pravastatin treatment effect was reduced from 23% to 10% (P=0.26), with 59% of the treatment effect accounted for by changes in Lp‐PLA2. Similar reductions in treatment effect were seen after adjustment for LDL cholesterol change.
Conclusion
Reduction in Lp‐PLA2 activity during the first year was a highly significant predictor of CHD events, independent of change in LDL cholesterol, and may account for over half of the benefits of pravastatin in the LIPID study.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000360
PMCID: PMC3835245  PMID: 24152981
biomarkers; LIPID; Lp‐PLA2; pravastatin
18.  Early Revascularization Improves Long-Term Survival for Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Background
We previously reported significantly higher one-year survival in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction randomized to receive early revascularization compared with randomization to receive initial medical stabilization.
Methods
The 302 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and an average age of 66 years at randomization in the SHOCK trial had vital status followed long-term, ranging from one to 11 years (median 6 years for survivors). Secondary endpoints included three and six-year survival.
Results
The group difference in survival of 13 absolute percentage points at one year favoring those assigned to early revascularization remained stable at three and six years (13.1% and 13.2%, respectively; logrank P=0.028). At six years, overall survival rates were 32.8% and 19.6% in the early revascularization and initial medical stabilization groups, respectively. Amongst the 143 hospital survivors, the 6-year survival rates were 62.4% vs. 44.4% with annualized death rates of 8.3% and 14.3% and 8.0% and 10.7% for 1 year survivors, respectively. There was no significant interaction between any subgroup and treatment effect.
Conclusions
Almost two-thirds of hospital survivors with cardiogenic shock who were treated with early revascularization are alive six years later. A strategy of early revascularization results in a 13.2% absolute and 67% relative improvement in six-year survival compared with initial medical stabilization. Early revascularization should be utilized for patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock due to left ventricular failure.
doi:10.1001/jama.295.21.2511
PMCID: PMC1782030  PMID: 16757723
Myocardial infarction; Cardiogenic shock; Thrombolysis; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Coronary artery bypass graft surgery; Long-term survival
19.  Comparison of Late Results of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Among Stable Patients ≤ 65 vs. >65 Years of Age With An Occluded Infarct Related Artery (From The Occluded Artery Trial) 
The American Journal of Cardiology  2011;109(5):614-619.
While opening an occluded infarct-related artery (IRA) > 24 hours post myocardial infarction in stable patients in the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) did not reduce events over 7 years, there was a suggestion that effect of treatment may differ by patient age. Baseline characteristics and outcomes by treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs. optimal medical therapy (MED) alone were compared by pre-specified stratification at age 65. P<0.01 was pre-specified as significant for OAT secondary analyses. The primary outcome was death, myocardial infarction or Class IV heart failure. Patients > 65 years of age (n=641) were more likely to be female, non-smokers, and to have hypertension, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and multivessel disease compared to younger patients (age ≤ 65, n=1560), p<0.001. There was no significant observed interaction between treatment assignment and age for the primary outcome after adjustment (p=0.1) and there was no difference between PCI and MED observed in either age group. At 7 year follow-up, younger patients tended to have angina more often compared to the older group (H.R. 1.21, 99% CI: 1.00–1.46, p=0.01). The 7-year composite primary outcome was more common in older patients (p<0.001), and age remained significant after co-variate adjustment (H.R. 1.42, 99% CI: 1.09–1.84). The rate of early PCI complications was low in both age groups. The trend toward a differential effect of PCI in the young vs. the old for the primary outcome was likely driven by measured and unmeasured confounders, and by chance. PCI reduces angina to a similar degree in the young and old. There is no indication for routine PCI to open a persistently occluded IRA in stable patients post-MI regardless of age.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.10.015
PMCID: PMC3288611  PMID: 22172242
Elderly; PCI; Age; occlusion
20.  Long Term Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of the Totally Occluded Infarct-Related Artery in the Subacute Phase after Myocardial Infarction 
Circulation  2011;124(21):2320-2328.
Background
Despite observations suggesting a benefit for late opening of occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) post-myocardial infarction (MI), the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) demonstrated no reduction in the composite of death, reinfarction and class IV heart failure (HF) over 2.9-yearmean follow-up. Follow-up was extended to determine whether late trends would favor either treatment group.
Methods and Results
OAT randomized 2201 stable patients with IRA occlusion >24hours (calendar days3-28) after MI. Severe inducible ischemia, rest angina, class III-IV HF and 3-vessel/left main disease were excluded. We conducted extended followed up of enrolled patients for an additional 3 years for the primary endpoint and angina (6-year median survivor follow up, longest 9 years, 12,234 patient-years).Rates of the primary endpoint (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.28), fatal and nonfatal MI (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.89-1.75), death and class IV HF were similar for PCI vs. MED groups. No interaction between baseline characteristics and treatment group on outcomes were observed. The vast majority of patients at each follow-up visit did not report angina. There was less angina in the PCI group through early in follow-up; by 3 years the between group difference was consistently <4 patients per 100 treated and not significantly different though there was a trend toward less angina in the PCI group at 3 and 5 years. The 7-year rate of PCI of the IRA during follow up was 11.1% for the PCI group compared to 14.7% for the MED group (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-1.01. p=0.06).
Conclusions
Extended follow up of the OAT cohort provides robust evidence for no reduction of long-term rates of clinical events after routine PCI in stable patients with an occluded IRA and without severe inducible ischemia in the subacute phase post-MI.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.041749
PMCID: PMC3235739  PMID: 22025606
myocardial infarction; stents; trials
21.  Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Sustained Ventricular Arrhythmias Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Critical care medicine  2011;39(1):78-83.
Objective
Few data exist to guide antiarrhythmic drug therapy for sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this analysis was to describe survival of patients with sustained VT/VF post-MI according to antiarrhythmic drug treatment.
Design & Setting
We conducted a retrospective analysis of ST-segment elevation MI patients with sustained VT/VF in GUSTO IIB and III and compared all-cause death in patients receiving amiodarone, lidocaine, or no antiarrhythmic. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling and inverse weighted estimators to adjust for baseline characteristics, beta-blocker use, and propensity to receive antiarrhythmics. Due to non-proportional hazards for death in early follow-up (0–3 hours after sustained VT/VF) compared with later follow-up (>3 hours), we analyzed all-cause mortality using time-specific hazards.
Patients & Interventions
Among 19,190 acute MI patients, 1126 (5.9%) developed sustained VT/VF and met the inclusion criteria. Patients received lidocaine (n=664, 59.0%), amiodarone (n=50, 4.4%), both (n=110, 9.8%), or no antiarrhythmic (n=302, 26.8%).
Results
In the first 3 hours after VT/VF, amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21–0.71) and lidocaine (adjusted HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.96) were associated with a lower hazard of death—likely evidence of survivor bias. Among patients who survived 3 hours, amiodarone was associated with increased mortality at 30 days (adjusted HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02–2.86) and 6 months (adjusted HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.21–3.16) but lidocaine was not at 30 days (adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.77–1.82) and 6 months (adjusted HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.73–1.66).
Conclusion
Among patients with acute MI complicated by sustained VT/VF who survive 3 hours, amiodarone, but not lidocaine, is associated with an increased risk of death; reinforcing the need for randomized trials in this population.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181fd6ad7
PMCID: PMC3010352  PMID: 20959785
ventricular arrhythmia; antiarrhythmic drug therapy; clinical trials; acute coronary syndrome; ventricular tachycardia; ventricular fibrillation
22.  aVR ST elevation: an important but neglected sign in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction 
European Heart Journal  2010;31(15):1845-1853.
Aim
This study evaluated the prognostic implications of aVR ST elevation during ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods and results
The Hirulog and Early Reperfusion/Occlusion-2 study randomized 17 073 patients with acute ST elevation AMI within 6 h of symptom onset to receive either bivalirudin or heparin, in addition to streptokinase and aspirin. The treatments had no effect on the primary endpoint of 30-day mortality. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed at randomization and at 60 min after commencing streptokinase. aVR ST elevation ≥1 mm was associated with higher 30-day mortality in 15 315 patients with normal intraventricular conduction regardless of AMI location (14.7% vs. 11.2% for anterior AMI, P = 0.0045 and 16.0% vs. 6.4% for inferior AMI, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for summed ST elevation and ST depression in other leads, associations with higher mortality were found with aVR ST elevation of ≥1.5 mm for anterior [odds ratio 1.69 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.45)] and of ≥1 mm for inferior AMI [odds ratio 2.41 (95% CI 1.76 to 3.30)]. There was a significant interaction between aVR ST elevation and infarct location. Thirty-day mortality was similar with anterior and inferior AMI when aVR ST elevation was present (11.5% vs. 13.2%, respectively, P = 0.51 with 1 mm and 23.5% vs. 22.5% respectively, P = 0.84 with ≥ 1.5 mm ST elevation). After fibrinolytic therapy, resolution of ST elevation in aVR to <1 mm was associated with lower mortality, while new ST elevation ≥1 mm was associated with higher mortality.
Conclusion
aVR ST elevation is an important adverse prognostic sign in AMI.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq161
PMCID: PMC2913115  PMID: 20513728
Electrocardiography; Mortality; Myocardial infarction
23.  The Impact of Collateral Flow to the Occluded Infarct-Related Artery on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Recent Myocardial Infarction. A Report from the Randomized Occluded Artery Trial 
Circulation  2010;121(25):2724-2730.
Background
Collateral flow to the infarct artery territory after acute myocardial infarction may be associated with improved clinical outcomes and may also influence impact the benefit of subsequent recanalization of an occluded infarct-related artery.
Methods and Results
To understand the association between baseline collateral flow to the infarct territory on clinical outcomes and its interaction with PCI of an occluded infarct artery, long-term outcomes in 2173 patients with total occlusion of the infarct artery 3 to 28 days after myocardial infarction, from the OAT randomized trial were analyzed according to angiographic collaterals documented at study entry. There were important differences in baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics as a function of collateral grade, with generally lower risk characteristics associated with higher collateral grade. Higher collateral grade was associated with lower rates of death (p=0.009), class III and IV heart failure (p<0.0001) or either (p=0.0002), but had no association with the risk of reinfarction. However, by multivariate analysis, collateral flow was neither an independent predictor of death, nor of the primary endpoint of the trial (composite of death, reinfarction or class IV heart failure). There was no interaction between angiographic collateral grade and the results of randomized treatment assignment (PCI or medical therapy alone) on clinical outcomes.
Conclusions
In recent myocardial infarction, angiographic collaterals to the occluded infarct artery are correlates but not independent predictors of major clinical outcomes. Late recanalization of the infarct artery in addition to medical therapy shows no benefit compared to medical therapy alone, regardless of the presence or absence of collaterals. Therefore, revascularisation decisions in patients with recent myocardial infarction should not be based on the presence or grade of angiographic collaterals.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.933200
PMCID: PMC2900832  PMID: 20547926
collaterals; heart failure; myocardial infarction; recanalization
24.  Renal impairment and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction early post-myocardial infarction 
World journal of cardiology  2010;2(1):13-18.
AIM
To study if impaired renal function is associated with increased risk of peri-infarct heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF).
METHODS
Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs) between 1 to 28 d after myocardial infarction (MI) were grouped into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rates of early post-MI HF were compared among eGFR groups. Logistic regression was used to explore independent predictors of HF.
RESULTS
Reduced eGFR was present in 71.1% of 2160 patients, with significant renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min every 1.73 m2) in 14.8%. The prevalence of HF was higher with worsening renal function: 15.5%, 17.8% and 29.4% in patients with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 or 4, respectively (P < 0.0001), despite a small absolute difference in mean EF across eGFR groups: 48.2 ± 10.0, 47.9 ± 11.3 and 46.2 ± 12.1, respectively (P = 0.02). The prevalence of HF was again higher with worsening renal function among patients with preserved EF: 10.1%, 13.6% and 23.6% (P < 0.0001), but this relationship was not significant among patients with depressed EF: 27.1%, 26.2% and 37.9% (P = 0.071). Moreover, eGFR was an independent correlate of HF in patients with preserved EF (P = 0.003) but not in patients with depressed EF (P = 0.181).
CONCLUSION
A significant proportion of post-MI patients with occluded IRAs have impaired renal function. Impaired renal function was associated with an increased rate of early post-MI HF, the association being strongest in patients with preserved EF. These findings have implications for management of peri-infarct HF.
doi:10.4330/wjc.v2.i1.13
PMCID: PMC2946261  PMID: 20885993
Heart failure; Myocardial infarction; Kidney disease
25.  Sex Differences in Mortality Following Acute Coronary Syndromes 
Context
There is conflicting information about whether sex-differences modulate short-term mortality following acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Objective
To investigate the relationship between sex and 30-day mortality in ACS, and determine whether this relationship is modified by clinical syndrome or coronary anatomy using a large database across the spectrum of ACS and adjusting for potentially confounding clinical covariates.
Design Setting and Participants
Data from 11 ACS trials from 1993 to 2006 were pooled. Of 136,247 patients, 38,048 (28%) were women; 102,004 (26% women) STEMI, 14,466 (29% women) NSTEMI and 19,777 (40% women) unstable angina (UA).
Main Outcome Measure
Thirty-day mortality following ACS.
Results
Mortality at 30 days was 9.6% in women and 5.3% in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83–2.00). After multivariable adjustment, mortality was not significantly different between women and men (adjusted OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99–1.15). Importantly, a significant sex by type of ACS interaction was demonstrated (P<0.001). In STEMI, 30-day mortality was higher among women (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06–1.24), whereas NSTEMI (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.95), and UA mortality was lower among women (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.70). In a cohort of 35,128 patients with angiographic data, women more often had non-obstructive (15% vs. 8%,) and less often had 2-vessel (25% vs. 28%) and 3-vessel (23% vs. 26%) coronary disease regardless of ACS type. After additional adjustment for angiographic disease severity, 30-day mortality among women was not significantly different than men, regardless of ACS type. The relationship between sex and 30-day mortality was similar across the levels of angiographic disease severity (p-value for interaction =0.70),
Conclusions
Sex-based differences exist in 30-day mortality among ACS patients and vary depending on clinical presentation. However, these differences are markedly attenuated following adjustment for clinical differences and angiographic data.
doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1227
PMCID: PMC2778841  PMID: 19706861

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