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1.  Moses Maimonides: Biographic Outlines 
doi:10.5041/RMMJ.10002
PMCID: PMC3721660  PMID: 23908774
2.  Ethics of Practicing Medical Procedures on Newly Dead and Nearly Dead Patients 
OBJECTIVE
To examine the ethical issues raised by physicians performing, for skill development, medically nonindicated invasive medical procedures on newly dead and dying patients.
DESIGN
Literature review; issue analysis employing current normative ethical obligations, and evaluation against moral rules and utilitarian assessments manifest in other common perimortem practices.
RESULTS
Practicing medical procedures for training purposes is not uncommon among physicians in training. However, empiric information is limited or absent evaluating the effects of this practice on physician competence and ethics, assessing public attitudes toward practicing medical procedures and requirements for consent, and discerning the effects of a consent requirement on physicians' clinical competence. Despite these informational gaps, there is an obligation to secure consent for training activities on newly and nearly dead patients based on contemporary norms for informed consent and family respect. Paradigms of consent-dependent societal benefits elsewhere in health care support our determination that the benefits from physicians practicing procedures does not justify setting aside the informed consent requirement.
CONCLUSION
Current ethical norms do not support the practice of using newly and nearly dead patients for training in invasive medical procedures absent prior consent by the patient or contemporaneous surrogate consent. Performing an appropriately consented training procedure is ethically acceptable when done under competent supervision and with appropriate professional decorum. The ethics of training on the newly and nearly dead remains an insufficiently examined area of medical training.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.11139.x
PMCID: PMC1495118  PMID: 12390553
medical education; invasive procedures; medical ethics
3.  Myocardial infarction in sickle cell disease. 
Vasculo-occlusive crisis with organ infarctions occur in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, heart infarction is not commonly reported. We reviewed 19 cases of documented myocardial infarction (MI) in SCD patients. The true incidence may be higher because the diagnosis was often made at autopsy and was overshadowed during life by other musculoskeletal symptoms. Electrocardiography is frequently unhelpful. Skeletal muscle enzymes confound serum cardiac enzyme interpretation. The mechanism of MI in SCD is not exactly known, as coronary angiography is usually normal. MI frequently occurs in association with hypoxia, cor pulmonale, anemia, sepsis, acidosis, and renal failure. The aim of this article is to increase awareness for this complication and to prompt prospective studies to look at treatment strategies for myocardial infarction in SCD.
PMCID: PMC2594394  PMID: 12078925
4.  Reporting by Physicians of Impaired Drivers and Potentially Impaired Drivers 
Physicians routinely care for patients whose ability to operate a motor vehicle is compromised by a physical or cognitive condition. Physician management of this health information has ethical and legal implications. These concerns have been insufficiently addressed by professional organizations and public agencies. The legal status in the United States and Canada of reporting of impaired drivers is reviewed. The American Medical Association's position is detailed. Finally, the Bioethics Committee of the Medical Society of the State of New York proposes elements for an ethically defensible public response to this problem.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.04309.x
PMCID: PMC1495589  PMID: 11029682
5.  Increasing Autopsy Rates at a Public Hospital 
Despite the acknowledged value of autopsies, autopsy rates are low in American hospitals. We developed an extensive intervention to increase the autopsy rate on the medical service of our urban teaching hospital and to identify obstacles to obtaining permission for autopsy. The 6-month intervention increased the autopsy rate from 7.5% during the previous 2 years to 16.8%, but this effect disappeared after the intervention. Among patients for whom permission for autopsy was not obtained, physicians failed to request permission for 31% and families refused permission for 69%.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1997.012005315.x
PMCID: PMC1497112  PMID: 9159702
autopsy; autopsy rate; permission for autopsy; public hospitals
6.  Pneumococcal Sepsis and Meningitis in Vaccinated Subjects: A Review of 55 Reported Cases 
Fifty-five cases of the occurrence of serious pneumococcal infections in both splenectomized and nonsplenectomized individuals who received pneumococcal vaccine were reviewed from the literature. Reasons for vaccine failure included the occurrence of non-vaccine-type pneumococcal infections (18 cases), possible poor antibody response to the vaccine, especially if it is given postsplenectomy and/or following intensive steroid or other immunosuppressive therapy, and decline in antibody titer over time. Although the total number of vaccinated individuals is unknown, the overwhelming majority of the many thousands of vaccinees have been successfully protected with pneumococcal vaccine. In spite of very rare vaccine failures, pneumococcal vaccination (and perhaps penicillin prophylaxis) is strongly recommended for patients at high risk of developing serious pneumococcal infections, including all individuals undergoing splenectomy for any reason, or for those who have had a splenectomy or have functional asplenia.
PMCID: PMC2625484  PMID: 3586033
7.  Alcoholism in the Elderly: An Analysis of 50 Patients 
The personal, demographic, and socioeconomic aspects of alcoholism in 50 elderly and 50 young alcoholics were examined. A higher number of elderly alcoholics were veterans, widowed, and had a long history of alcoholism when compared with younger alcoholics. During drinking bouts, the younger alcoholics had more blackouts, hallucinations, sleeping difficulties, and loss of appetite than did the elderly alcoholics. These findings must be interpreted with caution in view of the small sample size and the fact that geriatric alcoholics are not a homogeneous group.
PMCID: PMC2561547  PMID: 6864828
8.  Experience of Children with Sickle Cell Anemia in a Regular Summer Camp 
The Sickle Cell Program of the Queens Hospital Center Affiliation of the Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Center arranged for a group of children from the hospital Sickle Cell Clinic to spend one week during the summer of 1978 in a sleepaway camp for healthy children. This paper analyzës the results of the experience.
PMCID: PMC2537527  PMID: 529318
9.  The Effectiveness of Sickle Cell Education in New York City Public Elementary Schools 
The present study attempts to ascertain the effectiveness of the health education component of the Queens Hospital Center Sickle Cell Education & Screening Program. The study is limited to children in grades four through six in the New York City public school system. Such elementary school students, representing a large segment of the population, are easily accessible and can be effectively educated about sickle cell disease. The findings indicate that professional sickle cell educators can successfully teach young children about the disease and can do so more effectively than the average schoolteacher.
PMCID: PMC2537208  PMID: 702589

Results 1-10 (10)