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1.  Residents-as-Teachers Publications: What Can Programs Learn From the Literature When Starting a New or Refining an Established Curriculum? 
Teaching residents how to teach is a critical part of resident education because residents are often the major teachers of medical students. The importance of formal residents-as-teachers (RAT) curricula has been emphasized throughout the literature, yet not all residency programs have such a curriculum in place.
The purpose of our study was to (1) review the medical education literature for established RAT curricula, (2) assess published curricula's reproducibility, (3) evaluate the type of outcomes achieved using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation, and (4) identify curricula that training programs could feasibly adopt.
We performed a literature review using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Embase. Key search words included residents, residents as teachers, teaching, internship and residency, and curriculum. In addition, a search of MedEdPORTAL was performed using the same key terms. Articles were evaluated based on the reproducibility of curricula and the assessment tools. Evaluation of educational outcomes was performed using the Kirkpatrick model.
Thirty-nine articles were deemed appropriate for review. Interventions and evaluation techniques varied greatly. Only 1 article from the literature was deemed to have both curricula and assessments that would be fully reproducible by other programs.
A literature review on RAT curricula found few articles that would be easily reproduced for residency programs that want to start or improve their own RAT curricula. It also demonstrated the difficulty and lack of rigorous outcome measurements for most curricula.
PMCID: PMC4054721  PMID: 24949126
2.  Anesthesiology Residents-as-Teachers Program: A Pilot Study 
The role of residents as teachers has grown over time. Programs have been established within various specialties to formally develop these skills. Anesthesiology residents are frequently asked to provide supervision for novice learners and have numerous opportunities for teaching skills and clinical decision making. Yet, there are no educational programs described in the literature to train anesthesiology residents to teach novice learners.
To explore whether a resident-as-teacher program would increase anesthesiology residents' self-reported teaching skills.
An 8-session interactive Anesthesiology Residents-as-Teachers (ART) Program was developed to emphasize 6 key teaching skills. During a 2-year period, 14 anesthesiology residents attended the ART program. The primary outcome measure was resident self-assessment of their teaching skills across 14 teaching domains, before and 6 months after the ART program. Residents also evaluated the workshops for quality with a 9-item, postworkshop survey. Paired t testing was used for analysis.
Resident self-assessment led to a mean increase in teaching skills of 1.04 in a 5-point Likert scale (P < .001). Residents reported the greatest improvement in writing/using teaching objectives (+1.29, P < .001), teaching at the bedside (+1.57, P  =  .002), and leading case discussions (+1.64, P  =  .001). Residents rated the workshops 4.2 out of 5 (3.9–4.7).
Residents rated their teaching skills as significantly improved in 13 of 14 teaching domains after participation in the ART program. The educational program required few resources and was rated highly by residents.
PMCID: PMC3546586  PMID: 24294434
3.  A Learner-Centered Diabetes Management Curriculum 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(11):2188-2193.
Diabetes errors, particularly insulin administration errors, can lead to complications and death in the pediatric inpatient setting. Despite a lecture-format curriculum on diabetes management at our children’s hospital, resident diabetes-related errors persisted. We hypothesized that a multifaceted, learner-centered diabetes curriculum would help reduce pathway errors.
The 8-week curricular intervention consisted of 1) an online tutorial addressing residents’ baseline diabetes management knowledge, 2) an interactive diabetes pathway discussion, 3) a learner-initiated diabetes question and answer session, and 4) a case presentation featuring embedded pathway errors for residents to recognize, resolve, and prevent. Errors in the 9 months before the intervention, as identified through an incident reporting system, were compared with those in the 10 months afterward, with errors classified as relating to insulin, communication, intravenous fluids, nutrition, and discharge delay.
Before the curricular intervention, resident errors occurred in 28 patients (19.4% of 144 diabetes admissions) over 9 months. After the intervention, resident errors occurred in 11 patients (6.6% of 166 diabetes admissions) over 10 months, representing a statistically significant (P = 0.0007) decrease in patients with errors from before intervention to after intervention. Throughout the study, the errors were distributed into the categories as follows: insulin, 43.8%; communication, 39.6%; intravenous fluids, 14.6%; nutrition, 0%; and discharge delay, 2.1%.
An interactive learner-centered diabetes curriculum for pediatric residents can be effective in reducing inpatient diabetes errors in a tertiary children’s hospital. This educational model promoting proactive learning has implications for decreasing errors across other medical disciplines.
PMCID: PMC3476896  PMID: 22875227
4.  Using a Commercially Available Web-Based Evaluation System to Enhance Residents' Teaching 
Residents-as-teachers (RATs) programs have been shown to improve trainees' teaching skills, yet these decline over time.
We adapted a commercial Web-based system to maintain resident teaching skills through reflection and deliberate practice and assessed the system's ability to (1) prevent deterioration of resident teaching skills and (2) provide information to improve residents' teaching skills and teaching program quality.
Ten first-year obstetrics-gynecology (Ob-Gyn) residents participated in a RATs program. Following the program, they used a commercial evaluation system to complete self-assessments of their teaching encounters with medical students. Students also evaluated the residents. To assess the system's effectiveness, we compared these residents to historical controls with an Objective Structured Teaching Examination (OSTE) and analyzed the ratings and the free text comments of residents and students to explore teaching challenges and improve the RATs program.
The intervention group outscored the control group on the OSTE (mean score ± SD  =  81 ± 8 versus 74 ± 7; P  =  .05, using a 2-tailed Student t-test). Rating scale analysis showed resident self-assessments were consistently lower than student evaluations, with the difference reaching statistical significance in 3 of 6 skills (P < .05). Comments revealed that residents most valued using innovative teaching techniques, while students most valued a positive educational climate and interpersonal connections with residents. Recommended targets for RATs program improvement included teaching feedback, time-limited teaching, and modeling professionalism behaviors.
Our novel electronic Web-based reinforcement system shows promise in preventing deterioration of resident teaching skills learned during an Ob-Gyn RATs program. The system also was effective in gaining resident and student insights to improve RATs programs. Because our intervention was built upon a commercially available program, our approach could prove useful to the large population of current subscribers.
PMCID: PMC3312536  PMID: 23451309
5.  Pediatric Resident-as-Teacher Curricula: A National Survey of Existing Programs and Future Needs 
We conducted a national survey of US pediatric program directors to explore the current status, content, and teaching methods of Resident-as-Teacher (RAT) curricula. The purposes of the survey were to (1) determine the level and method of evaluation of such curricula, and (2) assess the need for a national curricular resource in this area.
A survey was sent to US pediatric program directors that asked questions regarding demographics, support, design, development, content, and evaluation of RAT curricula, as well as existing needs and desires for RAT curricular resources.
Sixty-two percent of pediatric program directors completed our survey. Eighty-seven percent have a formal RAT curriculum, but more than 50% allocate 10 hours or less to it during residency. The primary teaching modalities are lectures and workshops. Content areas include feedback, in-patient teaching, communication skills, case-based teaching, role modeling, evaluation, leadership skills, 1-minute preceptors, teaching/learning styles, professionalism, and small-group teaching. Sixty-three percent of programs report evaluating their curricula, but only 27% perceive their program to be very/extremely effective. Nearly all respondents expressed interest in a national RAT curriculum, preferring web-based modules for dissemination.
Despite an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirement for a RAT curriculum, some pediatrics programs still lack one, and some consider their program only moderately effective. A wealth of curricular material exists across programs, which could be shared nationally. Establishing a national RAT curriculum would offer programs resources to meet educational mandates and the ability to tailor programs to best fit their own program needs.
PMCID: PMC3184906  PMID: 22655138
6.  Relationship Express: A Pilot Program to Teach Anesthesiology Residents Communication Skills 
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to teach 6 core competencies and to provide evidence of effective standardized training through objective measures. George Washington University's Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine implemented a pilot program to address the interpersonal and communication skill competency. In this program, we aimed to pilot the Relationship Express model, a series of exercises in experiential learning to teach anesthesiology residents to build effective relationships with patients in time-limited circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of this model for anesthesiology training.
A total of 7 first-year clinical anesthesiology residents participated in this pilot study, and 4 residents completed the entire program for analysis purposes. Relationship Express was presented in three 1.5-hour sessions: (1) introduction followed by 2-case, standardized patient pretest with feedback to residents from faculty observers; (2) interpersonal and communication skills didactic workshop with video behavior modeling; and (3) review discussion followed by 2-case, standardized patient posttest and evaluation.
Modified Brookfield comments revealed the following themes: (1) time constraints were realistic compared with clinical practice; (2) admitting errors with patients was difficult; (3) patients were more aware of body language than anticipated; (4) residents liked the group discussions and the video interview; (5) standardized patients were convincing; and (6) residents found the feedback from faculty and standardized patients helpful.
Resident retrospective self-assessment and learning comments confirm the potential value of the Relationship Express model. This program will require further assessment and refinement with a larger number of residents.
PMCID: PMC3010947  PMID: 22132285

Results 1-6 (6)