Schizophrenia is strongly familial yet rarely (if ever) exhibits classical Mendelian inheritance patterns. The advent of large-scale genotyping and sequencing projects has yielded large data sets with higher statistical power in an effort to uncover new associations with schizophrenia. Here, we review the challenges in dissecting the genetics of schizophrenia and provide an update of the current understanding of the underlying genomics. We discuss the breadth of susceptibility alleles, including those that may occur with low frequency and high disease risk, such as the 22q11.2 hemideletion, as well as alleles that may occur with greater frequency but convey a lower risk of schizophrenia, such as variants in genes encoding subunits of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel. Finally, we provide an overview of the clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia based on progress in understanding the underlying genetic basis.
Research into the etiology of schizophrenia, particularly the possible genetic basis, has never been as interesting and as provocative as in the past three years. Sullivan looks critically at the key research.
Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences and with support from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Life Technologies Foundation, and the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, “Advancing Drug Discovery for Schizophrenia” was held March 9–11 at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. The meeting, comprising individual talks and panel discussions, highlighted basic, clinical, and translational research approaches, all of which contribute to the overarching goal of enhancing the pharmaceutical armamentarium for treating schizophrenia. This report surveys work by the vanguard of schizophrenia research in such topics as genetic and epigenetic approaches; small molecule therapeutics; and the relationships between target genes, neuronal function, and symptoms of schizophrenia.
schizophrenia; genetics; GWAS; neuronal function; small molecules; therapeutics
MIR137; miR-137; mouse; knockout; schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of complex genetic etiology. Previous genome-wide surveys have revealed a greater burden of large, rare CNVs in schizophrenia cases and identified multiple rare recurrent CNVs that increase risk of schizophrenia although with incomplete penetrance and pleiotropic effects. Identification of additional recurrent CNVs and biological pathways enriched for schizophrenia CNVs requires greater sample sizes. We conducted a genome-wide survey for CNVs associated with schizophrenia using a Swedish national sample (4,719 cases and 5,917 controls). High-confidence CNV calls were generated using genotyping array intensity data and their effect on risk of schizophrenia was measured. Our data confirm increased burden of large, rare CNVs in schizophrenia cases as well as significant associations for recurrent 16p11.2 duplications, 22q11.2 deletions and 3q29 deletions. We report a novel association for 17q12 duplications (odds ratio=4.16, P=0.018), previously associated with autism and mental retardation but not schizophrenia. Intriguingly, gene set association analyses implicate biological pathways previously associated with schizophrenia through common variation and exome sequencing (calcium channel signaling and binding partners of the fragile X mental retardation protein). We found significantly increased burden of the largest CNVs (>500Kb) in genes present in the post-synaptic density, in genomic regions implicated via schizophrenia genome-wide association studies, and in gene products localized to mitochondria and cytoplasm. Our findings suggest that multiple lines of genomic inquiry – genome-wide screens for CNVs, common variation, and exonic variation – are converging on similar sets of pathways and/or genes.
schizophrenia; genetics; genomics; copy number variation; structural variation
The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine is effective in reducing psychotic symptoms but can cause extreme weight gain in human patients. We investigated the role of the gut microbiota in this adverse drug effect using a mouse model. First, we used germ-free C57BL/6J mice to demonstrate that gut bacteria are necessary and sufficient for weight gain caused by oral delivery of olanzapine. Second, we surveyed fecal microbiota before, during, and after treatment and found that olanzapine potentiated a shift towards an “obesogenic” bacterial profile. Finally, we demonstrated that olanzapine has antimicrobial activity in vitro against resident enteric bacterial strains. These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients.
To investigate the prevalence and patterns of transitions between cigarette and snus use.
Cross-sectional study within the population-based Swedish Twin Registry.
Setting and participants
A total of 31 213 male and female twins 42–64 years old.
Age-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) described the association between gender and tobacco use, while Kaplan–Meier survival methods produced cumulative incidence curves of age at onset of tobacco use. Life-time tobacco use histories were constructed using ages at onset of tobacco use and current tobacco use status.
Although more males reported ever smoking (64.4%) than females (61.7%), more males were former smokers (POR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.27–1.39). Males were far more likely to use snus than females (POR: 18.0, 95% CI: 16.17–20.04). Age at onset of cigarette smoking occurred almost entirely before age 25, while the age at onset of snus use among males occurred over a longer time period. Most men began using cigarettes first, nearly one-third of whom switched to using cigarettes and snus in combination. While 30.6% of these combined users quit tobacco completely, only 7.4% quit snus and currently use cigarettes, while 47.7% quit cigarettes and currently use snus.
Current cigarette smoking is more prevalent among Swedish women than men, while snus use is more prevalent among men. Among men who reported using both cigarettes and snus during their life-time, it was more common to quit cigarettes and currently use snus than to quit snus and currently use cigarettes. Once snus use was initiated, more men continued using snus rather than quit tobacco completely.
Cigarettes; prevalence; snus; Sweden; tobacco
Perinatal depression (PND) is a common complication of pregnancy and postpartum associated with significant morbidity.
We had three goals: 1) to explore the performance of a new lifetime version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-Lifetime) to assess lifetime prevalence of PND; 2) to assess prevalence of lifetime PND in women with prior histories of MDD; and 3) to evaluate risk factors for PND.
Subjects were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The EPDS was modified by adding lifetime PND screening questions, assessing worst episode and symptom timing of onset.
Of 682 women with lifetime MDD and a live birth, 276 (40.4%) had a positive EPDS score of ≥12 consistent with PND. Women with PND more often sought professional help (p <0.001), and received treatment (p =0.001). Independent risk indicators for PND included younger age, higher education, high neuroticism, childhood trauma, and sexual abuse.
We found that two in five parous women with a history of MDD had lifetime PND and that the PND episodes were more severe than MDD occurring outside of the perinatal period. The EPDS-Lifetime shows promise as a tool for assessing lifetime histories of PND in clinical and research settings.
The typical antipsychotic haloperidol is a highly effective treatment for schizophrenia but its use is limited by a number of serious, and often irreversible, motor side effects. These adverse drug reactions, termed extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS), result from an unknown pathophysiological mechanism. One theory relates to the observation that the haloperidol metabolite HPP+ (4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl]-pyridinium) is structurally similar to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), a neurotoxin responsible for an irreversible neurodegenerative condition similar to Parkinson's disease. To determine whether HPP+ contributes to haloperidol-induced EPS, we measured brain HPP+ and haloperidol levels in strains of mice at high (C57BL/6J and NZO/HILtJ) and low (BALB/cByJ and PWK/PhJ) liability to haloperidol-induced EPS following chronic treatment (7–10 adult male mice per strain). Brain levels of HPP+ and the ratio of HPP+ to haloperidol were not significantly different between the haloperidol-sensitive and haloperidol-resistant strain groups (P = 0.50). Within each group, however, strain differences were seen (P < 0.01), indicating that genetic variation regulating steady-state HPP+ levels exists. Since the HPP+ levels that we observed in mouse brain overlap the range of those detected in post-mortem human brains following chronic haloperidol treatment, the findings from this study are physiologically relevant to humans. The results suggest that strain differences in steady-state HPP+ levels do not explain sensitivity to haloperidol-induced EPS in the mice we studied.
haloperidol; adverse drug reaction; tardive dyskinesia; mouse; HPTP; HPP+
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have yet to identify variants that surpass the threshold for genome-wide significance. A recent study reported that runs of homozygosity (ROH) are associated with schizophrenia, reflecting a novel genetic risk factor resulting from increased parental relatedness and recessive genetic effects. Here we undertake an analysis of ROH for MDD using the 9,238 MDD cases and 9,521 controls reported in a recent mega-analysis of 9 GWAS. Since evidence for association with ROH could reflect a recessive mode of action at loci, we also conducted a genome-wide association analyses under a recessive model.
The genome-wide association analysis using a recessive model found no significant associations. Our analysis of ROH suggested that there was significant heterogeneity of effect across studies in effect (p=0.001), and it was associated with genotyping platform and country of origin. The results of the ROH analysis show that differences across studies can lead to conflicting systematic genome-wide differences between cases and controls that are unaccounted for by traditional covariates. They highlight the sensitivity of the ROH method to spurious associations, and the need to carefully control for potential confounds in such analyses. We found no strong evidence for a recessive model underlying MDD.
An abundance of evidence has firmly established the familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine how age at onset, parental characteristics and season of birth modify the familiality in schizophrenia.
A population-based cohort was created by linking the Swedish Multi-Generation and Hospital Discharge Registers. Among 5 075 998 full siblings born between 1932 through 1990, 16 346 cases of schizophrenia were identified. Familial aggregation was measured by the sibling recurrence-risk ratio, defined as the risk of schizophrenia among full siblings of schizophrenia patients compared with the risk among siblings of unaffected subjects.
We found a statistically significantly lower recurrence-risk ratio in siblings of later onset cases (7.2; 95%CI 6.7-7.9) than of early onset cases (10.8; 95%CI 9.4-12.2). A lower recurrence-risk ratio was observed among offspring to fathers above 40 years (6.3; 95%CI 5.3-7.3) as compared with offspring of younger fathers (8.6; 95%CI 8.0-9.3). Further, among offspring to parents born outside Sweden the recurrence-risk ratio was statistically significantly lower (maternal immigrants 4.8; 95%CI 4.0-5.7, paternal immigrants 5.7; 95%CI 4.6-6.9) than among offspring to parents born in Sweden.
The familial aggregation of schizophrenia was reduced by higher age at onset, advancing paternal age and immigrant status of parents.
schizophrenia; familial aggregation; recurrence-risk ratio; age at onset; paternal age; migration
Identification of genes contributing to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this disorder.
To identify susceptibility genes for alcohol dependence through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and follow-up study in a population of German male inpatients with an early age at onset.
The GWAS included 487 male inpatients with DSM-IV alcohol dependence with an age at onset below 28 years and 1,358 population based control individuals. The follow-up study included 1,024 male inpatients and 996 age-matched male controls. All subjects were of German descent. The GWAS tested 524,396 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All SNPs with p<10-4 were subjected to the follow-up study. In addition, nominally significant SNPs from those genes that had also shown expression changes in rat brains after chronic alcohol consumption were selected for the follow-up step.
The GWAS produced 121 SNPs with nominal p<10-4. These, together with 19 additional SNPs from homologs of rat genes showing differential expression, were genotyped in the follow-up sample. Fifteen SNPs showed significant association with the same allele as in the GWAS. In the combined analysis, two closely linked intergenic SNPs met genome-wide significance (rs7590720 p=9.72×10-9; rs1344694 p=1.69×10-8). They are located on chromosome 2q35, a region which has been implicated in linkage studies for alcohol phenotypes. Nine SNPs were located in genes, including CDH13 and ADH1C genes which have been reported to be associated with alcohol dependence.
This is the first GWAS and follow-up study to identify a genome-wide significant association in alcohol dependence. Further independent studies are required to confirm these findings.
We assessed gene expression profiles in 2,752 twins, using a classic twin design to quantify expression heritability and quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in peripheral blood. The most highly heritable genes (~777) were grouped into distinct expression clusters, enriched in gene-poor regions, associated with specific gene function/ontology classes, and strongly associated with disease designation. The design enabled a comparison of twin-based heritability to estimates based on dizygotic IBD sharing and distant genetic relatedness. Consideration of sampling variation suggests that previous heritability estimates have been upwardly biased. Genotyping of 2,494 twins enabled powerful identification of eQTLs, which were further examined in a replication set of 1,895 unrelated subjects. A large number of local eQTLs (6,988) met replication criteria, while a relatively small number of distant eQTLs (165) met quality control and replication standards. Our results provide an important new resource toward understanding the genetic control of transcription.
gene expression; peripheral blood; twin study; heritability; expression quantitative trait loci; eQTL
Genetic variation in a population can be summarized through principal component analysis (PCA) on genome-wide data. PCs derived from such analyses are valuable for genetic association studies, where they can correct for population stratification. We investigated how to capture the genetic population structure in a well-characterized sample from the Netherlands and in a worldwide data set and examined whether (1) removing long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions and LD-based SNP pruning significantly improves correlations between PCs and geography and (2) whether genetic differentiation may have been influenced by migration and/or selection. In the Netherlands, three PCs showed significant correlations with geography, distinguishing between: (1) North and South; (2) East and West; and (3) the middle-band and the rest of the country. The third PC only emerged with minimized LD, which also significantly increased correlations with geography for the other two PCs. In addition to geography, the Dutch North–South PC showed correlations with genome-wide homozygosity (r=0.245), which may reflect a serial-founder effect due to northwards migration, and also with height (♂: r=0.142, ♀: r=0.153). The divergence between subpopulations identified by PCs is partly driven by selection pressures. The first three PCs showed significant signals for diversifying selection (545 SNPs - the majority within 184 genes). The strongest signal was observed between North and South for the functional SNP in HERC2 that determines human blue/brown eye color. Thus, this study demonstrates how to increase ancestry signals in a relatively homogeneous population and how those signals can reveal evolutionary history.
PCA; linkage disequilibrium; population structure; migration; diversifying selection; Netherlands
The effects of inbreeding on the health of offspring can be studied by measuring genome-wide autozygosity as the proportion of the genome in runs of homozygosity (Froh) and relate Froh to outcomes such as psychiatric phenotypes. To successfully conduct these studies, the main patterns of variation for genome-wide autozygosity between and within populations should be well understood and accounted for. Within population variation was investigated in the Dutch population by comparing autozygosity between religious and non-religious groups. The Netherlands have a history of societal segregation and assortment based on religious affiliation, which may have increased parental relatedness within religious groups. Religion has been associated with several psychiatric phenotypes, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether there is an association between autozygosity and MDD, and the extent to which this association can be explained by religious affiliation. All Froh analyses included adjustment for ancestry-informative principal components (PCs) and geographic factors.
Religious affiliation was significantly associated with autozygosity, showing that Froh has the ability to capture within population differences that are not captured by ancestry-informative PCs or geographic factors. The non-religious group had significantly lower Froh values and significantly more MDD cases, leading to a nominally significant negative association between autozygosity and depression. After accounting for religious affiliation, MDD was not associated with Froh, indicating that the relation between MDD and inbreeding was due to stratification.
This study shows how past religious assortment and recent secularization can have genetic consequences in a relatively small country. This warrants accounting for the historical social context and its effects on genetic variation in association studies on psychiatric and other related traits.
autozygosity; runs of homozygosity; major depressive disorder; religion; population stratification; assortative mating
Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization.
addiction; sensitization; metabolomics; homocarnosine; myo-inositol; stimulant
Several linkage studies on anxiety have been carried out in samples ascertained through probands with panic disorder. The results indicated that using a broad anxiety phenotype instead of a DSM-IV anxiety disorder diagnosis might enhance the chance of finding a linkage signal. In the current study, a genome-wide linkage analysis was performed on anxiety measured with a self-report questionnaire whose scores are highly correlated with DSM-IV anxiety disorders. The self-report questionnaire was included in five surveys of a longitudinal study of the Netherlands Twin Register. Genotype and phenotype data were available for 1,602 twins and siblings. To estimate Identity By Descent (IBD), additional genotype data for 564 parents and 22 siblings were used. Linkage analyses were carried out using MERLIN-Regress on the average anxiety scores across time. A linkage signal (LOD-score 3.4, empirical p-value 0.07) was obtained at chromosome 14 for marker D14S65 at 105 cM (90% confidence interval 99 cM - 115 cM bounded by markers D14S1434 and D14S985). This finding replicates a linkage finding for a broad anxiety phenotype in a clinically based sample, indicating that the region might harbor a QTL associated with the whole spectrum of general anxiety, i.e. from the normal to the clinical range. Moreover, genome-wide linkage and association studies on emotionality in mice obtained significant results in a syntenic region on mouse chromosome 12. Two homolog genes lie in this region –Dlk1 (delta-like 1 homolog, Drosophila) and Rtl1 (retrotransposon-like 1). Future association studies of these genes are warranted.
anxiety; genomewide linkage; family study; stai; genetics
Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting.
Schizophrenia; human leukocyte antigens; non-random mating; maternal-fetal incompatibility
A comprehensive understanding of the etiology and neurobiology of nicotine dependence is not available. We sought to identify genomic regions that might contain etiologically-relevant loci using genomewide univariate and bivariate linkage analyses.
We conducted secondary data analyses of 626 all possible sibling pairs ascertained in Ireland and Northern Ireland on the basis of alcohol dependence. A set of 1,020 short tandem repeat genetic markers were genotyped in all subjects. The phenotypes analyzed were the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), a history of nicotine dependence, the number of symptoms of alcohol dependence (AlcSx), and a history of alcohol dependence. Genomewide linkage analyses were conducted with non-parametric and variance components methods.
For the bivariate variance component analysis of the continuous FTND and AlcSx scores, multipoint LOD scores were >4 in two genomic regions – an 11 cM region on chr7 (D7S2252 to D7S691, empirical p=0.0006) and an 8 cM region on chr18 flanking D18S63 (empirical p=0.0007). These findings did not exceed a conservative estimate of study-wide significance. The remaining sets of findings had considerably smaller or less consistent peak signals. Notably, strong linkage signal at D4S1611 for AlcSx from a prior report (PMID 16534506) was not found when jointly analyzed with FTND.
Replication is required. However, chromosomes 7 and 18 may contain genetic loci relevant to the etiology of nicotine-related phenotypes.
Nicotine dependence; genomewide linkage analysis
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the focus of considerable effort in psychiatry. These efforts have markedly increased knowledge of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders, and yielded empirical data on genetic architecture critical to addressing long-standing debates in the field. There is a now a clear path to increased knowledge of the “parts lists” for these disorders.
genetics; genome-wide association; review
schizophrenia; genetics; polygenic; pathway; network
Candidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia. Results of these studies have been confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised via comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We described the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from SZGene, and used pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC).
SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1,374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC had power of 89% to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p-values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes had no notable ISC results (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1, and SLC6A4).
We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature were enriched for common variation involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Larger samples are required definitively to evaluate this conclusion.
schizophrenia; genetics; candidate gene association; genome-wide association; comparative study; synapse; neuro-developmental
The clinical and etiological relation between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia is unclear. The degree to which these disorders share a basis in etiology has important implications for clinicians, researchers, and those affected. Our objective was to determine if a family history of schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder was a risk factor for ASD. We conducted a case-control evaluation of histories of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in first-degree relatives of probands in three samples, population registers in Sweden, Stockholm County, and Israel. Probands met criteria for ASD, and affection status of parents and siblings for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were established.
The presence of schizophrenia in parents was associated with an increased risk for ASD in a Swedish national cohort (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 2.5–3.4) and in a Stockholm County cohort (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 2.0–4.1). Similarly, schizophrenia in a sibling was associated with an increased risk for ASD in a Swedish national cohort (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 2.0–3.2) and in an Israeli conscription cohort (odds ratio 12.1, 95% CI 4.5–32). Bipolar disorder showed a similar pattern of associations but of lesser magnitude.
Findings from these three registers along with consistent findings from a similar study in Denmark suggest that ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder share common etiological factors.
Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, the Swedish Research Council, and the Beatrice and Samuel A. Seaver Foundation.
autism spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; family history; genetics; risk factor; exposure; genetic epidemiology