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1.  cis sequence effects on gene expression 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:296.
Background
Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics) provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects) in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature.
Results
We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning) to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with gene expression. Using the literature as a "gold standard" to compare 14 genes with data from both this study and the literature, we observed 80% and 85% concordance for genes exhibiting and not exhibiting significant cis sequence effects in our study, respectively.
Conclusion
Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-296
PMCID: PMC2077339  PMID: 17727713
2.  SNP500Cancer: a public resource for sequence validation, assay development, and frequency analysis for genetic variation in candidate genes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;34(Database issue):D617-D621.
The SNP500Cancer database provides sequence and genotype assay information for candidate SNPs useful in mapping complex diseases, such as cancer. The database is an integral component of the NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (). SNP500Cancer reports sequence analysis of anonymized control DNA samples (n = 102 Coriell samples representing four self-described ethnic groups: African/African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Pacific Rim). The website is searchable by gene, chromosome, gene ontology pathway, dbSNP ID and SNP500Cancer SNP ID. As of October 2005, the database contains >13 400 SNPs, 9124 of which have been sequenced in the SNP500Cancer population. For each analysed SNP, gene location and >200 bp of surrounding annotated sequence (including nearby SNPs) are provided, with frequency information in total and per subpopulation as well as calculation of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for each subpopulation. The website provides the conditions for validated sequencing and genotyping assays, as well as genotype results for the 102 samples, in both viewable and downloadable formats. A subset of sequence validated SNPs with minor allele frequency >5% are entered into a high-throughput pipeline for genotyping analysis to determine concordance for the same 102 samples. In addition, the results of genotype analysis for select validated SNP assays (defined as 100% concordance between sequence analysis and genotype results) are posted for an additional 280 samples drawn from the Human Diversity Panel (HDP). SNP500Cancer provides an invaluable resource for investigators to select SNPs for analysis, design genotyping assays using validated sequence data, choose selected assays already validated on one or more genotyping platforms, and select reference standards for genotyping assays. The SNP500Cancer database is freely accessible via the web page at .
doi:10.1093/nar/gkj151
PMCID: PMC1347513  PMID: 16381944
3.  SNP500Cancer: a public resource for sequence validation and assay development for genetic variation in candidate genes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(Database issue):D528-D532.
The SNP500Cancer Database provides sequence and genotype assay information for candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) useful in mapping complex diseases, such as cancer. The database is an integral component of the NCI’s Cancer Genome Anatomy Project. SNP500Cancer provides bi-directional sequencing information on a set of control DNA samples derived from anonymized subjects (102 Coriell samples representing four self-described ethnic groups: African/African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Pacific Rim). All SNPs are chosen from public databases and reports, and the choice of genes includes a bias towards non-synonymous and promoter SNPs in genes that have been implicated in one or more cancers. The web site is searchable by gene, chromosome, gene ontology pathway and by known dbSNP ID. As of July 2003, the database contains over 3400 SNPs, 2490 of which have been sequenced in the SNP500Cancer population. For each analyzed SNP, gene location and over 200 bp of surrounding annotated sequence (including nearby SNPs) are provided, with frequency information in total and per subpopulation, and calculation of Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) for each subpopulation. Sequence validated SNPs with minor allele frequency > 5% are entered into a high-throughput pipeline for genotyping analysis to determine concordance for the same 102 samples. The website provides the conditions for validated genotyping assays. SNP500Cancer provides an invaluable resource for investigators to select SNPs for analysis, design genotyping assays using validated sequence data, choose selected assays already validated on one or more genotyping platforms, and select reference standards for genotyping assays. The SNP500Cancer Database is freely accessible via the web page at http://snp500cancer.nci.nih.gov/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh005
PMCID: PMC308740  PMID: 14681474
4.  Clinical Laboratory Data Management: A Distributed Data Processing Solution 
Two turn-key systems, one for patient registration and the other for the clinical laboratory have been installed and linked together at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, forming the nucleus of an evolving distributed Hospital Information System.
A thoughtful review of the development of the communications link between these systems led the authors to a series of recommendations for others responsible for similar projects.
The initial design concept, that independent turn-key systems from different vendors can be linked together to create a distributed data processing system well suited to a large Hospital's needs, has been validated in this environment.
PMCID: PMC2203732

Results 1-4 (4)