Association studies among admixed populations pose many challenges including confounding of genetic effects due to population substructure and heterogeneity due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We use simulations to investigate controlling for confounding by indicators of global ancestry and the impact of including a covariate for local ancestry. In addition, we investigate the use of an interaction term between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and local ancestry to capture heterogeneity in SNP effects. Although adjustment for global ancestry can control for confounding, additional adjustment for local ancestry may increase power when the induced admixture LD is in the opposite direction as the LD in the ancestral population. However, if the induced LD is in the same direction, there is the potential for reduced power because of overadjustment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a SNP by local ancestry interaction term can increase power when there is substantial differential LD between ancestry populations. We examine these approaches in genome-wide data using the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study investigating asthma risk. The analysis highlights rs10519951 (P = 8.5 × 10−7), a SNP lacking any evidence of association from a conventional analysis (P = 0.5).
confounding; genetic association studies; genome-wide association studies; heterogeneity; linkage disequilibrium; population stratification
The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation that is being increasingly considered in clinical, occupational, and epidemiological applications ranging from asthma management to the detection of air pollution health effects. FeNO depends strongly on exhalation flow rate. This dependency has allowed for the development of mathematical models whose parameters quantify airway and alveolar compartment contributions to FeNO. Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate these parameters using FeNO measured at multiple flow rates. These methods—which allow for non-invasive assessment of localized airway inflammation—have the potential to provide important insights on inflammatory mechanisms. However, different estimation methods produce different results and a serious barrier to progress in this field is the lack of a single recommended method. With the goal of resolving this methodological problem, we have developed a unifying framework in which to present a comprehensive set of existing and novel statistical methods for estimating parameters in the simple two-compartment model. We compared statistical properties of the estimators in simulation studies and investigated model fit and parameter estimate sensitivity across methods using data from 1507 schoolchildren from the Southern California Children's Health Study, one of the largest multiple flow FeNO studies to date. We recommend a novel nonlinear least squares model with natural log transformation on both sides that produced estimators with good properties, satisfied model assumptions, and fit the Children's Health Study data well.
Evidence is inconsistent regarding whether dietary fat influences sex hormone concentrations. This issue is important for breast cancer survivors since clinical recommendations suggest maintaining low hormone levels primarily via pharmacologic agents. This study examines associations between dietary fat and circulating sex hormones among participants in the HEAL (Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle) Study, a cohort of breast cancer survivors (n=511). During a post-diagnosis interview, detailed data were collected on diet, physical activity, lifestyle habits, and medication use (including tamoxifen). Staff measured height and weight and collected fasting bloods. Multivariate linear regression modeled associations of dietary fat with serum sex hormones. Among women using tamoxifen, we observed modest inverse associations of dietary fat with estrone (p< 0.01), estradiol (p< 0.05), testosterone (p< 0.01), free testosterone (p< 0.01), and DHEA (p< 0.01) for higher vs. lower fat intake, but there was no evidence for a trend. Associations were consistent across measures (percent energy from fat, total, saturated and polyunsaturated fat) and modest effect modification was observed between fat intake and tamoxifen in relation to hormones. Among women not using tamoxifen, fat intake was not associated with hormone concentrations. Further work is needed to confirm the findings and to understand the clinical implications of these observations.
Diet; dietary fat; sex steroid hormones; estrogen; testosterone; postmenopausal breast cancer; tamoxifen
Genome-wide association studies of asthma have implicated many genetic risk factors, with
well-replicated associations at approximately 10 loci that account for only a small proportion of
the genetic risk.
We aimed to identify additional asthma risk loci by performing an extensive replication
study of the results from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis.
We selected 3186 SNPs for replication based on the p-values from the EVE Consortium
meta-analysis. These SNPs were genotyped in ethnically diverse replication samples from nine
different studies, totaling to 7202 cases, 6426 controls, and 507 case-parent trios. Association
analyses were conducted within each participating study and the resulting test statistics were
combined in a meta-analysis.
Two novel associations were replicated in European Americans: rs1061477 in the
KLK3 gene on chromosome 19 (combined OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.10 – 1.25)
and rs9570077 (combined OR =1.20 95% CI 1.12–1.29) on chromosome 13q21. We could not
replicate any additional associations in the African American or Latino individuals.
This extended replication study identified two additional asthma risk loci in populations
of European descent. The absence of additional loci for African Americans and Latino individuals
highlights the difficulty in replicating associations in admixed populations.
Asthma; genetic risk factors; meta-analysis; KLK3
To investigate the association between physical activity, body mass
index (BMI) and mammographic density in an ethnically-diverse
population-based sample of 522 postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage
0–IIIA breast cancer and enrolled in the Health, Eating, Activity,
and Lifestyle Study.
We collected information on BMI and physical activity during a clinic
visit two to three years after diagnosis. Weight and height were measured in
a standard manner. Using an interview-administered questionnaire,
participants recalled the type, duration, and frequency of physical
activities in the past year. We estimated dense area and percent density as
a continuous measure using a computer-assisted software program from
mammograms imaged approximately one to two years after diagnosis. Analysis
of covariance methods were used to obtain mean density across World Health
Organization BMI categories and physical activity tertiles adjusted for
We observed a statistically significant decline in percent density (p
for trend = .0001), and mammographic dense area (p for trend = 0.0052), with
increasing level of BMI adjusted for potential covariates. We observed a
statistically significant decline in mammographic dense area (p for trend =
.036) with increasing level of sports/recreational physical activity in
women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Conversely, in women with a
BMI < 25 kg/m2, we observed a nonstatistically significant
increase in mammographic dense area and percent density with increasing
level of sports/recreational physical activity.
Increasing physical activity among obese postmenopausal breast cancer
survivors may be a reasonable intervention approach to reduce mammographic
breast cancer; body fat; exercise; obesity; weight; breast tissue; breast density
To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood.
Longitudinal cohort study.
Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California.
Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65).
Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS).
Main Outcome Measures
Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up.
After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower.
Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood.
Among people with asthma, the clinical impact and relative contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy (in utero smoking) and current secondhand smoke exposure on asthma control is poorly documented, and there is a paucity of research involving minority populations.
To examine the association between poor asthma control and in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposure among Latino and Black children with asthma.
Case-only analysis of 2 multi-center case-control studies conducted from 2008–2010 using similar protocols. We recruited 2,481 Latinos and Blacks with asthma (ages 8–17) from the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposures on National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-defined asthma control.
Poor asthma control among children 8–17 years of age was independently associated with in utero smoking (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval = 1.5; 1.1–2.0). In utero smoking via the mother was also associated with secondary asthma outcomes, including early onset asthma (1.7; 1.1–2.4), daytime symptoms (1.6; 1.1–2.1), and asthma-related limitation of activities (1.6; 1.2–2.2).
Maternal smoking while in utero is associated with poor asthma control in Black and Latino subjects assessed at 8–17 years of age.
Secondhand smoke; prenatal exposure delayed effects; asthma; health status disparities
The detection of tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation in sputum-derived exfoliated cells predicts early lung cancer. Here we identified genetic determinants for this epigenetic process and examined their biological effects on gene regulation. A two-stage approach involving discovery and replication was employed to assess the association between promoter hypermethylation of a 12-gene panel and common variation in 40 genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, regulation of methylation, and DNA damage response in members of the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (n=1434). Molecular validation of three identified variants was conducted using primary bronchial epithelial cells. Association of study-wide significance (P<8.2×10−5) was identified for rs1641511, rs3730859, and rs1883264 in TP53, LIG1, and BIK, respectively. These SNPs were significantly associated with altered expression of the corresponding genes in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, rs3730859 in LIG1 was also moderately associated with increased risk for lung cancer among Caucasian smokers. Together, our findings suggest that genetic variation in DNA replication and apoptosis pathways impacts the propensity for gene promoter hypermethylation in the aerodigestive tract of smokers. The incorporation of genetic biomarkers for gene promoter hypermethylation with clinical and somatic markers may improve risk assessment models for lung cancer.
DNA damage response; promoter hypermethylation; single nucleotide polymorphism; sputum; smoker
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, encoded by NOS2) is the major enzyme for nitric oxide synthesis in airways. As such, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) provides an in vivo assessment of iNOS activity. Short-term exposure to air pollution, haplotypes and DNA methylation in NOS2 promoter have been associated independently with iNOS expression and/or FeNO.
We aimed to examine the effects of ambient air pollutants, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and NOS2 promoter methylation on FeNO level in children.
We selected 940 participants in the Children’s Health Study who provided buccal samples and had undergone FeNO measurement on the same day. DNA methylation was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms captured the haplotype diversity in the NOS2 promoter. Average particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm (PM2.5 and PM10), ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels 7 days before FeNO measurement were estimated based on air pollution data obtained at central monitoring sites.
We found interrelated effects of PM2.5, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and iNOS methylation on FeNO. Elevated 7-day average PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower iNOS methylation (P=.01). NOS2 promoter haplotypes were globally associated with NOS2 promoter methylation (P=6.2 × 10−8). There was interaction among one common promoter haplotype, iNOS methylation level and PM2.5 exposure on FeNO (Pinteraction=.00007).
Promoter variants in NOS2 and short term PM2.5 exposure affect iNOS methylation. This is one of the first studies showing contributions of genetic and epigenetic variations in air pollution mediated phenotype expression.
air pollution; biomarker; DNA methylation; epigenetics; genetics; gene-environment interaction; nitrosative stress
Rationale: The epidemiology of cigarette smoking–related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease.
Objectives: The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry.
Methods: The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior.
Measurements and Main Results: Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30–0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity.
Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this “Hispanic protection.”
Rationale: Emerging evidence indicates that psychosocial stress enhances the effect of traffic exposure on the development of asthma.
Objectives: We hypothesized that psychosocial stress would also modify the effect of traffic exposure on lung function deficits.
Methods: We studied 1,399 participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study undergoing lung function testing (mean age, 11.2 yr). We used hierarchical mixed models to assess the joint effect of traffic-related air pollution and stress on lung function.
Measurements and Main Results: Psychosocial stress in each child's household was assessed based on parental response to the perceived stress scale (range, 0–16) at study entry. Exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), surrogates of the traffic-related pollution mixture, were estimated at schools and residences based on a land-use regression model. Among children from high-stress households (parental perceived stress scale >4) deficits in FEV1 of 4.5 (95% confidence interval, −6.5 to −2.4) and of 2.8% (−5.7 to 0.3) were associated with each 21.8 ppb increase in NOx at homes and schools, respectively. These pollutant effects were significantly larger in the high-stress compared with lower-stress households (interaction P value 0.007 and 0.05 for residential and school NOx, respectively). No significant NOx effects were observed in children from low-stress households. A similar pattern of association was observed for FVC. The observed associations for FEV1 and FVC remained after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and after restricting the analysis to children who do not have asthma.
Conclusions: A high-stress home environment is associated with increased susceptibility to lung function effects of air pollution both at home and at school.
parental stress; traffic exposure; lung function; children
Background: Air pollutants have been associated with childhood asthma and wheeze. Epigenetic regulation of nitric oxide synthase—the gene responsible for nitric oxide production—may be affected by air pollutants and contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and wheeze.
Objective: Our goal was to investigate the association between air pollutants, DNA methylation, and respiratory outcomes in children.
Methods: Given residential address and buccal sample collection date, we estimated 7-day, 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year cumulative average PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10 µm aerodynamic diameter, respectively) exposures for 940 participants in the Children’s Health Study. Methylation of 12 CpG sites in three NOS (nitric oxide synthase) genes was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. Beta regression models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants, percent DNA methylation, and respiratory outcomes.
Results: A 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.20% [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.32, –0.07] to 1.0% (95% CI: –1.61, –0.56) lower DNA methylation at NOS2A position 1, 0.06% (95% CI: –0.18, 0.06) to 0.58% (95% CI: –1.13, –0.02) lower methylation at position 2, and 0.34% (95% CI: –0.57, –0.11) to 0.89% (95% CI: –1.57, –0.21) lower methylation at position 3, depending on the length of exposure and CpG locus. One-year PM2.5 exposure was associated with 0.33% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.65) higher in average DNA methylation of 4 loci in the NOS2A CpG island. A 5-µg/m3 increase in 7-day and 1-year PM2.5 was associated with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.99) and 2.8% (95% CI: 1.77, 3.75) higher NOS3 DNA methylation. No associations were observed for NOS1. PM10 showed similar but weaker associations with DNA methylation in these genes.
Conclusions: PM2.5 exposure was associated with percent DNA methylation of several CpG loci in NOS genes, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism through which these pollutants may alter production of nitric oxide.
air pollution; asthma; DNA methylation; epigenetics; PM2.5; wheeze
Rationale: Genetic variation in arginase (ARG) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been associated with exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in children. Little is known about whether epigenetic variation in these genes modulates FeNO.
Objectives: To evaluate whether DNA methylation in ARG and NOS genes is associated with FeNO.
Methods: A subset of 940 participants in the Children's Health Study were selected for this study. Children were eligible if they had FeNO measurements and buccal cells collected on the same day. CpG loci located in the promoter regions of NOS1, NOS2A, NOS3, ARG1, and ARG2 genes were analyzed. Multiple loci in each gene were evaluated individually and averaged together. DNA methylation was measured using a bisulfite–polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing assay. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between DNA methylation and FeNO and whether associations differed by asthma status.
Measurements and Main Results: DNA methylation in ARG2 was significantly associated with FeNO. A 1% increase in average DNA methylation of ARG2 was associated with a 2.3% decrease in FeNO (95% confidence interval, −4 to −0.6). This association was significantly larger in children with asthma (%diff = −8.7%) than in children with no asthma (%diff = −1.6%; pint = 0.01). Differences in FeNO by asthma status were also observed for ARG1 (%diffasthma = −4.4%; %diffnon-asthma = 0.3%; pint = 0.02). DNA methylation in NOS genes was not associated with FeNO.
Conclusions: DNA methylation in ARG1 and ARG2 is associated with FeNO in children with asthma and suggests a possible role for epigenetic regulation of nitric oxide production.
arginase; nitric oxide synthase; FeNO; asthma
DNA methylation in AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase relevant in cancer and immune function, is reportedly highly heritable. We present evidence to suggest that heritability of DNA methylation in AXL is variable, dependent on population characteristics and cell type studied. Moreover, environmental exposures in utero, particularly exposure to maternal smoking, contributes to variation in DNA methylation of select CpG loci that can affect calculations of heritability. Children exposed to maternal smoking in utero had a 2.3% increase (95% CI 0.3, 4.2) in DNA methylation in AXL, which was magnified in girls as compared to boys. These results present compelling evidence that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may alter DNA methylation levels in subtle but potentially important ways and that these changes are persistent years after birth.
AXL; DNA methylation; heritability; maternal smoking; receptor tyrosine kinase
Although previous investigations have indicated a role for genetic factors in smoking initiation, the underlying genetic mechanisms are still unknown. In 2,339 adolescents from a Chinese Han population in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial (Wuhan, China, 1998–1999), the authors explored the association of 57 genes in the dopamine pathway with smoking initiation. Using a conservative approach for declaring significance, positive findings were further examined in an independent sample of 603 Caucasian adolescents followed for up to 10 years as part of the Children's Health Study (Southern California, 1993–2009). The authors identified 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2298122) in the calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein gene (CALY) that was positively associated with smoking initiation in females (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.49, 3.27; P = 8.4 × 10−5) in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial cohort, and they replicated the association in females from the Children's Health Study cohort (hazard rate ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 3.31; P = 0.003). These results suggest that the CALY gene may influence smoking initiation in adolescents, although the potential roles of underlying psychological characteristics that may be components of the smoking-initiation phenotype, such as impulsivity or novelty-seeking, remain to be explored.
adolescent; dopamine; genetic association studies; smoking
To address the association between sequence variants within the MGMT promoter-enhancer region and methylation of MGMT in premalignant lesions from smokers and lung adenocarcinomas, their biological effects on gene regulation, and targeting MGMT for therapy.
SNPs identified through sequencing a 1.9kb fragment 5' of MGMT were examined in relation to MGMT methylation in 169 lung adenocarcinomas and 1731 sputum samples from smokers. The effect of promoter haplotypes on MGMT expression was tested using a luciferase reporter assay and cDNA expression analysis along with allele-specific sequencing for methylation. The response of MGMT methylated lung cancer cell lines to the alkylating agent temozolomide was assessed.
The A allele of rs16906252 and the haplotype containing this SNP were strongly associated with increased risk for MGMT methylation in adenocarcinomas (ORs ≥ 94). This association was observed to a lesser extent in sputum samples in both smoker cohorts. The A allele was selectively methylated in primary lung tumors and cell lines heterozygous for rs16906252. With the most common haplotype as the reference, a 20–41% reduction in promoter activity was seen for the haplotype carrying the A allele that correlated with lower MGMT expression. The sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to temozolamide was strongly correlated with levels of MGMT methylation and expression.
These studies provide strong evidence that the A allele of a MGMT promoter-enhancer SNP is a key determinant for MGMT methylation in lung carcinogenesis. Moreover, temozolamide treatment may benefit a subset of lung cancer patients methylated for MGMT.
MGMT; allele specific methylation; single nucleotide polymorphism; sputum; lung cancer
Rationale: The impact of asthma on chronic lung function deficits is well known. However, there has been little study of ethnic differences in these asthma-associated deficits.
Objectives: To examine whether there are ethnic differences in the effects of asthma on children's lung function.
Methods: We evaluated the impact of asthma on lung function in 3,245 Hispanic and non-Hispanic white school children (age 10–18 yr) in a longitudinal analysis of the Southern California Children's Health Study. Sex-specific mixed-effects regression spline models were fitted separately for each ethnic group.
Measurements and Main Results: Large deficits in flows were observed among children with asthma diagnosed before age 4 years regardless of ethnicity. Hispanic girls with asthma had greater deficits in flows than non-Hispanic girls and were largest for maximal midexpiratory flow (−5.13% compared with −0.58%, respectively). A bigger impact of asthma in Hispanic girls was also found for FEV1, FEF75, and PEF (P value 0.04, 0.07, and 0.005, respectively). These ethnic differences were limited to girls diagnosed after age 4 years. In boys, asthma was also associated with greater deficits in flows among Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white children (differences that were not statistically significant). Ethnic differences in prevalence of pets and pests in the home, health insurance coverage, parental education, and smoking did not explain the pattern of lung function differences.
Conclusions: Larger asthma-associated lung function deficits in Hispanics, especially among girls, merit further investigation to determine public health implications and to identify causes amenable to intervention.
Hispanics; non-Hispanic whites; pulmonary function; asthma
Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation. In the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis pathway, nitric oxide synthases (encoded by NOS1, NOS2A and NOS3) and arginases (encoded by ARG1 and ARG2) compete for L-arginine. Although FeNO levels are higher in children with asthma/allergy, influence of these conditions on the relationships between variations in these genes and FeNO remains unknown. The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of genetic variations in nitric oxide synthases and arginases on FeNO in children and to assess the influence of asthma and respiratory allergy on these genetic associations.
Among children (6–11 years) who participated in the southern California Children’s Health Study, variations in these five genetic loci were characterized by tagSNPs. FeNO was measured in two consecutive years (N = 2298 and 2515 in Years 1 and 2, respectively). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the associations between these genetic variants and FeNO.
Sequence variations in the NOS2A and ARG2 loci were globally associated with FeNO (P = 0.0002 and 0.01, respectively). The ARG2 association was tagged by intronic variant rs3742879 with stronger association with FeNO in asthmatic children (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of a NOS2A promoter haplotype with FeNO varied significantly by rs3742879 genotypes and by asthma.
Variants in the NO synthesis pathway genes jointly contribute to differences in FeNO concentrations. Some of these genetic influences were stronger in children with asthma. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.
airway inflammation; asthma; biomarker; exhaled nitric oxide; nitrosative stress
Rationale: Glutathione plays an important role in antioxidant and inflammatory processes in the lung. Alterations in glutathione metabolism are a central feature of several chronic lung diseases.
Objectives: To determine whether sequence variation in genes in the glutathione synthesis pathway alters susceptibility to air pollution effects on lung function.
Methods: In this prospective study, 14,821 lung function measurements were taken on 2,106 children from 12 Southern California cities. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in glutathione metabolism pathway genes GSS, GSR, GCLM, and GCLC were genotyped by GoldenGate assay (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Mixed regression models were used to determine whether particular haplotypes were associated with FEV1, maximal mid-expiratory flow rate, and FVC and whether any of the genetic associations varied with levels of exposure to air pollutants.
Measurements and Main Results: We found that variation in the GSS locus was associated with differences in susceptibility of children for lung function growth deficits associated with NO2, PM10, PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and O3. The negative effects of air pollutants were largely observed within participants who had a particular GSS haplotype. The effects ranged from −124.2 to −149.1 for FEV1, from –92.9 to −126.7 for FVC, and from −193.9 to −277.9 for maximal mid-expiratory flow rate for all pollutants except O3, which showed a larger decrease in lung function in children without this haplotype.
Conclusions: Variation in GSS was associated with differences in susceptibility to adverse effects of pollutants on lung function growth.
GSS; glutathione; lung function; oxidative stress; air pollution
Background: The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) potentially detects airway inflammation related to air pollution exposure. Existing studies have not yet provided conclusive evidence on the association of FeNO with traffic-related pollution (TRP).
Objectives: We evaluated the association of FeNO with residential TRP exposure in a large cohort of children.
Methods: We related FeNO measured on 2,143 children (ages 7–11 years) who participated in the Southern California Children’s Health Study (CHS) to five classes of metrics of residential TRP: distances to freeways and major roads; length of all and local roads within circular buffers around the home; traffic densities within buffers; annual average line source dispersion modeled nitrogen oxides (NOx) from freeways and nonfreeway roads; and predicted annual average nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and NOx from a model based on intracommunity sampling in the CHS.
Results: In children with asthma, length of roads was positively associated with FeNO, with stronger associations in smaller buffers [46.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 14.3–88.4], 12.4% (95% CI, –8.8 to 38.4), and 4.1% (95% CI, –14.6 to 26.8) higher FeNO for 100-, 300-, and 1,000-m increases in the length of all roads in 50-, 100-, and 200-m buffers, respectively. Other TRP metrics were not significantly associated with FeNO, even though the study design was powered to detect exposures explaining as little as 0.4% of the variation in natural log-transformed FeNO (R2 = 0.004).
Conclusion: Length of road was the only indicator of residential TRP exposure associated with airway inflammation in children with asthma, as measured by FeNO.
air pollution; airway inflammation; children’s respiratory health; exhaled nitric oxide; traffic
The detection of gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising molecular marker for early lung cancer detection. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary fruits and vegetables and the micronutrients they contain may reduce risk of lung cancer. This investigation evaluated whether diet and multi-vitamin use influence the prevalence for gene methylation in the cells exfoliated from the aerodigestive tract of current and former smokers. Members (n = 1101) of the Lovelace Smokers Cohort completed the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire and provided a sputum sample that was assessed for promoter methylation of eight genes commonly silenced in lung cancer and associated with risk for this disease. Methylation status was categorized as low (< 2 genes methylated) or high (≥2 genes methylated). Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between methylation status and 21 dietary variables hypothesized to affect the acquisition of gene methylation. Significant protection against methylation was observed for leafy green vegetables (OR = 0.83 per 12 monthly servings, CI: 0.74, 0.93) and folate (OR = 0.84 per 750 mcg/day, CI: 0.72, 0.99). Protection against gene methylation was also seen with current use of multi-vitamins (OR = 0.57, CI: 0.40, 0.83). This is the first cohort-based study to identify dietary factors associated with reduced promoter methylation in cells exfoliated from the airway epithelium of smokers. Novel interventions to prevent lung cancer should be developed based on the ability of diet and dietary supplements to affect reprogramming of the epigenome.
gene methylation; folate; multi-vitamins; green vegetables; smokers
Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a key downstream signaling molecule common to both the insulin and IGF signaling pathways that can interact with the estrogen pathway to regulate breast cell growth. We investigated whether a putative functional variant for IRS-1 (G972R) influences circulating levels of sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), C-peptide, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels among postmenopausal African-American and non-Hispanic white breast cancer patients enrolled in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Circulating levels of sex hormones and growth factors can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. Serum estrone, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG, IGF-1 and C-peptide were measured in 468 patients at 30+ months post diagnosis. Non-protein bound hormone levels (free estradiol, free testosterone) were calculated. In African-American patients, the IRS-1 variant was associated with increased serum levels of estrone (p=0.02), free estradiol (p=0.04), total testosterone (p=0.04), free testosterone (p=0.006) and decreased levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (p=0.02). No association was present for white patients. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that IRS-1 G972R variant may be associated with circulating levels of sex hormones and SHBG in African American breast cancer survivors.
African-American; breast cancer; IRS-1; polymorphism; sex hormones
To determine if a missense change at codon 64 of ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), a candidate obesity gene, is associated with obesity and levels of subcutaneous or visceral fat in African American breast cancer cases. Several observational studies have found that women who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis, as well as those who gain weight after diagnosis, are at greater risk for breast cancer recurrence and death than non-overweight women.
Prospective cohort of breast cancer cases.
219 African American breast cancer patients participating in the Los Angeles component of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study.
ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype, measures of weight including: body mass index (BMI), weight gain (weight 5 years prior to diagnosis compared to weight at 30 months post diagnosis), obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), waist/hip circumference, and visceral or subcutaneous fat determined by magnetic resonance imaging.
African American women who were homozygous for the ADRB3 wild type allele had significantly higher mean visceral fat levels than women who carried the variant (p=0.04) and were significantly more likely to be obese (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2). The association with obesity was most pronounced among women who were premenopausal (OR=4.8, 95%CI 1.3–18), who received chemotherapy for their breast cancer (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.8–20), or who were not physically active (OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5–9.7).
The wildtype allele of the ADRB3 missense change was associated with measures of obesity in our sample of African American women. The association was modified by menopausal status, history of chemotherapy, and modest levels of physical activity. These results will need to be confirmed in an independent sample.
African-American; obesity; visceral fat; cancer; magnetic resonance imaging
Increased body weight at breast cancer diagnosis has been associated with an increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival. Weight gain is also common following diagnosis. Increasing physical activity (PA) after diagnosis may minimize these adverse outcomes. This study investigated whether PA levels after diagnosis declined from pre-diagnosis levels, and whether any changes in PA varied by disease stage, treatment, age, and body mass index (BMI) in 812 incident population-based stage 0–3a breast cancer patients.
Types of sports and household activities and their frequency and duration for the year prior to diagnosis and for the month prior to the interview (i.e., 4–12 months post-diagnosis) were assessed during a baseline interview.
Patients decreased their total PA by an estimated 2.0 hrs/week from pre- to post-diagnosis, an 11% decrease (p < .05). Greater decreases in sports PA were observed among women treated with radiation and chemotherapy (50% decrease) than women having surgery only (24% decrease) or treated with radiation only (23%) (p < .05). Greater decreases in sports PA were observed among obese patients (41% decrease) than normal weight (24% decrease) patients (p < .05).
PA levels were significantly reduced following breast cancer diagnosis. Greater decreases in PA observed among heavier patients implies a potential for greater weight gain among already overweight women. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate how PA may improve breast cancer prognosis.
exercise; prognosis; treatment; stage; body weight; obesity