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1.  Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment 
Neuropharmacology  2013;76(0 0):10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.034.
Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.034
PMCID: PMC3779499  PMID: 23639437
nicotine; withdrawal; cognition; attention; working memory; smoking cessation
2.  Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2013;38(12):2327-2337.
The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment.
doi:10.1038/npp.2013.152
PMCID: PMC3799069  PMID: 23793356
imaging; clinical or preclinical; neurogenetics; neuroimaging; neuropharmacology; pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics; psychiatry; treatment; neuroimaging; pharmacogenetics; psychiatry; treatment
3.  No Untoward Effects of Smoking Cues in Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements* 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2013;133(1):279-282.
Background
Anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) often include smoking-related cues; however, visual drug cues can trigger acute cravings that may impede cognitive processing of the anti-smoking message. This experiment evaluated effects of smoking cues in PSAs on smoking urges, immediate smoking behavior, and persuasion measures in daily smokers.
Methods
Three-hundred eighteen non-treatment seeking smokers completed a single laboratory session during which they viewed sets of PSAs differentiated by presence of smoking cues (central to the PSA’s argument, peripheral, or no cues) and argument strength (high versus low). After viewing the PSAs, participants completed self-report measures of smoking urges, attitudes toward quitting, self-efficacy, and intentions to quit smoking. Smoking behavior was recorded during a one-hour ad-libitum smoking period immediately following PSA viewing and assessment.
Results
There was a significant positive effect of argument strength on attitudes toward quitting smoking (p = 0.012). There were no main effects of smoking cues or smoking cue by argument strength interactions on any of the outcome measures.
Conclusions
Visual smoking cues in PSAs do not increase urges to smoke, nor is there evidence that the inclusion of such cues impede the recall or persuasive effects of anti-smoking arguments.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.006
PMCID: PMC3786034  PMID: 23742844
smoking; tobacco; public service announcements; smoking cues; health communication
4.  Association of BDNF and COMT genotypes with cognitive processing of anti-smoking PSAs 
Genes, brain, and behavior  2011;10(8):862-867.
Anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) often use persuasive arguments to attempt to influence attitudes about smoking. The persuasiveness of a PSA has previously been associated with factors that influence the cognitive processing of its message. Genetic factors that influence cognitive processing might thus affect individuals' responses to the persuasive arguments presented in PSAs. In the current study, we examined polymorphisms in the genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met), which affect cognitive processing in the prefrontal cortex, to identify genetic factors associated with self-reported outcomes of message processing, perceived effectiveness, and quitting intentions among smokers viewing PSAs. 120 smokers viewed sets of 4 PSAs which varied with respect to features of argument strength and message sensation value. We observed significant associations of BDNF genotype with central processing, narrative processing, perceived effectiveness of the anti-smoking PSAs, and participant quitting intentions; the BDNF Met allele was associated with lower scores on all these measures. Central processing acted as a mediator of the association of genotype with quitting intentions and perceived effectiveness. There was a significant interaction of COMT genotype by argument strength in the model of narrative processing, such that individuals homozygous for the COMT Val allele reported higher narrative processing in the high argument strength condition, but not in the low argument strength condition. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify genetic factors associated with cognitive processing of anti-smoking public service announcements.
doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00726.x
PMCID: PMC4000094  PMID: 21883922
BDNF; COMT; genetics; cognitive processing; public service announcements
5.  µ-opioid Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Associated with Smoking for Negative Affect Relief 
Psychopharmacology  2012;222(4):701-708.
Rationale
The perception that smoking relieves negative affect contributes to smoking persistence. Endogenous opioid neurotransmission, and the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, plays a role in affective regulation and is modulated by nicotine.
Objectives
We examined the relationship of µ-opioid receptor binding availability in the amygdala to the motivation to smoke for negative affect relief and to the acute effects of smoking on affective responses.
Methods
Twenty-two smokers were scanned on two separate occasions after overnight abstinence using [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography imaging: after smoking a nicotine-containing cigarette and after smoking a denicotinized cigarette. Self-reports of smoking motives were collected at baseline, and measures of positive and negative affect were collected pre- and post- cigarette smoking.
Results
Higher MOR availability in the amygdala was associated with motivation to smoke to relieve negative affect. However, MOR availability was unrelated to changes in affect after smoking either cigarette.
Conclusions
Increased MOR availability in amygdala may underlie the motivation to smoke for negative affective relief. These results are consistent with previous data highlighting the role of µ-opioid receptor neurotransmission in smoking behavior.
doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2673-5
PMCID: PMC3670416  PMID: 22389047
Smoking motivation; µ-opioid receptor; amygdala; affect regulation
6.  Association of the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 Polymorphisms With Smoking Rate Among Treatment-Seeking Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;13(6):498-503.
Introduction:
Genome-wide association studies have linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster with heaviness of smoking. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a measure of the rate of nicotine metabolism, is associated with the number of cigarettes per day (CPD) and likelihood of cessation. We tested the potential interacting effects of these two risk factors on CPD.
Methods:
Pretreatment data from three prior clinical trials were pooled for analysis. One thousand and thirty treatment seekers of European ancestry with genotype data for the CHRNA5/A3/B4 SNPs rs578776 and rs1051730 and complete data for NMR and CPD at pretreatment were included. Data for the third SNP, rs16969968, were available for 677 individuals. Linear regression models estimated the main and interacting effects of genotype and NMR on CPD.
Results:
We confirmed independent associations between the NMR and CPD as well as between the SNPs rs16969968 and rs1051730 and CPD. We did not detect a significant interaction between NMR and any of the SNPs examined.
Conclusions:
This study demonstrates the additive and independent association of the NMR and SNPs in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster with smoking rate in treatment-seeking smokers.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr012
PMCID: PMC3103715  PMID: 21385908

Results 1-6 (6)