Research examined joint physical activity and sedentary behavior among 291 parent-child pairs who both wore an accelerometer and global positioning systems (GPS) device over the same 7-day period.
Children were 52.2% female, 8-14 years, and 43.0% Hispanic. Parents were 87.6% female. An Actigraph GT2M accelerometer and GlobalSat BT-335 GPS device collected activity and global positioning data, respectively. Linear distance between the parent and child for each 30-sec. epoch was calculated using geographic coordinates from the GPS. Joint behavior was defined as a separation distance less than 50m between parents and children.
On average during non-school waking hours, parents and children spent 2.4 min. (SD = 4.1) per day performing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) together and 92.9 min. (SD = 40.1) per day in sedentary behavior together. Children engaged in an average of 10 min. per day of MVPA during non-school waking hours when their parent was nearby but not engaging in MVPA. During this same period, parents engaged in 4.6 min. per day of MVPA when their child was nearby but not engaging in MVPA. Household income level and the child’s age were negatively associated with joint MVPA. Girls engaged in a greater percentage of their total MVPA together with their parent than boys. Girls and older children engaged in more sedentary behavior together with their parent than boys and younger children. Older parents engaged in a greater percentage of their sedentary behavior together with their children than younger parents.
Replacing the time that parents and children spend together in sedentary pursuits with joint physical activity could have health benefits, especially for girls, older children, older parents, and higher income families.
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; accelerometer; global positioning systems; age; sex
This study examines clinical predictors of symptom deterioration (relapse/recurrence) at the completion of a clinical intervention trial of depressed, low-income, predominantly Hispanic diabetes patients who were randomized to socio-culturally adapted collaborative depression treatment or usual care and no longer met clinically significant depression criteria at 12 months post-trial baseline.
A sub-cohort of 193 diabetes patients with major depression symptoms at baseline, that were randomized to a 12-month collaborative care intervention (INT) (Problem Solving Therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, telephone symptom monitoring/relapse prevention, behavioral activation and patient navigation support) or enhanced usual care (EUC), and who did not meet major depression criteria at 12 months were subsequently observed over 18 to 24 months.
Post-trial depression symptom deterioration was similar between INT (35.2%) and EUC (35.3%) groups. Among the combined groups, significant predictors of symptom deterioration were baseline history of previous depression and/or dysthymia (odds ratio [OR] =2.66), 12-month PHQ-9 score (OR=1.22), antidepressant treatment receipt during the initial 12-months (OR=2.38), 12-month diabetes symptoms (OR=2.27) and new ICD-9 medical diagnoses in the initial 12 months (OR=1.11) (R2=27%; Max-rescaled R2=37%; Likelihood ratio test, chi-sq=59.79, df=5, p<.0001).
Among predominantly Hispanic diabetes patients in community safety net primary care clinics whose depression had improved over 1 year, more than one third experienced symptom deterioration over the following year. A primary care management depression care protocol that includes ongoing depression symptom monitoring, antidepressant adherence, and diabetes and co-morbid illness monitoring plus depression medication adjustment and behavioral activation may reduce and/or effectively treat depression symptom deterioration.
Depression Recurrence and Relapse; Depression Care Disparities; Depression Symptom Monitoring; Depression and Diabetes; Depression in Hispanics
To determine sustained effectiveness in reducing depression symptoms and improving depression care one year following intervention completion.
Of 387 low-income, predominantly Hispanic diabetes patients with major depression symptoms randomized to 12-month socio-culturally adapted collaborative care (psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, telephone symptom monitoring/relapse prevention) or enhanced usual care, 264 patients completed two-year follow-up. Depression symptoms (SCL-20, PHQ-9), treatment receipt, diabetes symptoms, and quality of life were assessed 24 months post-enrollment using intent-to-treat analyses.
At 24 months, more intervention patients received ongoing antidepressant treatment (38% v 25%, chi-square=5.11, df=1, P=0.02); sustained depression symptom improvement (SCL-20<0.5 (adjusted OR=2.06, 95%CI=1.09–3.90, P=0.03), SCL-20 score (adjusted mean difference −0.22, P=0.001), and PHQ-9 ≥50% reduction (adjusted OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.05–3.32, P=0.03). Over 2 years, improved effects were found in significant study group by time interaction for SF-12 mental health, SDS functional impairment, diabetes symptoms, anxiety, and socioeconomic stressors (P=0.02 for SDS, P<0.0001 for all others); however, group differences narrowed over time and were no longer significant at 24 months.
Socio-culturally tailored collaborative care that included maintenance antidepressant medication, ongoing symptom monitoring and behavioral activation relapse prevention was associated with depression improvement over 24 months for predominantly Hispanic patients in primary safety net care.
Depression; Diabetes; Collaborative Care; Safety Net; Hispanic
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors.
Injection drug use; HIV; gender; perceived consequences; syringe sharing
Reverse-scored items on assessment scales increase cognitive processing demands, and may therefore lead to measurement problems for older adult respondents.
To examine possible psychometric inadequacies of reverse-scored items on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when used to assess ethnically diverse older adults.
Using baseline data from a gerontologic clinical trial (n=460), we tested the hypotheses that the reversed items on the CES-D: (a) are less reliable than non-reversed items, (b) disproportionately lead to intra-individually atypical responses that are psychometrically problematic, and (c) evidence improved measurement properties when an imputation procedure based on the scale mean is used to replace atypical responses.
In general, the results supported the hypotheses. Relative to non-reversed CES-D items, the four reversed items were less internally consistent, were associated with lower item-scale correlations, and were more often answered atypically at an intra-individual level. Further, the atypical responses were negatively correlated with responses to psychometrically sound non-reversed items that had similar content. The use of imputation to replace atypical responses enhanced the predictive validity of the set of reverse-scored items.
Among older adult respondents reverse-scored items are associated with measurement difficulties. It is recommended that appropriate correction procedures such as item re-administration or statistical imputation be applied to reduce the difficulties.
CES-D; depression; reversed item format; older adults
Although previous investigations have indicated a role for genetic factors in smoking initiation, the underlying genetic mechanisms are still unknown. In 2,339 adolescents from a Chinese Han population in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial (Wuhan, China, 1998–1999), the authors explored the association of 57 genes in the dopamine pathway with smoking initiation. Using a conservative approach for declaring significance, positive findings were further examined in an independent sample of 603 Caucasian adolescents followed for up to 10 years as part of the Children's Health Study (Southern California, 1993–2009). The authors identified 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2298122) in the calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein gene (CALY) that was positively associated with smoking initiation in females (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.49, 3.27; P = 8.4 × 10−5) in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial cohort, and they replicated the association in females from the Children's Health Study cohort (hazard rate ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 3.31; P = 0.003). These results suggest that the CALY gene may influence smoking initiation in adolescents, although the potential roles of underlying psychological characteristics that may be components of the smoking-initiation phenotype, such as impulsivity or novelty-seeking, remain to be explored.
adolescent; dopamine; genetic association studies; smoking
The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic differences in the metabolic responses to a 16-week intervention designed to improve insulin sensitivity (SI), adiposity, and inflammation in obese African-American and Latino adolescents. A total of 100 participants (African Americans: n = 48, Latino: n = 52; age: 15.4 ± 1.1 years, BMI percentile: 97.3 ± 3.3) were randomly assigned to interventions: control (C; n = 30), nutrition (N; n = 39, 1×/week focused on decreasing sugar and increasing fiber intake), or nutrition + strength training (N+ST; n = 31, 2×/week). The following were measured at pre- and postintervention: strength, dietary intake, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry/magnetic resonance imaging) and glucose/insulin indexes (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)/intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)) and inflammatory markers. Overall, N compared to C and N+ST reported significant improvements in SI (+16.5% vs. −32.3% vs. −6.9% respectively, P < 0.01) and disposition index (DI: +15.5% vs. −14.2% vs. −13.7% respectively, P < 0.01). N+ST compared to C and N reported significant reductions in hepatic fat fraction (HFF: −27.3% vs. −4.3% vs. 0% respectively, P < 0.01). Compared to N, N+ST reported reductions in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (−38.3% vs. +1.0%, P < 0.01) and resistin (−18.7% vs. +11.3%, P = 0.02). There were no intervention effects for all other measures of adiposity or inflammation. Significant intervention by ethnicity interactions were found for African Americans in the N group who reported increases in total fat mass, 2-h glucose and glucose incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) compared to Latinos (P’s < 0.05). These interventions yielded differential effects with N reporting favorable improvements in SI and DI and N+ST reporting marked reductions in HFF and inflammation. Both ethnic groups had significant improvements in metabolic health; however some improvements were not seen in African Americans.
In the HORMA (Hormonal Regulators of Muscle and Metabolism in Aging) Trial, supplemental testosterone and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) enhanced lean body mass, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, muscle performance, and physical function, but there was substantial interindividual variability in outcomes.
One hundred and twelve men aged 65–90 years received testosterone gel (5 g/d vs 10 g/d via Leydig cell clamp) and rhGH (0 vs 3 vs 5 μg/kg/d) in a double-masked 2 × 3 factorial design for 16 weeks. Outcomes included lean tissue mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, one-repetition maximum strength, Margaria stair power, and activity questionnaires. We used pathway analysis to determine the relationship between changes in hormone levels, muscle mass, strength, and function.
Increases in total testosterone of 1046 ng/dL (95% confidence interval = 1040–1051) and 898 ng/dL (95% confidence interval = 892–904) were necessary to achieve median increases in lean body mass of 1.5 kg and appendicular skeletal muscle mass of 0.8 kg, respectively, which were required to significantly enhance one-repetition maximum strength (≥30%). Co-treatment with rhGH lowered the testosterone levels (quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry) necessary to reach these lean mass thresholds. Changes in one-repetition maximum strength were associated with increases in stair climbing power (r = .26, p = .01). Pathway analysis supported the model that changes in testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are related to changes in lean body mass needed to enhance muscle performance and physical function. Testosterone’s effects on physical activity were mediated through a different pathway because testosterone directly affected Physical Activity Score of the Elderly.
To enhance muscle strength and physical function, threshold improvements in lean body mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass are necessary and these can be achieved by targeting changes in testosterone levels. rhGH augments the effects of testosterone. To maximize functional improvements, the doses of anabolic hormones should be titrated to achieve target blood levels.
Testosterone; Growth hormone; Lean body mass; Muscle performance; Physical function
To describe physical activity (PA) levels by race/ethnicity, age, gender, and weight status in a representative sample of U.S. youth.
Cross-sectional data from the 2003–4 and 2005–6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were combined and analyzed. Youth ages 6 to 19 with at least 4 10-hour days of PA measured by accelerometry were included (N=3,106). Outcomes included mean counts per minute and minutes spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA).
6 to 11 year olds spent more time (88 min/day) in MVPA than 12 to 15 (33 min/day) and 16–19 (26 min/day) year olds (p<.001 for both). Females spent fewer min/day in MVPA than males (p<.001). Overall, obese youth spent 16 fewer min/day in MVPA than normal weight youth. However, non-Hispanic White (NHW) males spent 3–4 fewer min/day in vigorous PA than Mexican American (MA) (p=.004) and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) (p<.001) males but had lower obesity rates; and obese 12 to 15 year old MA recorded similar minutes in MVPA per day as normal weight MA (p>.050). There was a significant 3-way age-BMI-race/ethnicity interaction for mean min/day in MVPA (p<.001). Adjustment for total energy intake did not qualitatively alter these results.
Females and older youth were the least active groups. Obese youth were generally less active, but this did not hold uniformly across race/ethnic groups. Cultural or biological factors could moderate the association between PA and obesity in youth.
NHANES; Moderate To Vigorous; Accelerometer; BMI; Adolescent
The growth curve modeling (GCM) technique has been widely adopted in longitudinal studies to investigate progression over time. The simplest growth profile involves two growth factors, initial status (intercept) and growth trajectory (slope). Conventionally, all repeated measures of outcome are included as components of the growth profile, and the first measure is used to reflect the initial status. Selection of the initial status, however, can greatly influence study findings, especially for randomized trials. In this article, we propose an alternative GCM approach involving only post-intervention measures in the growth profile and treating the first wave after intervention as the initial status. We discuss and empirically illustrate how choices of initial status may influence study conclusions in addressing research questions in randomized trials using two longitudinal studies. Data from two randomized trials are used to illustrate that the alternative GCM approach proposed in this article offers better model fitting and more meaningful results.
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.
eating; video gaming; children; addictive behavior
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens via syringe and paraphernalia sharing, and women are at elevated risk. Consequences of injection risk behavior such as the risk of becoming infected with HIV have been relatively well studied, though less is known about the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 26 IDUs recruited from a syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA to understand the consequences that IDUs associate with refusing to share injection equipment and to determine whether these perceived consequences differ by gender. Perceived consequences were organized into four domains using a Social Ecological framework: microsystem (perceived risk of HIV, drug withdrawal or forgoing drug use), exosystem (trust and social norms), mesosystem (precarious housing and shelter policies), and macrosystem (syringe access/inconvenience, economic and legal consequences). Gender differences were identified in some, but not all areas. Effective public health interventions among IDUs will benefit from a holistic perspective that considers the environmental and social rationality (Kowalewski et al., 1997) of decisions regarding injection risk behavior, and assists individuals in addressing the consequences that they perceive to be most salient.
HIV; injection drug use; gender; qualitative methods; perceived consequences; behavioral theory
To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents.
Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms.
Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms.
Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms.
overweight; depressive symptoms; body image; acculturation
Older people are at risk for health decline and loss of independence. Lifestyle interventions offer potential for reducing such negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a preventive lifestyle-based occupational therapy intervention, administered in a variety of community-based sites, in improving mental and physical well-being and cognitive functioning in ethnically diverse older people.
A randomised controlled trial was conducted comparing an occupational therapy intervention and a no-treatment control condition over a 6-month experimental phase. Participants included 460 men and women aged 60–95 years (mean age 74.9±7.7 years; 53% <$12 000 annual income) recruited from 21 sites in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area.
Intervention participants, relative to untreated controls, showed more favourable change scores on indices of bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, mental health, composite mental functioning, life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology (ps<0.05). The intervention group had a significantly greater increment in quality-adjusted life years (p<0.02), which was achieved cost-effectively (US $41 218/UK £24 868 per unit). No intervention effect was found for cognitive functioning outcome measures.
A lifestyle-oriented occupational therapy intervention has beneficial effects for ethnically diverse older people recruited from a wide array of community settings. Because the intervention is cost-effective and is applicable on a wide-scale basis, it has the potential to help reduce health decline and promote well-being in older people.
clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT0078634.
Lifestyle interventions; occupational therapy; randomised controlled trial; quality of life; ageing/geriatrics; depression; geriatrics; lifestyle; qual of life measmnt; randomised trials
There have been few comparisons of the effectiveness of collaborative depression care between older versus younger adults with co-morbid illness, particularly among low-income populations.
Intent-to-treat analyses are conducted on pooled data from three randomized controlled trials that tested collaborative care aimed at improving depression, quality of life and treatment receipt.
Trials were conducted in oncology and primary care safety net clinics and diverse home health care programs.
1,081 patients with major depressive symptoms and cancer, diabetes or other co-morbid illness.
Similar intervention protocols included patient, provider, socio-cultural and organizational adaptations.
The PHQ-9 depression, SF-12/20 quality-of-life, self-reported hospitalization, ER, ICU utilization, and antidepressant, psychotherapy treatment receipt are assessed at baseline, 6, 12 months.
There are no significant differences in reducing depression symptoms (P ranged 0.18-0.58), improving quality-of-life (t=1.86, df=669, P=0.07 for physical functioning at 12 months; and P ranged 0.23-0.99 for all others) between patients ≥60 versus 18-59. Both age group intervention patients have significantly higher rates of a 50% PHQ-9 reduction (older: Wald χ2[df=1]=4.82, p=0.03; younger: Wald χ2[df=1]=6.47, p=0.02), greater reduction in major depression rates (older: Wald χ2[df=1]=7.72, p=0.01; younger: Wald χ2[df=1]=4.0, p=0.05) than enhanced-usual-care patients at 6 months, and are no significant age group differences in treatment type or intensity.
Collaborative depression care in individuals with co-morbid illness is as effective in reducing depression in older patients as younger patients, including among low-income, minority patients. Patient, provider, and organizational adaptations of depression care management models may contribute to positive outcomes.
collaborative multidisciplinary care; depression; comorbid illness; diabetes; cancer; home health
Chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have surpassed infectious diseases as the primary cause of death and disability in most developing nations. Nowhere is this more evident than in China where NCDs account for 80% of all deaths and skyrocketing medical costs. Driving the escalation of NCDs are high rates of tobacco use, longer life spans, and changes in the traditional Chinese diet and lifestyle bolstered by unprecedented economic growth and the new global culture. Despite the epidemic of NCDs, few evidence-based interventions either to prevent or retard their progression exist in China. We present a case for the development and adoption of such strategies as effective tools to combat China’s greatest health threat. Finally, we offer an example of a collaborative network linking Chinese public health and academic institutions with US researchers to promote the translation of western evidence-based interventions that fully incorporate local knowledge, culture, and capacity.
Noncommunicable disease; Tobacco control; China; Evidence-based
Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines.
The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial.
In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects.
The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base.
Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery.
The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder population.
Older adults; randomized clinical trials; lifestyle intervention; health-related quality of life; methodological challenges; recruitment strategies
To determine whether evidence-based socioculturally adapted collaborative depression care improves receipt of depression care and depression and diabetes outcomes in low-income Hispanic subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a randomized controlled trial of 387 diabetic patients (96.5% Hispanic) with clinically significant depression recruited from two public safety-net clinics from August 2005 to July 2007 and followed over 18 months. Intervention (INT group) included problem-solving therapy and/or antidepressant medication based on a stepped-care algorithm; first-line treatment choice; telephone treatment response, adherence, and relapse prevention follow-up over 12 months; plus systems navigation assistance. Enhanced usual care (EUC group) included standard clinic care plus patient receipt of depression educational pamphlets and a community resource list.
INT patients had significantly greater depression improvement (≥50% reduction in Symptom Checklist-20 depression score from baseline; 57, 62, and 62% vs. the EUC group's 36, 42, and 44% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively; odds ratio 2.46–2.57; P < 0.001). Mixed-effects linear regression models showed a significant study group–by–time interaction over 18 months in diabetes symptoms; anxiety; Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) emotional, physical, and pain-related functioning; Sheehan disability; financial situation; and number of social stressors (P = 0.04 for disability and SF-12 physical functioning, P < 0.001 for all others) but no study group–by–time interaction in A1C, diabetes complications, self-care management, or BMI.
Socioculturally adapted collaborative depression care improved depression, functional outcomes, and receipt of depression treatment in predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.
This study examined the role of family structure and functioning in predicting substance use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents, surveyed in 9th and 10th grade. The sample (N=1433) was half female, mostly of Mexican descent, and the majority was born in the U.S. Living with a single father was associated with less parental monitoring and less family cohesion (γ = −0.07, −0.06, respectively). Living with a single mother was associated with less parental monitoring (γ = −0.10). Living with neither parent was associated with less communication (γ = −0.08), less parental monitoring (γ = −0.09), more family conflict (γ = 0.06), and less family cohesion (γ = −0.06). Less monitoring was associated with substance use at follow-up (β = −0.17). Low rates of parental monitoring appear to mediate the association between parental family structure and substance use. Results suggest that improving basic parenting skills, and offering additional social support and resources to assist parents in monitoring adolescents may help prevent substance use. These interventions may be particularly beneficial for single parents.
Adolescents; Hispanic/Latino; Family function; Family structure; Structural Equation Modeling
To design more effective health communication messages for smoking cessation and prevention, it is important to understand people’s own perceptions of the factors that influence their decisions to smoke. Studies have examined cognitive attributions for smoking in Western countries but not in the Chinese cultural context. In a study of 14,434 Chinese adolescents, exploratory factor analysis grouped 17 cognitive attributions into 8 factors: curiosity, coping, social image, social belonging, engagement, autonomy, mental enhancement, and weight control. The factors were ranked based on the participants’ self-reports of importance and by the strength of their associations with smoking behavior. Among all smokers, curiosity was the most frequently-ranked attribution factor at the early stages of smoking but not for daily smoking. Coping was highly-ranked across smoking stages. Social image and social belonging were more highly-ranked at earlier stages, whereas engagement and mental enhancement were ranked more highly at later stages of smoking. More attributions were associated with smoking among males than among females. This information could be useful for the development of evidence-based anti-smoking programs in China.
Attributions; Smoking; Attribution Theory; Adolescents; China
Sun-induced skin damage, which increases skin cancer risk, is initiated in early life and promoted through later sun exposure patterns. If sun safety determinants are well understood and addressed during the school years, skin cancer incidence might be reduced. This study tested psychosocial influences on youth’s sun safety and assessed their strength within and across gender and ethnicity in a sample of 1782 middle school students.
Predictors included sunburn and skin cancer knowledge, tanning attitudes, peer norms, and barriers regarding sun exposure and were assessed with a self-administered, validated questionnaire. The hypothesized relationships were tested with structural equation models and confirmed with multilevel regression.
Across gender and ethnicity, knowledge emerged as an important sun safety predictor with both direct and indirect effects mediated through tanning attitudes. The relationship with barriers did not reach statistical significance within any of the subgroups, possibly due to measurement limitations. An indirect effect of peer norms on sun safety, mediated through tanning attitudes, was confirmed only among girls. Also, an indication that peer norms operate differently within the ethnic groups was found, since this predictor had a statistically significantly stronger relationship with sun safety among non-Hispanics.
Youth’s sun safety is a multifactorial practice, partially determined by ethnicity- and gender-based standards. In order to ensure health-promoting school environments, needed are multicomponent programs where peer norms and knowledge are salient and where sun safety is addressed individually and together with other health risk behaviors.
adolescents; sun safety; psychosocial factors; structural equation models
Friendship choices and BMI were measured for 617 adolescents (12-14 years). Overweight youth were twice as likely to have overweight friends. There was a weak association between social position and weight status, overweight youth nominated more friends but were nominated as friends less frequently than their normal weight peers.
Few randomized trials attempt to improve insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic risks in overweight Latino youth. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a modified carbohydrate nutrition program combined with strength training on insulin sensitivity, adiposity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors in overweight Latino adolescents. In a 16-week randomized trial, 54 overweight Latino adolescents (15.5 ± 1.0 years) were randomly assigned to: (i) Control (C; n = 16), (ii) Nutrition (N; n = 21), or (iii) Nutrition + Strength training (N+ST; n = 17). The N group received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once per week), while the N+ST received the same nutrition classes plus strength training (twice per week). The following were measured at pre- and postintervention: strength by 1-repetition maximum, dietary intake by 3-day records, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group effects were tested using analysis of covariance with post hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant overall intervention effect was found for improvement in bench press (P < 0.001) and reductions in energy (P = 0.05), carbohydrate (P = 0.04) and fat intake (P = 0.03). There were no significant intervention effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition, or most glucose/insulin indices with the exception of glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (P = 0.05), which decreased in the N and N+ST group by 18 and 6.3% compared to a 32% increase in the C group. In conclusion, this intense, culturally tailored intervention resulted in no significant intervention effects on measured risk factors with the exception of a beneficial effect on glycemic response to oral glucose.