The childhood precursors of adult bipolar disorder (BP) are still a matter of controversy.
To report the lifetime prevalence and early clinical predictors of psychiatric disorders in offspring from families of probands with DSM-IV BP compared with offspring of control subjects.
A longitudinal, prospective study of individuals at risk for BP and related disorders. We report initial (cross-sectional and retrospective) diagnostic and clinical characteristics following best-estimate procedures.
Assessment was performed at 4 university medical centers in the United States between June 1, 2006, and September 30, 2009.
Offspring aged 12 to 21 years in families with a proband with BP (n=141, designated as cases) and similarly aged offspring of control parents (n=91).
Main Outcome Measure
Lifetime DSM-IV diagnosis of a major affective disorder (BP type I; schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type; BP type II; or major depression).
At a mean age of 17 years, cases showed a 23.4% lifetime prevalence of major affective disorders compared with 4.4% in controls (P=.002, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and correlation between siblings). The prevalence of BP in cases was 8.5% vs 0% in controls (adjusted P=.007). No significant difference was seen in the prevalence of other affective, anxiety, disruptive behavior, or substance use disorders. Among case subjects manifesting major affective disorders (n=33), there was an increased risk of anxiety and externalizing disorders compared with cases without mood disorder. In cases but not controls, a childhood diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (relative risk=2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–6.3; P=.04) or an externalizing disorder (3.6; 1.4–9.0; P=.007) was predictive of later onset of major affective disorders.
Childhood anxiety and externalizing diagnoses predict major affective illness in adolescent offspring in families with probands with BP.
Pharmacogenetic research has the potential to explain the variation in treatment efficacy within patient populations. Understanding the interaction between genetic variation and medications may provide a method for matching patients to the most effective therapeutic options and improving overall patient outcomes. The OPRM1 gene has been a target of interest in a large number of pharmacogenetic studies due to its genetic and structural variation, as well as the role of opioid receptors in a variety of disorders. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR), encoded by OPRM1, naturally regulates the analgesic response to pain and also controls the rewarding effects of many drugs of abuse, including opioids, nicotine, and alcohol. Genetic variants in OPRM1, particularly the nonsynonymous polymorphism A118G, have been repeatedly associated with the efficacy of treatments for pain and various types of dependence. This review focuses on the current understanding of the pharmacogenetic impact of OPMR1, primarily in regards to the treatment of pain and addiction.
OPRM1; Mu opioid receptor; Pharmacogenetics
Although low weight is a key factor contributing to the high mortality in anorexia nervosa (AN), it is unclear how AN patients sustain low weight compared with bulimia nervosa (BN) patients with similar psychopathology. Studies of genes involved in appetite and weight regulation in eating disorders have yielded variable findings in part due to small sample size and clinical heterogeneity. This study: (1) assessed the role of leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin genetic variants in conferring risk for AN and BN and (2) explored the involvement of these genes in body mass index (BMI) variations within AN and BN.
Our sample consisted of 745 individuals with AN without a history of BN, 245 with BN without a history of AN, and 321 controls. We genotyped 20 markers with known or putative function among genes selected from leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin systems.
There were no significant differences in allele frequencies among individuals with AN, BN, and controls. AGRP rs13338499 polymorphism was associated with lowest illness-related BMI in those with AN (p=0.0013), and NTRK2 rs1042571 was associated with highest BMI in those with BN (p=0.0018).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the issue of clinical heterogeneity in eating disorder genetics and to explore the role of known or putatively functional markers in genes regulating appetite and weight in individuals with AN and BN. If replicated, our results may serve as an important first step toward gaining a better understanding of weight regulation in eating disorders.
anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; candidate gene association; body weight; melanocortins; neurotrophins
Alcohol addiction is one of the most common and devastating diseases in the world. Given the tremendous heterogeneity of alcohol-addicted individuals, it is unlikely that one medication will help nearly all patients. Thus, there is a clear need to develop predictors of response to existing medications. Naltrexone is a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, which has been approved in the United States for treatment of alcohol addiction since 1994. It has limited efficacy, in part because of noncompliance, but many patients do not respond despite high levels of compliance. There are reports that a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs179919 or A118G) in the μ-opioid receptor gene predicts a favorable response to naltrexone if an individual carries a “G” allele. This work will review the evidence for this hypothesis. The data are promising that the “G” allele predisposes to a beneficial naltrexone response among alcohol-addicted persons, but additional research is needed to prove this hypothesis in prospective clinical trials.
Some patients do not respond to naltrexone, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist used to treat alcohol addiction. An SNP in the μ-opioid receptor gene may be useful for predicting naltrexone response.
The common CHRNA5 mis-sense coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968:G>A (D398N) has been shown repeatedly to confer risk for heavy smoking in individuals who carry the ‘A’ allele (encoding the 398N amino acid). The mis-sense SNP has a minor allele frequency (MAF) of ~40% in European-Americans, but only ~7% in African-Americans (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/). We reasoned that there might be other mis-sense variants among African-Americans that could confer the heavy smoking phenotype (defined here as ≥20 cigarettes per day), perhaps in a similar manner to that of the D398N polymorphism in Europeans. As such, we re-sequenced 250 African-American heavy smokers, most of whom were homozygous ‘G’ at rs16969968:G>A (MAF of 9.6% within the population). Although many novel coding SNPs were not observed, we report an interesting, although rare (perhaps personal) variant in CHRNA5 that could result in nonsense-mediated decay of the aberrant transcript.
mutation; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; nAChR; nicotine dependence
Our aim is to map chromosomal regions that harbor loci that increase susceptibility to bipolar disorder.
We analyzed 644 bipolar families ascertained by the National Institute of Mental Health Human Genetics Initiative for bipolar disorder. The families have been genotyped with microsatellite loci spaced every approximately 10 cM or less across the genome. Earlier analyses of these pedigrees have been limited to nonparametric (model-free) methods and thus, information from unaffected subjects with genotypes was not considered. In this study, we used parametric analyses assuming dominant and recessive transmission and specifying a maximum penetrance of 70%, so that information from unaffecteds could be weighed in the linkage analyses. As in previous linkage analyses of these pedigrees, we analyzed three diagnostic categories: model 1 included only bipolar I and schizoaffective, bipolar cases (1565 patients of whom approximately 4% were schizoaffective, bipolar); model 2 included all individuals in model 1 plus bipolar II patients (1764 total individuals); and model 3 included all individuals in model 2 with the addition of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (2046 total persons).
Assuming dominant inheritance the highest genome-wide pair-wise logarithm of the odds (LOD) score was 3.2 with D16S749 using model 2 patients. Multipoint analyses of this region yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.91. Under recessive transmission a number of chromosome 20 markers were positive and multipoint analyses of the area gave a maximum LOD of 3.0 with model 2 cases.
The chromosome 16p and 20 regions have been implicated by some studies and the data reported herein provide additional suggestive evidence of bipolar susceptibility genes in these regions.
bipolar disorder; chromosome 16; chromosome 20; complex disorder; genetics; gene mapping; linkage analysis; parametric analysis
Opiate addiction is a devastating health problem, with approximately 2 million people currently addicted to heroin or non-medical prescription opiates in the United States alone. In neurons, adaptations in cell signaling cascades develop following opioid actions at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). A novel putative target for intervention involves interacting proteins that may regulate trafficking of MOR. Morphine has been shown to induce a re-distribution of a MOR-interacting protein Wntless (WLS, a transport molecule necessary for secretion of neurotrophic Wnt proteins), from cytoplasmic to membrane compartments in rat striatal neurons. Given its opiate-sensitivity and its well-characterized molecular and cellular adaptations to morphine exposure, we investigated the anatomical distribution of WLS and MOR in the rat locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system. Dual immunofluorescence microscopy was used to test the hypothesis that WLS is localized to noradrenergic neurons of the LC and that WLS and MOR co-exist in common LC somatodendritic processes, providing an anatomical substrate for their putative interactions. We also hypothesized that morphine would influence WLS distribution in the LC. Rats received saline, morphine or the opiate agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), and tissue sections through the LC were processed for immunogold-silver detection of WLS and MOR. Statistical analysis showed a significant re-distribution of WLS to the plasma membrane following morphine treatment in addition to an increase in the proximity of gold-silver labels for MOR and WLS. Following DAMGO treatment, MOR and WLS were predominantly localized within the cytoplasmic compartment when compared to morphine and control. In a separate cohort of rats, brains were obtained from saline-treated or heroin self-administering male rats for pulldown co-immunoprecipitation studies. Results showed an increased association of WLS and MOR following heroin exposure. As the LC-NE system is important for cognition as well as decisions underlying substance abuse, adaptations in WLS trafficking and expression may play a role in modulating MOR function in the LC and contribute to the negative sequelae of opiate exposure on executive function.
Wntless; g-protein receptor; trafficking; norepinephrine; electron microscopy; confocal microscopy
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10-7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10-6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10-6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10-6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4×10-6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field.
anorexia nervosa; eating disorders; GWAS; genome-wide association study; body mass index; metabolic
The risk for drug addiction is partially heritable. Genes of the dopamine system are likely candidates to harbor risk variants, as dopamine neurotransmission is involved in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. One functional SNP in DRD2, rs1076560, is involved in regulating splicing of the gene and alters the ratio of DRD2 isoforms located pre and post-synaptically. rs1076560 has been previously associated with cocaine abuse and we set out to confirm this association in a sample of European American (n=336) and African American (n=1034) cocaine addicts and European American (n=656) and African American (n=668) controls. We also analysed the role of rs1076560 in opioid dependence by genotyping European American (n=1041) and African American (n=284) opioid addicts. rs1076560 was found to be nominally associated with opioid dependence in European Americans (p=0.02, OR=1.27) and African Americans (p=0.03, OR=1.43). When both opioid addicted ancestral samples were combined, rs1076560 was significantly associated with increased risk for drug dependence (p=0.0038, OR=1.29). This association remained significant after correction for multiple testing. No association was found with cocaine dependence. These data demonstrate the importance of dopamine gene variants in the risk for opioid dependence and highlight a functional polymorphism which warrants further study.
dopamine; genetics; drug addiction; rs1076560; DRD2
Animal studies indicate gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using General Linear Models based on the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits.
Organizational effects; sex differences; amenorrhea; pubertal timing; anorexia nervosa
Two commonly prescribed treatments for opioid addiction are methadone and buprenorphine. While these drugs show some efficacy in treating opioid dependence, treatment response varies among individuals. It is likely that genetic factors play a role in determining treatment outcome. This study analyses the pharmacogenetic association of 6 polymorphisms in OPRD1, the gene encoding the delta-opioid receptor, on treatment outcome in 582 opioid addicted European Americans randomized to either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone ((Suboxone®) over the course of a 24 week open-label clinical trial. Treatment outcome was assessed as the number of missed or opioid positive urine drug screens over the 24 weeks. In the total sample, no SNPs in OPRD1 were significantly associated with treatment outcome in either treatment arm. However, sex-specific analyses revealed 2 intronic SNPs (rs581111 and rs529520) that predicted treatment outcome in females treated with buprenorphine. Females with the AA or AG genotypes at rs581111 had significantly worse outcomes than those with the GG genotype when treated with buprenorphine (p=0.03, RR=1.67, 95% C.I.[1.06-2.1]). For rs529520, females with the AA genotype had a significantly worse outcome than those with the CC genotype when (p=0.006, RR=2.15, 95%C.I.[1.3-2.29]). No significant associations were detected in males. These findings suggest that rs581111 and rs52920 may be useful when considering treatment options for female opioid addicts, however confirmation in an independent sample is warranted.
Opioids; methadone; buprenorphine; OPRD1; pharmacogenetics; females
Aim: Modification and individualization of medical treatments due to genetic testing has the potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery. As evidence mounts that genetic testing may improve treatment decisions for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), we explored patient concerns and attitudes toward genetic testing. Methods: Subjects of two USA cross-sectional AUD studies were surveyed regarding their attitudes regarding the use of genetic testing for AUD treatment. Results: Four hundred and fifty-seven participants were surveyed. Overall, subjects showed a high degree of willingness to provide DNA for clinical use and recognized genetics as important to the pathophysiology of a number of disorders including AUD. There were, however, significant concerns expressed related to insurance denial or employment problems. Conclusion: We found that patients enrolled in AUD studies had some concerns about use of genetic testing. The patients in these two samples were, however, willing and knowledgeable about providing DNA samples.
Although buprenorphine and methadone are both effective treatments for opioid dependence, their efficacy can vary significantly among patients. Genetic differences may explain some of the variability in treatment outcome. Understanding the interactions between genetic background and pharmacotherapy may result in more informed treatment decisions. This study is a pharmacogenetic analysis of the effects of genetic variants in OPRD1, the gene encoding the δ-opioid receptor, on the prevalence of opioid-positive urine tests in African-Americans (n=77) or European-Americans (n=566) undergoing treatment for opioid dependence. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) over a 24-week open-label clinical trial, in which illicit opioid use was measured by weekly urinalysis. In African-Americans, the intronic SNP rs678849 predicted treatment outcome for both medications. Methadone patients with the CC genotype were less likely to have opioid-positive urine tests than those in the combined CT and TT genotypes group (relative risk (RR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44–0.60, p=0.001). In the buprenorphine treatment group, however, individuals with the CC genotype were more likely to have positive opioid drug screens than individuals in the combined CT and TT genotypes group (RR=2.17, 95% CI=1.95–2.68, p=0.008). These findings indicate that the genotype at rs678849 predicts African-American patient response to two common treatments for opioid dependence, suggesting that matching patients to treatment type based on the genotype at this locus may improve overall treatment efficacy. This observation requires confirmation in an independent population.
Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacogenomics; opioids; addiction & substance abuse; psychopharmacology; methadone; buprenorphine; treatment outcome; pharmacogenetics; methadone; buprenorphine; treatment outcome.
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) has a complex, heterogeneous phenotype only partially captured by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. In this report, latent class analyses (LCA) are used to identify ADHD phenotypes using K-SADS-IVR (Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School Age Children-IV-Revised) symptoms and symptom severity data from a clinical sample of 500 ADHD subjects, ages 6–18, participating in an ADHD genetic study. Results show that LCA identified six separate ADHD clusters, some corresponding to specific DSM-IV subtypes while others included several subtypes. DSM-IV comorbid anxiety and mood disorders were generally similar across all clusters, and subjects without comorbidity did not aggregate within any one cluster. Age and gender composition also varied. These results support findings from population-based LCA studies. The six clusters provide additional homogenous groups that can be used to define ADHD phenotypes in genetic association studies. The limited age ranges aggregating in the different clusters may prove to be a particular advantage in genetic studies where candidate gene expression may vary during developmental phases. DSM-IV comorbid mood and anxiety disorders also do not appear to increase cluster heterogeneity; however, longitudinal studies that cover period of risk are needed to support this finding.
Children; DSM-IV; Oppositional defiant disorder
Previous studies of prognostic factors of anorexia nervosa (AN) course and recovery have followed clinical populations after treatment discharge. This retrospective study examined the association between prognostic factors—eating disorder features, personality traits, and psychiatric comorbidity—and likelihood of recovery in a large sample of women with AN participating in a multi-site genetic study. The study included 680 women with AN. Recovery was defined as the offset of AN symptoms if the participant experienced at least one year without any eating disorder symptoms of low weight, dieting, binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Participants completed a structured interview about eating disorders features, psychiatric comorbidity, and self-report measures of personality. Survival analysis was applied to model time to recovery from AN. Cox regression models were used to fit associations between predictors and the probability of recovery. In the final model, likelihood of recovery was significantly predicted by the following prognostic factors: vomiting, impulsivity, and trait anxiety. Self-induced vomiting and greater trait anxiety were negative prognostic factors and predicted lower likelihood of recovery. Greater impulsivity was a positive prognostic factor and predicted greater likelihood of recovery. There was a significant interaction between impulsivity and time; the association between impulsivity and likelihood of recovery decreased as duration of AN increased. The anxiolytic function of some AN behaviors may impede recovery for individuals with greater trait anxiety.
Eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; recovery; prognostic factors; personality; comorbidity
The opioid receptor family is involved in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mediates the rewarding effects of multiple drugs, including opiates and cocaine. A number of proteins interact with MOR, potentially modulating MOR function and altering the physiological consequences of drug use. These mu-opioid receptor interacting proteins (MORIPs) are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of addiction. The Wntless (WLS) protein was recently identified as a MORIP in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In this study, we conducted a case-control association analysis of 16 WLS genetic variants in opioid and cocaine addicted individuals of both African-American (opioid n=336, cocaine n=908) and European-American (opioid n=335, cocaine n=336) ancestry. Of the analyzed SNPs, 3 were nominally associated with opioid addiction and 4 were nominally associated with cocaine addiction. None of these associations were significant following multiple testing correction. These data suggest that the common variants of WLS analyzed in this study are not associated with opioid or cocaine addiction. However, this study does not exclude the possibilities that rare variants in WLS may affect susceptibility to drug addiction, or that common variants with small effect size may fall below the detection level of our analysis.
drug addiction; cocaine addiction; opioid addiction; genetics
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) binds exogenous and endogenous opioids and is known to mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Numerous genetic studies have sought to identify common genetic variation in the gene encoding MOR (OPRM1) that affects risk for drug addiction. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of rare coding variants in OPRM1 to the risk for addiction. Rare and low frequency variants were selected using the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute –Exome Sequencing Project (NHLBI-ESP) database, which has screened the exomes of over 6500 individuals. Two SNPs (rs62638690 and rs17174794) were selected for genotyping in 1377 European American individuals addicted to heroin and/or cocaine. Two different SNPs (rs1799971 and rs17174801) were genotyped in 1238 African American individuals addicted to heroin and/or cocaine. Using the minor allele frequencies from the NHLBI-ESP dataset as a comparison group, case-control association analyses were performed. Results revealed an association between rs62638690 and cocaine and heroin addiction in European Americans (p=0.02; 95% C.I. 0.47 [0.24–0.92]). This study suggests a potential role for rare OPRM1 variants in addiction disorders and highlights an area worthy of future study.
OPRM1; addiction; cocaine; heroin; rare variants; genetics
Women with eating disorders have a significantly higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. The goal of the current study was to assess the temporal pattern of comorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the impact this ordering has on symptomatology and associated features. Women were placed into one of three groups based on the presence or absence of comorbid AUD and the order of AN and AUD onset in those with both disorders: (1) AN Only, (2) AN First, and (3) AUD First. The groups were compared on psychological symptoms and personality characteristics often associated with AN, AUD, or both using general linear models. Twenty-one percent of women (n = 161) with AN reported a history of AUD with 115 reporting AN onset first and 35 reporting AUD onset first. Women with binge-eating and/or purging type AN were significantly more likely to have AUD. In general, differences were found only between women with AN Only and women with AN and AUD regardless of order of emergence. Women with AN and AUD had higher impulsivity scores and higher prevalence of depression and borderline personality disorder than women with AN Only. Women with AN First scored higher on traits commonly associated with AN, whereas women with comorbid AN and AUD displayed elevations in traits more commonly associated with AUD. Results do not indicate a distinct pattern of symptomatology in comorbid AN and AUD based on the temporal sequence of the disorders.
anorexia nervosa; alcohol use disorder; comorbidity; age of onset
The rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are mediated by the Mu-Opioid Receptor (MOR). Genetic variation in MOR and MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs) involved in MOR signaling may increase risk for drug dependence. The MORIP, B-arrestin, plays an important role in the regulation of MOR trafficking thereby highlighting it as a candidate gene for addiction phenotypes. In this case-control association study, DNA samples from cocaine (n=336) and opioid-dependent (n=335) patients and controls (n=656) were genotyped for 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs11868227, rs3786047, rs4522461, rs1045280, rs2271167, rs2036657, and rs4790694) across ARRB2, the gene encoding the B-arrestin 2 protein. No significant differences were observed in genotype or allele frequency between drug dependent and control individuals for any of the SNPs analyzed. Haplotype analysis was similarly negative. Further studies are needed to determine whether variation in ARRB2 (or other MORIPs) are relevant to cocaine or opioid dependence in different ethnic populations or if they confer risk that is specific to dependence on other drugs of abuse.
case-control association study; cocaine dependence; opioid dependence; AARB2
Genes involved in drug reward pathways are plausible candidates for susceptibility to substance use disorders. Given the prominent role of dopamine in drug reward, dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs) such as the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction (CA). In this study, we investigated whether genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene confer risk to CA. We genotyped 8 SNPs (rs4837479, rs7849345, rs3824544, rs10819611, rs947513, rs2277200, rs7873936 and rs1342043) in our discovery sample (cases n = 796, controls n = 416) of African descent. Confirmation of associated or trending SNPs (rs7849345, rs10819611, rs1342043) was attempted using a replication sample of African American (AA) ethnicity (cases n = 335, controls n = 336) and European-American (EA) ancestry (cases n = 336, controls n = 656). Secondary sex specific analysis was also carried out for each SNP in both AA and EA individuals. Genotyping of the discovery cohort showed significant genotypic (p = 0.0005, corrected q-value) as well as allelic (p = 0.005, corrected q-value) associations of rs1342043 with CA in AAs; however, this marker could not be confirmed in either the AA or EA replication sample. Combined analysis of all AA samples (n = 1883) for rs1342043 showed a significant association with CA (genotypic p = 0.0001, allelic p = 0.002) with a gender specific effect for males (allelic p = 0.005, genotypic p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene contribute to susceptibility of CA in individuals of African descent.
Addiction; Cocaine; NCS-1; African Americans; European Americans
BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains have been proposed as useful models of low and high levels of sociability (tendency to seek social interaction), respectively, based primarily on behaviors of ~30-day-old mice in the Social Approach Test (SAT). In the SAT, approach and sniffing behaviors of a test mouse toward an unfamiliar stimulus mouse are measured in a novel environment. However, it is unclear whether such results generalize to a familiar environment with a familiar social partner, such as with a littermate in a home cage environment. We hypothesized that C57BL/6J mice would show higher levels of social behaviors than BALB/cJ mice in the home cage environment, particularly at 30 days-of-age. We measured active and passive social behaviors in home cages by pairs of BALB/cJ or C57BL/6J littermates at ages 30, 41, and 69 days. The strains did not differ robustly in their active social behaviors. C57BL/6J mice were more passively social than BALB/cJ mice at 30 days, and C57BL/6J levels of passive social behaviors declined to BALB/cJ levels by 69 days. The differences in passive social behaviors at 30 days-of-age were primarily attributable to differences in huddling. These results indicate that different test conditions (SAT conditions vs. home cage conditions) elicit strain differences in distinct types of behaviors (approach/sniffing vs. huddling behaviors, respectively). Assessment of the more naturalistic social interactions in the familiar home cage environment with a familiar littermate will provide a useful component of a comprehensive assessment of social behaviors in mouse models relevant to autism.
mouse; social; behavior; development; genetic; environment
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10−7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10−6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10−6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10−6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P= 4×10−6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field.
anorexia nervosa; eating disorders; GWAS; genome-wide association study; body mass index; metabolic
To examine childhood perfectionism in anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting (RAN), purging (PAN), and binge eating with or without purging (BAN) subtypes.
The EATATE, a retrospective assessment of childhood perfectionism, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) were administered to 728 AN participants.
EATATE responses revealed General Childhood Perfectionism, 22.3% of 333 with RAN, 29.2% of 220 with PAN, and 24.8% of 116 with BAN; School Work Perfectionism, 31.2% with RAN, 30.4% with PAN, and 24.8% with BAN; Childhood Order and Symmetry, 18.7% with RAN, 21.7% with PAN, and 17.8% with BAN; and Global Childhood Rigidity, 42.6% with RAN, 48.3% with PAN and 48.1% with BAN. Perfectionism preceded the onset of AN in all subtypes. Significant associations between EDI-2 Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction were present with four EATATE subscales.
Global Childhood Rigidity was the predominate feature that preceded all AN subtypes. This may be a risk factor for AN.