In addition to its cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, resting tremor and postural disturbances, Parkinson’s disease (PD) also affects orolingual motor function. Orolingual motor deficits can contribute to dysphagia, which increases morbidity and mortality in this population. Previous preclinical studies describing orolingual motor deficits in animal models of PD have focused on unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. In this study we compared the effects of unilateral vs bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DA depletion in rats trained to lick water from an isometric force-sensing disc. Rats received either unilateral or bilateral 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and were tested for four weeks post-lesion. Dependent variables included task engagement (the number of licks per session), tongue force (mean and maximum), and tongue motility (the number of licks per second). While both lesion groups exhibited decreased tongue force output, tongue motility deficits were present in only the group that received unilateral nigrostriatal DA depletion. Task engagement was not significantly diminished by 6-OHDA. Analysis of striatal DA tissue content revealed that DA depletion was ~97% in the unilateral group and ~90% in the bilateral group. These results suggest that while nigrostriatal DA depletion affects tongue force output, deficits in tongue motility may instead result from a functional imbalance in neural pathways affecting this midline structure.
Parkinson’s disease; orolingual; oromotor; isometric; operant; behavioral; nigrostriatal; dysarthria; dysphagia; force
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can undergo osteogenic differentiation under proper stimuli. We demonstrated that BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BMP9-initiated osteogenic signaling in MSCs remains unclear. Through gene expression profiling analysis we identified several candidate mediators of BMP9 osteogenic signaling. Here, we focus on one such signaling mediator and investigate the functional role of cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (Creld2) in BMP9-initiated osteogenic signaling. Creld2 was originally identified as an ER stress-inducible factor localized in the ER-Golgi apparatus. Our genomewide expression profiling analysis indicates that Creld2 is among the top up-regulated genes in BMP9-stimulated MSCs. We confirm that Creld2 is up-regulated by BMP9 in MSCs. ChIP analysis indicates that Smad1/5/8 directly binds to the Creld2 promoter in a BMP9-dependent fashion. Exogenous expression of Creld2 in MSCs potentiates BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization. Conversely, silencing Creld2 expression inhibits BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo stem cell implantation assay reveals that exogenous Creld2 promotes BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation and matrix mineralization, whereas silencing Creld2 expression diminishes BMP9-induced bone formation and matrix mineralization. We further show that Creld2 is localized in ER and the ER stress inducers potentiate BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Our results strongly suggest that Creld2 may be directly regulated by BMP9 and ER stress response may play an important role in regulating osteogenic differentiation.
The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic outcome of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with pancreatoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction in addition to highlighting the mortality/morbidity and main prognostic factors associated with this treatment.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of a total of 566 pancreatic cancer patients who were treated with PD from five teaching hospitals during the period of December 2006–December 2011. This study included 119 (21.0%) patients treated with PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction. We performed a detailed statistical analysis of various factors, including postoperative complications, operative mortality, survival rate, operative time, pathological type, and lymph node metastasis.
The median survival time of the 119 cases that received PD combined with vascular resection was 13.3 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 30.3%, 14.1%, and 8.1%, respectively. The postoperative complication incidence was 23.5%, and the mortality rate was 6.7%. For the combined vascular resection group, complications occurred in 28 cases (23.5%). For the group without vascular resection, complications occurred in 37 cases (8.2%). There was significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.001). The degree of tumor differentiation and the occurrence of complications after surgery were independent prognostic factors that determined the patients’ long-term survival.
Compared with PD without vascular resection, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction increased the incidence of postoperative complications. However, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction could achieve the complete removal of tumors without significantly increasing the mortality rate, and the median survival time was higher than that of patients who underwent palliative treatment. In addition, the two independent factors affecting the postoperative survival time were the degree of tumor differentiation and the presence or absence of postoperative complications.
Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.
odorant binding protein; olfaction; tissue expression pattern; Bactrocera dorsalis
Plant-derived active constituents and their semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs have served as major sources of anticancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponin of both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3, a glucoside precursor of PPD, exhibits anti-proliferative effects on HCT116 cells and reduces tumor size in a xenograft model. Our subsequent study indicated that PPD has more potent antitumor activity than that of Rg3 in vitro although the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PPD was shown to inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies indicate that PPD inhibits xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing HCT116 cells. The xenograft tumor size was significantly reduced when the animals were treated with PPD (30 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. When the expression of previously identified Rg3 targets, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 (AKAP8L) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α (PITPNA), was analyzed, PPD was shown to inhibit the expression of PITPNA while upregulating AKAP8L expression in HCT116 cells. Pathway-specific reporter assays indicated that PPD effectively suppressed the NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer activity of PPD in colon cancer cells may be mediated through targeting NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, although the detailed mechanisms underlying the anticancer mode of PPD action need to be fully elucidated.
ginseng; ginseng metabolites; 20(S)-protopanaxadiol; colorectal cancer; signaling pathway; natural products
Pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses have been stabilized in swine herds, and some strains display higher pathogenicity than the human-origin isolates. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is applied to explore the systemic transcriptome responses of the mouse lungs infected by swine (Jia6/10) and human (LN/09) H1N1/2009 viruses. The transcriptome data show that Jia6/10 activates stronger virus-sensing signals, such as the toll-like receptor, RIG-I like receptor and NOD-like receptor signalings, as well as a stronger NF-κB and JAK-STAT singals, which play significant roles in inducing innate immunity. Most cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes show higher expression lever in Jia/06 infected groups. Meanwhile, virus Jia6/10 activates stronger production of reactive oxygen species, which might further promote higher mutation rate of the virus genome. Collectively, our data reveal that the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 virus elicits a stronger innate immune reaction and pro-oxidation stimulation, which might relate closely to the increasing pathogenicity.
Abnormal behavior of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure (HF) after Myocardial infarction (MI). It has been proposed that protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of the RyR2 at a single residue, Ser-2808 is a critical mediator of RyR dysfunction, depressed cardiac performance and HF after MI.
We used a mouse model (RyRS2808A) in which PKA hyperphosphorylation of the RyR2 at Ser-2808 is prevented to determine whether loss of PKA phosphorylation at this site averts post MI cardiac pump dysfunction.
Methods and Results
MI was induced in WT and S2808A mice. Myocyte and cardiac function were compared in WT and S2808A animals before and after MI. The effects of the PKA activator Isoproterenol (Iso) on L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL), contractions and [Ca2+]I transients were also measured. Both WT and S2808A mice had depressed pump function after MI and were no differences between groups. MI size was also identical in both groups. L type Ca2+ current, contractions, Ca2+ transients and SR Ca2+ load were also not significantly different in WT versus S2808A myocytes either before or after MI. Iso effects on Ca2+ current, contraction, Ca2+ transients and SR Ca2+ load were identical in WT and S2808A myocytes before and after MI at both low and high concentrations.
These results strongly support the idea that PKA phosphorylation of RyR-S2808 is irrelevant to the development of cardiac dysfunction after MI, at least in the mice used in this study.
Myocardial infarction; ryanodine receptor; heart failure; PKA hyperphosphorylation
A series of bottromycin antibiotics have been isolated and identified from Streptomyces bottropensis strain ATCC 25435. Here, a draft genome sequence of S. bottropensis ATCC 25435 is presented. The genome carries an intact biosynthetic gene cluster for bottromycin antibiotics, which provides insight into the combinatorial biosynthesis of bottromycin antibiotics.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs, promoting osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings from various in vivo and molecular studies strongly suggest that the mechanisms governing BMP9-mediated osteoinduction differ from other osteogenic BMPs. Many signaling pathways with diverse functions have been found to play a role in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. Several of these pathways are also critical in the differentiation of other cell lineages, including adipocytes and chondrocytes. While BMP9 is known to be a potent osteogenic factor, it also influences several other pathways including cancer development, angiogenesis and myogenesis. Although BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic BMPs, relatively little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects. BMP9 has demonstrated efficacy in promoting spinal fusion and bony non-union repair in animal models, demonstrating great translational promise. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of BMP9-mediated osteogenesis by presenting recently completed work which may help us to further elucidate these pathways.
BMP; BMP9; bone regeneration; IGF; osteogenesis; TGF-β; Wnt; signal transduction; mesenchymal stem cells
The source of Ca2+ to activate pathological cardiac hypertrophy is not clearly defined. Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) determines “contractile” Ca2+, which is not thought to be the source of “hypertrophic” Ca2+. However, some LTCCs are housed in caveolin-3 (Cav-3) enriched signaling microdomains and are not directly involved in contraction. The function of these LTCCs is unknown.
To test the idea that LTCCs in Cav-3 containing signaling domains are a source of Ca2+ to activate the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (Cn-NFAT) signaling cascade that promotes pathological hypertrophy.
Methods and Results
We developed reagents that targeted Ca2+ channel blocking Rem proteins to Cav-3 containing membranes, which house a small fraction of cardiac LTCCs. Blocking LTCCs within this Cav-3 membrane domain eliminated a small fraction of the LTCC current, almost all of the Ca2+ influx induced NFAT nuclear translocation, but did not reduce myocyte contractility.
We provide proof of concept that Ca2+ influx through LTCCs within caveolae signaling domains can activate “hypertrophic” signaling, and this Ca2+ influx can be selectively blocked without reducing cardiac contractility.
Caveolae; L-Type Calcium Channel; Hypertrophy; Contractility; NFAT
Gut microbiota has diverse ecological and evolutionary effects on its hosts. However, the ways in which it responds to environmental heterogeneity and host physiology remain poorly understood. To this end, we surveyed intestinal microbiota of Holotrichia parallela larvae at different instars and from different geographic regions. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and clones were subsequently screened by DGGE and sequenced. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the major phyla, and bacteria belonging to Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families were commonly found in all natural populations. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1 and Shannon indices) and community structure varied across host populations, and the observed variation can be explained by soil pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen, and the climate factors (e.g., mean annual temperature) of the locations where the populations were sampled. Furthermore, increases in the species richness and diversity of gut microbiota were observed during larval growth. Bacteroidetes comprised the dominant group in the first instar; however, Firmicutes composed the majority of the hindgut microbiota during the second and third instars. Our results suggest that the gut's bacterial community changes in response to environmental heterogeneity and host's physiology, possibly to meet the host's ecological needs or physiological demands.
The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role not only in embryonic development but also in the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cells in adulthood. In particular, Wnt signaling has been shown as an important regulatory pathway in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to osteopenic states. Our current understanding of Wnt signaling in osteogenesis elucidates the molecular mechanisms of classic osteogenic pathologies. Activating and inactivating aberrations of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis results in sclerosteosis and osteoporosis respectively. Recent studies have sought to target the Wnt signaling pathway to treat osteogenic disorders. Potential therapeutic approaches attempt to stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating the intracellular mediators of the Wnt signaling cascade and inhibiting the endogenous antagonists of the pathway. Antibodies against endogenous antagonists, such as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, have demonstrated promising results in promoting bone formation and fracture healing. Lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, has also been reported to stimulate osteogenesis by stabilizing β catenin. Although manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway has abundant therapeutic potential, it requires cautious approach due to risks of tumorigenesis. The present review discusses the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis and examines its targeted therapeutic potential.
Wnt signaling; bone formation; osteoporosis; fracture healing; bone tumors
To identify novel abnormally methylated genes in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed the methylation status of 13 genes (ALX1, BCL2, FOXL2, HPP1, MYF6, OC2, PDGFRA, PHOX2A, PITX2, RARB, SIX6, SMPD3 and SOX1) in cancer tissues from 101 cases of stage I NSCLC patients and lung tissues from 30 cases of non-cancerous lung disease controls, using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The methylation frequencies (29.70–64.36%) of 7 genes (MYF6, SIX6, SOX1, RARB, BCL2, PHOX2A and FOLX2) in stage I NSCLC were significantly higher compared with those in non-cancerous lung disease controls (P<0.05). The co-methylation of SIX6 and SOX1, or the co-methyaltion of SIX6, RARB and SOX1 was associated with adenosquamous carcinoma (ADC), and the co-methylation of BCL2, RARB and SIX6 was associated with smoking. A panel of 4 genes (MYF6, SIX6, BCL2 and RARB) may offer a sensitivity of 93.07% and a specificity of 83.33% in the diagnosis of stage I NSCLC. Furthermore, we also detected the expression of 8 pathological markers (VEGF, HER-2, P53, P21, EGFR, CHGA, SYN and EMA) in cancer tissues of stage I NSCLC by immunohistochemistry, and found that high expression levels of p53 and CHGA were associated with the methylation of BCL2 (P=0.025) and PHOX2A (P=0.023), respectively. In this study, among the 7 genes which demonstrated hypermethylation in stage I NSCLC compared with non-cancerous lung diseases, 5 genes (MYF6, SIX6, PHOX2A, FOLX2 and SOX1) were found for the first time to be abonormally methylated in NSCLC. Further study of these genes shed light on the carcinogenesis of NSCLC.
DNA methylation; non-small cell lung cancer; stage I; smoking
Objective: Progenitor cell-based cardiomyocyte regeneration holds great promise of repairing an injured heart. Although cardiomyogenic differentiation has been reported for a variety of progenitor cell types, the biological factors that regulate effective cardiomyogenesis remain largely undefined. Primary cardiomyogenic progenitors (CPs) have a limited life span in culture, hampering the CPs' in vitro and in vivo studies. The objective of this study is to investigate if primary CPs isolated from fetal mouse heart can be reversibly immortalized with SV40 large T and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising cardiomyogenic differentiation potential.
Methods: Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from mouse E15.5 fetal heart, and immortalized retrovirally with the expression of SV40 large T antigen flanked with loxP sites. Expression of cardiomyogenic markers were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The immortalization phenotype was reversed by using an adenovirus-mediated expression of the Cre reconbinase. Cardiomyogenic differentiation induced by retinoids or dexamethasone was assessed by an α-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) promoter-driven reporter.
Results: We demonstrate that the CPs derived from mouse E15.5 fetal heart can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 T antigen. The conditionally immortalized CPs (iCP15 clones) exhibit an increased proliferative activity and are able to maintain long-term proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iCP15 cells express cardiomyogenic markers and retain differentiation potential as they can undergo terminal differentiate into cardiomyctes under appropriate differentiation conditions although the iCP15 clones represent a large repertoire of CPs at various differentiation stages. The removal of SV40 large T increases the iCPs' differentiation potential. Thus, the iCPs not only maintain long-term cell proliferative activity but also retain cardiomyogenic differentiation potential.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the reported reversible SV40 T antigen-mediated immortalization represents an efficient approach for establishing long-term culture of primary cardiomyogenic progenitors for basic and translational research.
Cardiomyogenic progenitors; cardiomyogenic differentiation; cardiomyogenesis; cardiovascular disorders; heart progenitor cells; immortalization
Background: The unfolded protein response, autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis regulate tumor cell fate and have become novel signaling targets for the development of cancer therapeutic drugs. Curcumin has been used to treat several different cancers, including ovarian cancer, in clinical trials and research; however, the role of ER stress and autophagy in the therapeutic effects of curcumin and new curcumin analogues remains unclear.
Methods: Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry with PI/Annexin V-FITC staining. The expression levels of ER stress- and autophagy-related proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The activation of autophagy was detected using immunofluorescence staining.
Results: We demonstrated that B19 induced HO8910 cell apoptosis in a dose-responsive manner. We also determined and that this effect was associated with corresponding increases in a series of key components in the UPR and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathways, followed by caspase 3 cleavage and activation. We also observed that B19 treatment induced autophagy in HO8910 cells. The inhibition of autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased levels of intracellular misfolded proteins, which enhanced ovarian cancer apoptosis.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that ER stress and autophagy may play a role in the apoptosis that is induced by the curcumin analogue B19 in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and that autophagy inhibition can increase curcumin analogue-induced apoptosis by inducing severe ER stress.
Curcumin analogues; B19; ovarian cancer; apoptosis; ER stress; autophagy.
A series of angucyclinone antibiotics have been isolated from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and identified. Here, a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. W007 is presented. The genome contains an intact biosynthetic gene cluster for angucyclinone antibiotics, which provides insight into the combinatorial biosynthesis of angucyclinone antibiotics produced by marine streptomycetes.
Locoregional recurrence is the typical pattern of recurrence in gastric cancer, and cannot be removed by surgery in most of the patients. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy for patients with locoregional recurrent gastric cancer.
Materials and methods
We reviewed the case histories of 28 patients with locoregional recurrent gastric cancer that were selected for CT- guided brachytherapy by a multidisciplinary team. The clinical data of the patients including patient characteristics, treatment parameters, short-term effects, and survival data were collected and analyzed.
15-75 125I seeds were implanted into each patient to produce a minimal peripheral dose (MPD) 100-160 Gy. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 (the volume treated with the prescription dose) 95.8% (90.2-120.5%) and D90 (prescription dose received by at least 90% of the volume) 105.2% (98.0-124.6%) of prescription dose. No serious complications occurred during the study. Two months after brachytherapy, complete response, partial response and progressive disease were observed in 50.0%, 28.6% and 21.4% of patients, respectively. The median survival time was 22.0 ± 5.2 months, and the 1, 2,and 3-year survival rate was 89 ± 6%, 52 ± 10% and 11 ± 7%, respectively. A univariate analysis showed that the tumor size was a significant predictor of overall survival (P = 0.034). Patients with tumors <3 cm had relatively higher complete response rate (66.7%), compared to those with tumors >3 cm (30.8%). The PTV (planning target volume) smaller than 45 cm3 was significantly correlated with achieving complete tumor eradication in the treated region (P = 0.020).
For selected patients with limited locoregional recurrent gastric cancer, CT-guided brachytherapy using 125I seeds implantation can provide a high local control rate, with minimal trauma.
Gastric cancer; Surgery; Locoregional recurrence; Brachytherapy; Iodine-125 seed
The T-type Ca2+ channel (TTCC) plays important roles in cellular excitability and Ca2+ regulation. In the heart, TTCC is found in the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) and conduction cells. Cav3.1 encodes one of the three types of TTCCs. To date, there is no report regarding the regulation of Cav3.1 by β-adrenergic agonists, which is the topic of this study. Ventricular myocytes (VMs) from Cav3.1 double transgenic (TG) mice and SAN cells from wild type, Cav3.1 knockout, or Cav3.2 knockout mice were used to study β-adrenergic regulation of overexpressed or native Cav3.1-mediated T-type Ca2+ current (ICa-T(3.1)). ICa-T(3.1) was not found in control VMs but was robust in all examined TG-VMs. A β-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol, ISO) and a cyclic AMP analog (dibutyryl-cAMP) significantly increased ICa-T(3.1) as well as ICa-L in TG-VMs at both physiological and room temperatures. The ISO effect on ICa-L and ICa-T in TG myocytes was blocked by H89, a PKA inhibitor. ICa-T was detected in control wildtype SAN cells but not in Cav3.1 knockout SAN cells, indicating the identity of ICa-T in normal SAN cells is mediated by Cav3.1. Real-time PCR confirmed the presence of Cav3.1 mRNA but not mRNAs of Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 in the SAN. ICa-T in SAN cells from wild type or Cav3.2 knockout mice was significantly increased by ISO, suggesting native Cav3.1 channels can be upregulated by the β-adrenergic (β-AR) system. In conclusion, β-adrenergic stimulation increases ICa-T(3.1) in cardiomyocytes, which is mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway. The upregulation of ICa-T(3.1) by the β-adrenergic system could play important roles in cellular functions involving Cav3.1.
DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild relatives, Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara.
The overall methylation level of rice genomes is four times higher than that of Arabidopsis. Consistent with the results reported for Arabidopsis, methylation in promoters represses gene expression while gene-body methylation generally appears to be positively associated with gene expression. Interestingly, we discovered that methylation in gene transcriptional termination regions (TTRs) can significantly repress gene expression, and the effect is even stronger than that of promoter methylation. Through integrated analysis of genomic, DNA methylomic and transcriptomic differences between cultivated and wild rice, we found that primary DNA sequence divergence is the major determinant of methylational differences at the whole genome level, but DNA methylational difference alone can only account for limited gene expression variation between the cultivated and wild rice. Furthermore, we identified a number of genes with significant difference in methylation level between the wild and cultivated rice.
The single-base resolution methylomes of rice obtained in this study have not only broadened our understanding of the mechanism and function of DNA methylation in plant genomes, but also provided valuable data for future studies of rice epigenetics and the epigenetic differentiation between wild and cultivated rice.
Cultivated and wild rice; Methylomes; Transcriptional termination regions (TTRs); Gene expression
CLIC4/mtCLIC, a chloride intracellular channel protein, localizes to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nucleus and cytoplasm, and participates in the apoptotic response to stress. Apoptosis and autophagy, the main types of the programmed cell death, seem interconnected under certain stress conditions. However, the role of CLIC4 in autophagy regulation has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate upregulation and nuclear translocation of the CLIC4 protein following starvation in U251 cells. CLIC4 siRNA transfection enhanced autophagy with increased LC3-II protein and puncta accumulation in U251 cells under starvation conditions. In that condition, the interaction of the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform with CLIC4 was abolished and resulted in Beclin 1 overactivation, which further activated autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting the expression of CLIC4 triggered both mitochondrial apoptosis involved in Bax/Bcl-2 and cytochrome c release under starvation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis with CHOP and caspase-4 upregulation. These results demonstrate that CLIC4 nuclear translocation is an integral part of the cellular response to starvation. Inhibiting the expression of CLIC4 enhances autophagy and contributes to mitochondrial and ER stress-induced apoptosis under starvation.
The ability of the adult heart to generate new myocytes after injury is not established.
Our purpose was to determine if the adult heart has the capacity to generate new myocytes after injury, and to gain insight into their source.
Methods and Results
Cardiac injury was induced in the adult feline heart by infusing Isoproterenol (ISO) for 10 days via minipumps and then animals were allowed to recover for 7 or 28 days. Cardiac function was measured with echocardiography and proliferative cells were identified by nuclear incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 7 day minipump infusion). BrdU was infused for 7 days before euthanasia at Days 10, 17, and 38 or during injury and animals euthanized at Day 38. ISO caused reduction in cardiac function with evidence of myocyte loss from necrosis. During this injury phase there was a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells in the atria and ventricle, but there was no increase in BrdU+ myocytes. cKit+ cardiac progenitor cells were BrdU labeled during injury. During the first seven days of recovery there was a significant reduction in cellular proliferation (BrdU incorporation) but a significant increase in BrdU+ myocytes. There was modest improvement in cardiac structure and function during recovery. At day 38, overall cell proliferation was not different than control but increased numbers of BrdU+ myocytes were found when BrdU was infused during injury.
These studies suggest that ISO injury activates cardiac progenitor cells that can differentiate into new myocytes during cardiac repair.
Cardiac regeneration; catecholamine injury; cardiac progenitor cells
Tephritid fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are of major economic significance in agriculture causing considerable loss to the fruit and vegetable industry. Currently, there is no ideal control program. Molecular means is an effective method for pest control at present, but genomic or transcriptomic data for members of this genus remains limited. To facilitate molecular research into reproduction and development mechanisms, and finally effective control on these pests, an extensive transcriptome for the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was produced using the Roche 454-FLX platform.
We obtained over 350 million bases of cDNA derived from the whole body of B. dorsalis at different developmental stages. In a single run, 747,206 sequencing reads with a mean read length of 382 bp were obtained. These reads were assembled into 28,782 contigs and 169,966 singletons. The mean contig size was 750 bp and many nearly full-length transcripts were assembled. Additionally, we identified a great number of genes that are involved in reproduction and development as well as genes that represent nearly all major conserved metazoan signal transduction pathways, such as insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, transcriptome changes during development were analyzed. A total of 2,977 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between larvae and pupae libraries, while there were 1,621 DEGs between adults and larvae, and 2,002 between adults and pupae. These DEGs were functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotation and 9 genes were validated by qRT-PCR.
Our data represent the extensive sequence resources available for B. dorsalis and provide for the first time access to the genetic architecture of reproduction and development as well as major signal transduction pathways in the Tephritid fruit fly pests, allowing us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying courtship, ovipositing, development and detailed analyses of the signal transduction pathways.
Crosstalk between peripheral nociceptors belonging to the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin subtype-1 (TRPA1) family has recently been demonstrated. Moreover, the intravenous anesthetic propofol has been shown to directly activate TRPA1 receptors, and indirectly restore sensitivity of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 activation is involved in mediating the propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity.
Mouse DRG neurons were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and grown for 24 h. F-11 cells were transfected with complementary DNA for both TRPV1 and TRPA1 or TRPV1 only. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. Following TRPV1 de-sensitization with capsaicin (100 nM), cells were treated with propofol (1, 5 and 10 μM) alone, propofol in the presence of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (0.5 μM) or the TRPA1 agonist, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 100 μM) and capsaicin was then reapplied.
In DRG neurons that contain both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in DRG neurons containing only TRPV1 receptors, exposure to propofol or AITC following de-sensitization did not restore capsaicin-induced TRPV1 sensitivity. Similarly, in F-11 cells transfected with both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in F-11 cells transfected with TRPV1 only, neither propofol nor AITC were capable of restoring TRPV1 sensitivity.
These data demonstrate that propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity in primary DRG neurons and in cultured F-11 cells transfected with both the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors via a TRPA1-dependent process. Propofol’s effects on sensory neurons may be clinically important and contribute to peripheral sensitization to nociceptive stimuli in traumatized tissue.
Over-activation of AMPARs (α−amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors) is implicated in excitotoxic neuronal death associated with acute brain insults, such as ischemic stroke. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which AMPARs, especially the calcium-impermeable AMPARs, induce neuronal death remains poorly understood. Here we report the identification of a previously unrecognized molecular pathway involving a direct protein-protein interaction that underlies GluR2-containing AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Agonist stimulation of AMPARs promotes GluR2/GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) complex formation and subsequent internalization. Disruption of GluR2/GAPDH interaction by administration of an interfering peptide prevents AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity and protects against damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain ischemia.
There is a need to supplement or supplant the conventional diagnostic tools, namely, cystoscopy and B-type ultrasound, for bladder cancer (BC). We aimed to identify novel DNA methylation markers for BC through genome-wide profiling of BC cell lines and subsequent methylation-specific PCR (MSP) screening of clinical urine samples.
The methyl-DNA binding domain (MBD) capture technique, methylCap/seq, was performed to screen for specific hypermethylated CpG islands in two BC cell lines (5637 and T24). The top one hundred hypermethylated targets were sequentially screened by MSP in urine samples to gradually narrow the target number and optimize the composition of the diagnostic panel. The diagnostic performance of the obtained panel was evaluated in different clinical scenarios.
A total of 1,627 hypermethylated promoter targets in the BC cell lines was identified by Illumina sequencing. The top 104 hypermethylated targets were reduced to eight genes (VAX1, KCNV1, ECEL1, TMEM26, TAL1, PROX1, SLC6A20, and LMX1A) after the urine DNA screening in a small sample size of 8 normal control and 18 BC subjects. Validation in an independent sample of 212 BC patients enabled the optimization of five methylation targets, including VAX1, KCNV1, TAL1, PPOX1, and CFTR, which was obtained in our previous study, for BC diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.68% and 87.25%, respectively. In addition, the methylation of VAX1 and LMX1A was found to be associated with BC recurrence.
We identified a promising diagnostic marker panel for early non-invasive detection and subsequent BC surveillance.