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author:("Wu, hongkong")
1.  Single-base-resolution methylomes of populus trichocarpa reveal the association between DNA methylation and drought stress 
BMC Genetics  2014;15(Suppl 1):S9.
Background
DNA methylation is an important biological form of epigenetic modification, playing key roles in plant development and environmental responses.
Results
In this study, we examined single-base resolution methylomes of Populus under control and drought stress conditions using high-throughput bisulfite sequencing for the first time. Our data showed methylation levels of methylated cytosines, upstream 2kp, downstream 2kb, and repeatitive sequences significantly increased after drought treatment in Populus. Interestingly, methylation in 100 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS) repressed gene expression, while methylations in 100-2000bp upstream of TSS and within the gene body were positively associated with gene expression. Integrated with the transcriptomic data, we found that all cis-splicing genes were non-methylated, suggesting that DNA methylation may not associate with cis-splicing. However, our results showed that 80% of trans-splicing genes were methylated. Moreover, we found 1156 transcription factors (TFs) with reduced methylation and expression levels and 690 TFs with increased methylation and expression levels after drought treatment. These TFs may play important roles in Populus drought stress responses through the changes of DNA methylation.
Conclusions
These findings may provide valuable new insight into our understanding of the interaction between gene expression and methylation of drought responses in Populus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-S1-S9
PMCID: PMC4118614  PMID: 25080211
Methylation; populus trichocarpa; drought tolerance; alternative splicing
2.  Whole-Genome Sequences of Low-Virulence Strain CB3 and Mild Strain CB7 of Chlamydia psittaci 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(3):e00456-14.
Avian Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular zoonotic pathogen especially dispersed from birds, and it is known to cause pericarditis, pneumonia, lateral nasal adenitis, peritonitis, hepatitis, splenitis, and other diseases. Generalized infections result in fever, anorexia, lethargy, and diarrhea, depending on the chlamydial genotype and the affected bird species. Although many complete genomes of C. psittaci have been sequenced, we report here the genomes of two strains isolated from the free-living sparrows (strain CB3) and vinous-throated parrotbill (strain CB7) in China, which were first isolated from the spleens of healthy birds in a routine investigation.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00456-14
PMCID: PMC4047443  PMID: 24903864
3.  Hypermethylation in the ZBTB20 gene is associated with major depressive disorder 
Genome Biology  2014;15(4):R56.
Background
Although genetic variation is believed to contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to major depressive disorder, genome-wide association studies have not yet identified associations that could explain the full etiology of the disease. Epigenetics is increasingly believed to play a major role in the development of common clinical phenotypes, including major depressive disorder.
Results
Genome-wide MeDIP-Sequencing was carried out on a total of 50 monozygotic twin pairs from the UK and Australia that are discordant for depression. We show that major depressive disorder is associated with significant hypermethylation within the coding region of ZBTB20, and is replicated in an independent cohort of 356 unrelated case-control individuals. The twins with major depressive disorder also show increased global variation in methylation in comparison with their unaffected co-twins. ZBTB20 plays an essential role in the specification of the Cornu Ammonis-1 field identity in the developing hippocampus, a region previously implicated in the development of major depressive disorder.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that aberrant methylation profiles affecting the hippocampus are associated with major depressive disorder and show the potential of the epigenetic twin model in neuro-psychiatric disease.
doi:10.1186/gb-2014-15-4-r56
PMCID: PMC4072999  PMID: 24694013
4.  Sequencing of Fifty Human Exomes Reveals Adaptation to High Altitude 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;329(5987):75-78.
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18X per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were identified. The strongest signal of natural selection came from EPAS1, a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia. One SNP at EPAS1 shows a 78% frequency difference between Tibetan and Han samples, representing the fastest allele frequency change observed at any human gene to date. This SNP’s association with erythrocyte abundance supports the role of EPAS1 in adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, a population genomic survey has revealed a functionally important locus in genetic adaptation to high altitude.
doi:10.1126/science.1190371
PMCID: PMC3711608  PMID: 20595611
5.  Double restriction-enzyme digestion improves the coverage and accuracy of genome-wide CpG methylation profiling by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:11.
Background
Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) was developed to measure DNA methylation of high-CG regions at single base-pair resolution, and has been widely used because of its minimal DNA requirements and cost efficacy; however, the CpG coverage of genomic regions is restricted and important regions with low-CG will be ignored in DNA methylation profiling. This method could be improved to generate a more comprehensive representation.
Results
Based on in silico simulation of enzyme digestion of human and mouse genomes, we have optimized the current single-enzyme RRBS by applying double enzyme digestion in the library construction to interrogate more representative regions. CpG coverage of genomic regions was considerably increased in both high-CG and low-CG regions using the double-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels and identification of differential methylation regions between samples. We also applied this double-enzyme RRBS method to comprehensively analyze the CpG methylation profiles of two colorectal cancer cell lines.
Conclusion
The double-enzyme RRBS increases the CpG coverage of genomic regions considerably over the previous single-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels. It will facilitate genome-wide DNA methylation studies in multiple and complex clinical samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-11
PMCID: PMC3570491  PMID: 23324053
Single-enzyme RRBS; Double-enzyme RRBS; DNA methylation; CpG coverage
6.  An atlas of DNA methylomes in porcine adipose and muscle tissues 
Nature communications  2012;3:850.
It is evident that epigenetic factors, especially DNA methylation, play essential roles in obesity development. Using pig as a model, here we investigated the systematic association between DNA methylation and obesity. We sampled eight variant adipose and two distinct skeletal muscle tissues from three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level. We generated 1,381 gigabases (Gb) of sequence data from 180 methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) libraries, and provided a genome-wide DNA methylation map as well as a gene expression map for adipose and muscle studies. The analysis showed global similarity and difference among breeds, sexes and anatomic locations, and identified the differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The DMRs in promoters are highly associated with obesity development via expression repression of both known obesity-related genes and novel genes. This comprehensive map provides a solid basis for exploring epigenetic mechanisms of adipose deposition and muscle growth.
doi:10.1038/ncomms1854
PMCID: PMC3508711  PMID: 22617290
7.  Co-methylated Genes in Different Adipose Depots of Pig are Associated with Metabolic, Inflammatory and Immune Processes 
It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic evidence for functionally relevant methylation differences between different adipose depots.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4493
PMCID: PMC3372887  PMID: 22719223
pig; subcutaneous adipose tissue; visceral adipose tissue; DNA methylation; MeDIP-seq
8.  The DNA Methylome of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(11):e1000533.
Analysis across the genome of patterns of DNA methylation reveals a rich landscape of allele-specific epigenetic modification and consequent effects on allele-specific gene expression.
DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and <0.2% of non-CpG sites were methylated, demonstrating that non-CpG cytosine methylation is minor in human PBMC. Analysis of the PBMC methylome revealed a rich epigenomic landscape for 20 distinct genomic features, including regulatory, protein-coding, non-coding, RNA-coding, and repeat sequences. Integration of our methylome data with the YH genome sequence enabled a first comprehensive assessment of allele-specific methylation (ASM) between the two haploid methylomes of any individual and allowed the identification of 599 haploid differentially methylated regions (hDMRs) covering 287 genes. Of these, 76 genes had hDMRs within 2 kb of their transcriptional start sites of which >80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE). These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.
Author Summary
Epigenetic modifications such as addition of methyl groups to cytosine in DNA play a role in regulating gene expression. To better understand these processes, knowledge of the methylation status of all cytosine bases in the genome (the methylome) is required. DNA methylation can differ between the two gene copies (alleles) in each cell. Such allele-specific methylation (ASM) can be due to parental origin of the alleles (imprinting), X chromosome inactivation in females, and other as yet unknown mechanisms. This may significantly alter the expression profile arising from different allele combinations in different individuals. Using advanced sequencing technology, we have determined the methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Importantly, the PBMC were obtained from the same male Han Chinese individual whose complete genome had previously been determined. This allowed us, for the first time, to study genome-wide differences in ASM. Our analysis shows that ASM in PBMC is higher than can be accounted for by regions known to undergo parent-of-origin imprinting and frequently (>80%) correlates with allele-specific expression (ASE) of the corresponding gene. In addition, our data reveal a rich landscape of epigenomic variation for 20 genomic features, including regulatory, coding, and non-coding sequences, and provide a valuable resource for future studies. Our work further establishes whole-genome sequencing as an efficient method for methylome analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000533
PMCID: PMC2976721  PMID: 21085693
9.  Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution 
Nature Communications  2013;4:1595-.
The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.
The wild rice species can be used as germplasm resources for this crop’s genetic improvement. Here Chen and colleagues report the de novo sequencing of the O. brachyantha genome, and identify the origin of genome size variation, the role of gene movement and its implications on heterochromatin evolution in the rice genome.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2596
PMCID: PMC3615480  PMID: 23481403
10.  An integrated epigenomic analysis for type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in monozygotic twins 
Nature Communications  2014;5:5719.
DNA methylation has a great potential for understanding the aetiology of common complex traits such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we perform genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) in whole-blood-derived DNA from 27 monozygotic twin pairs and follow up results with replication and integrated omics analyses. We identify predominately hypermethylated T2D-related differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and replicate the top signals in 42 unrelated T2D cases and 221 controls. The strongest signal is in the promoter of the MALT1 gene, involved in insulin and glycaemic pathways, and related to taurocholate levels in blood. Integrating the DNA methylome findings with T2D GWAS meta-analysis results reveals a strong enrichment for DMRs in T2D-susceptibility loci. We also detect signals specific to T2D-discordant twins in the GPR61 and PRKCB genes. These replicated T2D associations reflect both likely causal and consequential pathways of the disease. The analysis indicates how an integrated genomics and epigenomics approach, utilizing an MZ twin design, can provide pathogenic insights as well as potential drug targets and biomarkers for T2D and other complex traits.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly heterogeneous disease with a strong genetic component. Here the authors examine genome-wide methylation patterns in T2D-discordant, T2D-concordant and healthy concordant monozygotic twin pairs, and identify DNA methylation signals that may represent new biomarkers or drug targets for T2D.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6719
PMCID: PMC4284644  PMID: 25502755

Results 1-10 (10)