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1.  Imagine a world without cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:186.
Background
Since the “War on Cancer” was declared in 1971, the United States alone has expended some $300 billion on research, with a heavy focus on the role of genomics in anticancer therapy. Voluminous data have been collected and analyzed. However, in hindsight, any achievements made have not been realized in clinical practice in terms of overall survival or quality of life extended. This might be justified because cancer is not one disease but a conglomeration of multiple diseases, with widespread heterogeneity even within a single tumor type.
Discussion
Only a few types of cancer have been described that are associated with one major signaling pathway. This enabled the initial successful deployment of targeted therapy for such cancers. However, soon after this targeted approach was initiated, it was subverted as cancer cells learned and reacted to the initial treatments, oftentimes rendering the treatment less effective or even completely ineffective. During the past 30 plus years, the cancer classification used had, as its primary aim, the facilitation of communication and the exchange of information amongst those caring for cancer patients with the end goal of establishing a standardized approach for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. This approach should be modified based on the recent research to affect a change from a service-based to an outcome-based approach. The vision of achieving long-term control and/or eradicating or curing cancer is far from being realized, but not impossible. In order to meet the challenges in getting there, any newly proposed anticancer strategy must integrate a personalized treatment outcome approach. This concept is predicated on tumor- and patient-associated variables, combined with an individualized response assessment strategy for therapy modification as suggested by the patient’s own results. As combined strategies may be outcome-orientated and integrate tumor-, patient- as well as cancer-preventive variables, this approach is likely to result in an optimized anticancer strategy.
Summary
Herein, we introduce such an anticancer strategy for all cancer patients, experts, and organizations: Imagine a World without Cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-186
PMCID: PMC3995593  PMID: 24629025
Cancer; Carcinogenesis; Multimodal therapy; Cancer classification; Personalized anticancer therapy; Individualized anticancer therapy
2.  Estimation of the Fraction of Cancer Cells in a Tumor DNA Sample Using DNA Methylation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82302.
Contamination of normal cells is almost always present in tumor samples and affects their molecular analyses. DNA methylation, a stable epigenetic modification, is cell type-dependent, and different between cancer and normal cells. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that DNA methylation can be used to estimate the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample, using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as an example. First, by an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, we isolated three genomic regions (TFAP2B, ARHGEF4, and RAPGEFL1) i) highly methylated in four ESCC cell lines, ii) hardly methylated in a pooled sample of non-cancerous mucosae, a pooled sample of normal esophageal mucosae, and peripheral leukocytes, and iii) frequently methylated in 28 ESCCs (TFAP2B, 24/28; ARHGEF4, 20/28; and RAPGEFL1, 19/28). Second, using eight pairs of cancer and non-cancer cell samples prepared by laser capture microdissection, we confirmed that at least one of the three regions was almost completely methylated in ESCC cells, and all the three regions were almost completely unmethylated in non-cancer cells. We also confirmed that DNA copy number alterations of the three regions in 15 ESCC samples were rare, and did not affect the estimation of the fraction of cancer cells. Then, the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample was defined as the highest methylation level of the three regions, and we confirmed a high correlation between the fraction assessed by the DNA methylation fraction marker and the fraction assessed by a pathologist (r=0.85; p<0.001). Finally, we observed that, by correction of the cancer cell content, CpG islands in promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes were almost completely methylated. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation can be used to estimate the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082302
PMCID: PMC3846724  PMID: 24312652
3.  Identification of a DNA methylation marker that detects the presence of lymph node metastases of gastric cancers 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(2):268-274.
The accurate detection of the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) of gastric cancers (GCs) is useful for the implementation of necessary and sufficient treatment, but current methods of detection are unsatisfactory. In the present study, we focused on DNA methylation markers since they have several advantages, including biological and chemical stability and informativeness even in the presence of contaminating cells. Using three metastatic lymph nodes and three primary GCs without LNM, methylation bead array analyses were performed, which enabled the interrogation of 485,577 CpG sites. A total of 31 CpG sites that were hypermethylated in the metastatic lymph nodes, compared with the GCs without LNM, were isolated. Using primary GCs with and without LNM (28 GCs with LNM and 10 without), their methylation levels were measured using quantitative PCR following treatment with sodium bisulfite or a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. Of the genomic regions around the 31 CpG sites, 10 regions demonstrated higher methylation levels in the GCs with LNM compared with the GCs without LNM (P<0.05). Finally, the hypermethylation of the 10 regions was validated using another set of samples (129 GCs with LNM and 20 without). Hypermethylation of the region around the cg06436185 CpG site predicted the presence of LNM at a sensitivity of 43% and specificity of 85%. Additionally, the hypermethylation of the region was associated with a poor survival rate among GC patients with LNM. The results of the present study indicated that the methylation status of the region was a promising candidate marker to detect the presence of LNM of GCs and may reflect the malignant potential of GCs.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.708
PMCID: PMC3402728  PMID: 22844368
DNA methylation; gastric cancer; lymph node; metastasis
4.  Dependence receptor UNC5D mediates nerve growth factor depletion–induced neuroblastoma regression 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(7):2935-2947.
Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma (NB) resembles the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of sympathetic neurons. Regressing tumor cells express high levels of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TRKA and p75NTR and are dependent on NGF for survival; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that UNC5D, a dependence receptor that is directly targeted by p53 family members, is highly expressed in favorable NBs. NGF withdrawal strongly upregulated UNC5D, E2F1, and p53 in human primary favorable NBs. The induced UNC5D was cleaved by caspases 2/3, and the released intracellular fragment translocated into the nucleus and interacted with E2F1 to selectively transactivate the proapoptotic target gene. The cleavage of UNC5D and its induction of apoptosis were strongly inhibited by addition of netrin-1. Unc5d–/– mice consistently exhibited a significant increase in dorsal root ganglia neurons and resistance to NGF depletion–induced apoptosis in sympathetic neurons compared with wild-type cells. Our data suggest that UNC5D forms a positive feedback loop with p53 and E2F1 to promote NGF dependence–mediated PCD during NB regression.
doi:10.1172/JCI65988
PMCID: PMC3696554  PMID: 23778138
5.  Visualization of multivalent histone modification in a single cell reveals highly concerted epigenetic changes on differentiation of embryonic stem cells 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(15):7231-7239.
Combinations of histone modifications have significant biological roles, such as maintenance of pluripotency and cancer development, but cannot be analyzed at the single cell level. Here, we visualized a combination of histone modifications by applying the in situ proximity ligation assay, which detects two proteins in close vicinity (∼30 nm). The specificity of the method [designated as imaging of a combination of histone modifications (iChmo)] was confirmed by positive signals from H3K4me3/acetylated H3K9, H3K4me3/RNA polymerase II and H3K9me3/H4K20me3, and negative signals from H3K4me3/H3K9me3. Bivalent modification was clearly visualized by iChmo in wild-type embryonic stem cells (ESCs) known to have it, whereas rarely in Suz12 knockout ESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts known to have little of it. iChmo was applied to analysis of epigenetic and phenotypic changes of heterogeneous cell population, namely, ESCs at an early stage of differentiation, and this revealed that the bivalent modification disappeared in a highly concerted manner, whereas phenotypic differentiation proceeded with large variations among cells. Also, using this method, we were able to visualize a combination of repressive histone marks in tissue samples. The application of iChmo to samples with heterogeneous cell population and tissue samples is expected to clarify unknown biological and pathological significance of various combinations of epigenetic modifications.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt528
PMCID: PMC3753646  PMID: 23761442
6.  Epigenetic field for cancerization: its cause and clinical implications 
BMC Proceedings  2013;7(Suppl 2):K22.
doi:10.1186/1753-6561-7-S2-K22
PMCID: PMC3624488  PMID: 24764480
7.  A 5'-region polymorphism modulates promoter activity of the tumor suppressor gene MFSD2A 
Molecular Cancer  2011;10:81.
Background
The MFSD2A gene maps within a linkage disequilibrium block containing the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism associated with prognosis and survival in lung cancer patients. Survival discrepancies between Asians and Caucasians point to ethnic differences in allelic frequencies of the functional genetic variations.
Results
Analysis of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the MFSD2A 5'-regulatory region using a luciferase reporter system showed that SNP rs12072037, in linkage disequilibrium with the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism and polymorphic in Asians but not in Caucasians, modulated transcriptional activity of the MFSD2A promoter in cell lines expressing AHR and ARNT transcription factors, which potentially bind to the SNP site.
Conclusion
SNP rs12072037 modulates MFSD2A promoter activity and thus might affect MFSD2A levels in normal lung and in lung tumors, representing a candidate ethnically specific genetic factor underlying the association between the MYCL1 locus and lung cancer patients' survival.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-10-81
PMCID: PMC3155907  PMID: 21736709
8.  Development of a Novel Output Value for Quantitative Assessment in Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation-CpG Island Microarray Analysis 
In DNA methylation microarray analysis, quantitative assessment of intermediate methylation levels in samples with various global methylation levels is still difficult. Here, specifically for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-CpG island (CGI) microarray analysis, we developed a new output value. The signal log ratio reflected the global methylation levels, but had only moderate linear correlation (r = 0.72) with the fraction of DNA molecules immunoprecipitated. By multiplying the signal log ratio using a coefficient obtained from the probability value that took account of signals in neighbouring probes, its linearity was markedly improved (r = 0.94). The new output value, Me value, reflected the global methylation level, had a strong correlation also with the fraction of methylated CpG sites obtained by bisulphite sequencing (r = 0.88), and had an accuracy of 71.8 and 83.8% in detecting completely methylated and unmethylated CGIs. Analysis of gastric cancer cell lines using the Me value showed that methylation of CGIs in promoters and gene bodies was associated with low and high, respectively, gene expression. The degree of demethylation of promoter CGIs after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment had no association with that of induction of gene expression. The Me value was considered to be useful for analysis of intermediate methylation levels of CGIs.
doi:10.1093/dnares/dsp017
PMCID: PMC2762412  PMID: 19767598
epigenetics; CpG island microarray; 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine; methylation silencing; gastric cancer
10.  DNA methylation: a marker for carcinogen exposure and cancer risk 
Cancers arise as a consequence of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Many genes aberrantly methylated in cancers have been identified in recent years, and their use in cancer diagnosis and therapy is currently under investigation. During our genome-wide screening for a novel tumor-suppressor gene in gastric cancers, we found that only a small amount of aberrant methylation was present, even in non-cancerous gastric mucosae. A subsequent large-scale analysis of the gastric mucosae of healthy individuals and gastric cancer patients using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) revealed that Helicobacter pylori infection potently induced aberrant DNA methylation in non-cancerous gastric mucosae and that these high methylation levels can decrease following cessation of the H. pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection induced the methylation of specific genes among 48 genes that can be methylated in gastric cancer cell lines. Most importantly, the methylation levels in the gastric mucosae of individuals without H. pylori infection correlated with their risk of gastric cancer. These findings show that a field for cancerization is formed by H. pylori infection and that this field can be measured using DNA methylation as a marker. The concept of an “epigenetic field for cancerization” has been also demonstrated for colon and breast cancers, and it is possibly present for other cancers and other diseases. Applied knowledge of epigenetic changes in human diseases has now started to make an impact on the prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics of these diseases.
doi:10.1007/s12199-007-0005-x
PMCID: PMC2698244  PMID: 19568874
Cancer; DNA methylation; Epigenetic; Field cancerization; Field defect; Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori
11.  RUNX3 Suppresses Gastric Epithelial Cell Growth by Inducing p21WAF1/Cip1 Expression in Cooperation with Transforming Growth Factor β-Activated SMAD 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(18):8097-8107.
RUNX3 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor of gastric cancer. The gastric mucosa of the Runx3-null mouse develops hyperplasia due to enhanced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis accompanied by a decreased sensitivity to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). It is known that TGF-β1 induces cell growth arrest by activating CDKN1A (p21WAF1/Cip1), which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and this signaling cascade is considered to be a tumor suppressor pathway. However, the lineage-specific transcription factor that cooperates with SMADs to induce p21 expression is not known. Here we show that RUNX3 is required for the TGF-β-dependent induction of p21 expression in stomach epithelial cells. Overexpression of RUNX3 potentiates TGF-β-dependent endogenous p21 induction. In cooperation with SMADs, RUNX3 synergistically activates the p21 promoter. In contrast, RUNX3-R122C, a mutation identified in a gastric cancer patient, abolished the ability to activate the p21 promoter or cooperate with SMADs. Furthermore, areas in mouse and human gastric epithelium where RUNX3 is expressed coincided with those where p21 is expressed. Our results suggest that at least part of the tumor suppressor activity of RUNX3 is associated with its ability to induce p21 expression.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.18.8097-8107.2005
PMCID: PMC1234316  PMID: 16135801

Results 1-11 (11)