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1.  Multi-radionuclide digital autoradiography of the intra-aortic atherosclerotic plaques using a monoclonal antibody targeting oxidized low-density lipoprotein 
The aim of this study was to use multi-radionuclide autoradiography to compare the different distributions of three radiolabelled tracers in an atherosclerotic mouse model. This method, along with immunohistochemistry, was applied to investigate the intra-aortic distribution of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), 131I/125I labeled anti-oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL), and non-binding control antibodies. Aortas were isolated from a total of 12 apoB-100/LDL receptor deficient mice 73 h post injection of radioiodine-labeled anti-oxLDL and control antibody and 1 h post injection of 18F-FDG. A solid-state real-time digital autoradiography system was used to image the slide mounted aortas. Contributions from each radionuclide were separated by half-life and emission energy and the aortas were subsequently stained with Oil Red O for plaque to aorta contrast ratios. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect anti-oxLDL and control antibody localization. Radiolabeled anti-oxLDL showed increased total activity uptake in the aorta over control antibody and immunohistochemical analysis of plaques indicated increased binding of the specific antibody compared to control. The intra-aortic activity distribution of the anti-oxLDL antibody was however very similar to that of the control antibody although both had higher atherosclerotic plaques to aorta wall ratios than 18F-FDG. Given the right choice of radionuclides, multi-radionuclide digital autoradiography can be employed to compare several tracers ex vivo in the same animal. The distribution of anti-oxLDL antibodies did not significantly differ from the control antibody but it did appear to have a better plaque to aorta contrast at 73 h post injection than 18F-FDG at 1 h post injection.
PMCID: PMC3992210  PMID: 24753983
Autoradiography; atherosclerosis; oxidized low density lipoprotein; multi-radionuclide imaging
2.  S100A8 and S100A9: DAMPs at the Crossroads between Innate Immunity, Traditional Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:828354.
Amplification of innate immune responses by endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) promotes inflammation. The involvement of S100A8 and S100A9, DAMPs belonging to the S100 calgranulin family, in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is attracting an increasing amount of interest. S100A8 and S100A9 (also termed MRP8 and MRP14) preferentially form the S100A8/A9 heterodimer (MRP8/14 or calprotectin) and are constitutively expressed in myeloid cells. The levels of circulating S100A8/A9 in humans strongly correlate to blood neutrophil counts and are increased by traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. S100A8/A9 is an endogenous ligand of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and has been shown to promote atherogenesis in mice. In humans, S100A8/A9 correlates with the extent of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and with a vulnerable plaque phenotype. S100A8/A9 is locally released following myocardial infarction and amplifies the inflammatory responses associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Elevated plasma levels of S100A8/A9 are associated with increased risk of future coronary events in healthy individuals and in myocardial infarction survivors. Thus, S100A8/A9 might represent a useful biomarker and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Importantly, S100A8/A9 blockers have been developed and are approved for clinical testing.
doi:10.1155/2013/828354
PMCID: PMC3881579  PMID: 24453429
3.  Plasma procalcitonin is associated with all-cause and cancer mortality in apparently healthy men: a prospective population-based study 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:180.
Background
The inflammatory mediator procalcitonin (PCT) has previously been associated with prognosis in myocardial infarction, cancer and sepsis patients. The importance of PCT in the general population is currently unknown. Our aim was to assess the relationship between plasma PCT and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in apparently healthy individuals with no previous history of cardiovascular disease or cancer.
Methods
We performed a prospective, population-based study on 3,322 individuals recruited from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, with a median follow-up time of 16.2 years. Plasma PCT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and cystatin C were measured at baseline and a thorough risk factor assessment was performed for all subjects. The primary end-points of the study were all-cause mortality, cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality.
Results
Men had higher PCT levels compared to women. In Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, plasma lipids, renal function, body mass index and smoking, baseline PCT was associated with all-cause mortality and cancer mortality in men. The hazard ratio (HR) for men with PCT levels within the highest compared with the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.16; P = 0.024) for all-cause mortality and 2.37 (95% CI 1.36 to 4.14; P = 0.006) for cancer mortality. Additionally, men with increased plasma PCT were found to be at a higher risk to develop colon cancer (HR per 1 SD increase = 1.49 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.95); P = 0.005). In multivariate Cox regression analyses with mutual adjustments for PCT and hsCRP, PCT was independently associated with cancer death (HR per 1 SD increase = 1.28 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.49); P = 0.001) and hsCRP with cardiovascular death (HR per 1 SD increase = 1.42 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.83); P = 0.006) in men. We found no significant correlations between baseline PCT or hsCRP and incident cancer or cardiovascular death in women.
Conclusions
We disclose for the first time important independent associations between PCT and the risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in apparently healthy men. Our findings warrant further investigation into the mechanisms underlying the relationship between PCT and cancer.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-180
PMCID: PMC3765625  PMID: 23937962
Procalcitonin; Inflammation; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; CRP; Mortality
4.  Inflammatory Ly-6Chi monocytes play an important role in the development of severe transplant arteriosclerosis in hyperlipidemic recipients 
Atherosclerosis  2012;223(2):291-298.
Objective
Transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) restricts long-term survival of heart transplant recipients. Although the role of monocyte/macrophages is well established in native atherosclerosis, it has been studied to a much lesser extent in TA. Plasma cholesterol is the most important non-immunologic risk factor for development of TA but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that monocyte/macrophages might play an important role in the pathogenesis of TA under hyperlipidemic conditions.
Methods
We studied TA in fully mismatched arterial allografts transplanted into hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− recipients compared to wild-type controls. The recruitment of distinct monocyte populations into the grafts was tracked by in vivo labelling with fluorescent microspheres. We used antibody-mediated depletion protocols to dissect the relative contribution of T lymphocytes and monocytes to disease development.
Results
In the hyperlipidemic environment the progression of TA was highly exacerbated and the inflammatory CD11b+CD115+Ly-6Chi monocytes were preferentially recruited into the neointima. The number of macrophage-derived foam cells present in the grafts strongly correlated with plasma cholesterol and disease severity. Depletion of Ly-6Chi monocytes and neutrophils significantly inhibited macrophage accumulation and disease progression. The accelerated monocyte recruitment occurs through a T cell-independent mechanism, as T cell depletion did not influence macrophage accumulation into the grafts.
Conclusions
Our study identifies for the first time the involvement of inflammatory Ly-6Chi monocytes into the pathogenesis of TA, particularly in conditions of hyperlipidemia. Targeted therapies modulating the recruitment and activation of these cells could potentially delay coronary allograft vasculopathy and improve long-term survival of heart transplant recipients.
Highlights
► Inflammatory Ly-6Chi monocytes infiltrate arterial allografts during TA development. ► Hyperlipidemia potently accelerates Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment into the neointima. ► TA severity correlates well with plasma cholesterol and macrophage accumulation. ► Macrophage-derived foam cell accumulation occurs independently of T lymphocytes. ► Ly-6Chi monocyte and neutrophil depletion inhibits TA development.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.010
PMCID: PMC3423631  PMID: 22704806
Transplant vasculopathy; Hypercholesterolemia; Inflammation; Monocytes; Macrophages
5.  Functional regulatory T cells produced by inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 3 prevent allograft rejection 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(83):83ra40.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) manipulated ex vivo have potential as cellular therapeutics in autoimmunity and transplantation. Although it is possible to expand naturally occurring Tregs, an attractive alternative possibility, particularly suited to solid organ and bone marrow transplantation, is the stimulation of total T cell populations with defined allogeneic antigen presenting cells under conditions that lead to the generation or expansion of donor-reactive, adaptive Tregs. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of mouse CD4+ T cells by immature allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) combined with pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDEi) results in a functional enrichment of Foxp3+ T cells. Without further manipulation or selection, the resultant population delayed skin allograft rejection mediated by polyclonal CD4+ effectors or donor-reactive CD8+ TCR transgenic T cells and inhibited both effector cell proliferation and T cell priming for IFN-γ production. Notably, PDE inhibition also enhanced the enrichment of human Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells driven by allogeneic APC. These cells inhibited T cell proliferation in a standard in vitro mixed lymphocyte assay and importantly, attenuated the development of vasculopathy mediated by autologous PBMC in a functionally relevant humanized mouse transplant model. These data establish a method for the ex vivo generation of graft-reactive, functional mouse and human Tregs that uses a clinically approved agent, making pharmacological PDE inhibition a potential strategy for Treg-based therapies
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3002099
PMCID: PMC3321352  PMID: 21593400
6.  In vivo Prevention of Transplant Arteriosclerosis by ex vivo Expanded Human Regulatory T Cells 
Nature medicine  2010;16(7):809-813.
Transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the hallmark of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) affecting transplanted organs in the long term [1,2]. These fibroproliferative lesions lead to neointimal thickening of arteries in all transplanted allografts [2]. Luminal narrowing then leads to graft ischemia and organ demise. To date, there are no known tolerance induction strategies that prevent TA [3,4]. Therefore, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that human regulatory T cells (Treg cells) expanded ex vivo could prevent TA. Here we show the comparative capacity of Treg cells, sorted via two separate strategies, to prevent TA in a clinically relevant chimeric humanized mouse system. We found that the in vivo development of TA in human arteries was prevented with the treatment of ex vivo expanded human Treg cells. Additionally, we show that Treg cells sorted based on the low expression of CD127 (IL-7Rα) provide a more potent therapy to conventional Treg cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that human Treg cells can inhibit TA by impairing effector function and graft infiltration. We anticipate our findings to serve as a foundation for the clinical development of therapeutics targeting TA in both allograft transplantation and other immune-mediated causes of vasculopathy [5].
doi:10.1038/nm.2154
PMCID: PMC2929438  PMID: 20473306

Results 1-6 (6)