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1.  Small regions of overlapping deletions on 6q26 in human astrocytic tumours identified using chromosome 6 tile path array CGH 
Oncogene  2006;25(8):1261-1271.
Deletions of chromosome 6 are a common abnormality in diverse human malignancies including astrocytic tumours, suggesting the presence of tumour suppressor genes (TSG). In order to help identify candidate TSGs, we have constructed a chromosome 6 tile path microarray. The array contains 1780 clones (778 PACs and 1002 BACs) that cover 98.3% of the published chromosome 6 sequences. A total of 104 adult astrocytic tumours (10 diffuse astrocytomas, 30 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 64 glioblastomas (GB)) were analysed using this array. Single copy number change was successfully detected and the result was in general concordant with a microsatellite analysis. The pattern of copy number change was complex with multiple interstitial deletions/gains. However, a predominance of telomeric 6q deletions was seen. Two small common and overlapping regions of deletion at 6q26 were identified. One was 1002 kb in size and contained PACRG and QKI, while the second was 199 kb and harbours a single gene, ARID1B. The data show that the chromosome 6 tile path array is useful in mapping copy number changes with high resolution and accuracy. We confirmed the high frequency of chromosome 6 deletions in AA and GB, and identified two novel commonly deleted regions that may harbour TSGs.
doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209156
PMCID: PMC2760128  PMID: 16205629
Brain tumour; Molecular cytogenetics; Array-CGH; Glioblastoma; Astrocytoma
2.  Clinical implication of recurrent copy number alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma and putative oncogenes in recurrent gains on 1q 
To elucidate the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and develop useful prognosis predictors, it is necessary to identify biologically relevant genomic alterations in HCC. In our study, we defined recurrently altered regions (RARs) common to many cases of HCCs, which may contain tumor-related genes, using whole-genome array-CGH and explored their associations with the clinicopathologic features. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to investigate functional implication of RARs. On an average, 23.1% of the total probes were altered per case. Mean numbers of altered probes are significantly higher in high-grade, bigger and microvascular invasion (MVI) positive tumors. In total, 32 RARs (14 gains and 18 losses) were defined and 4 most frequent RARs are gains in 1q21.1-q32.1 (64.5%), 1q32.1-q44 (59.2%), 8q11.21-q24.3 (48.7%) and a loss in 17p13.3-p12 (51.3%). Through focusing on RARs, we identified genes and functional pathways likely to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Among genes in the recurrently gained regions on 1q, expression of KIF14 and TPM3 was significantly increased, suggesting their oncogenic potential in HCC. Some RARs showed the significant associations with the clinical features. Especially, the recurrent loss in 9p24.2-p21.1 and gain in 8q11.21-q24.3 are associated with the high tumor grade and MVI, respectively. Functional analysis showed that cytokine receptor binding and defense response to virus pathways are significantly enriched in high grade-related RARs. Taken together, our results and the strategy of analysis will help to elucidate pathogenesis of HCC and to develop biomarkers for predicting behaviors of HCC.
doi:10.1002/ijc.23901
PMCID: PMC2698448  PMID: 18803288
hepatocellular carcinoma; recurrently altered regions; array comparative genomic hybridization; KIF14; TPM3
3.  Construction and use of spotted large-insert clone DNA microarrays for the detection of genomic copy number changes 
Nature protocols  2007;2(3):577-587.
Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization has become a widespread method for the analysis of DNA copy number changes across the human genome. Initial methods for microarray construction using large-insert clones required the preparation of DNA from large-scale cultures. This rapidly became an expensive and time-consuming process when expanded to the number of clones needed for higher resolution arrays. To overcome this problem, several PCR-based strategies have been developed to enable array construction from small amounts of cloned DNA. Here, we describe the construction of microarrays composed of human-specific large-insert clones (40–200 kb) using a specific degenerate oligonucleotide PCR strategy. In addition, we also describe array hybridization using manual and automated procedures and methods for array analysis. The technology and protocols described in this article can easily be adapted for other species dependent on the availability of clone libraries. According to our protocols, the procedure will take approximately 3 days from labeling the DNA to scanning the hybridized slides.
doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.53
PMCID: PMC2688820  PMID: 17406619
4.  Radial chromatin positioning is shaped by local gene density, not by gene expression 
Chromosoma  2007;116(3):285-306.
G- and R-bands of metaphase chromosomes are characterized by profound differences in gene density, CG content, replication timing, and chromatin compaction. The preferential localization of gene-dense, transcriptionally active, and early replicating chromatin in the nuclear interior and of gene-poor, later replicating chromatin at the nuclear envelope has been demonstrated to be evolutionary-conserved in various cell types. Yet, the impact of different local chromatin features on the radial nuclear arrangement of chromatin is still not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether radial chromatin positioning is preferentially shaped by local gene density per se or by other related parameters such as replication timing or transcriptional activity. The interdependence of these distinct chromatin features on the linear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence precludes a simple dissection of these parameters with respect to their importance for the reorganization of the linear DNA organization into the distinct radial chromatin arrangements observed in the nuclear space. To analyze this problem, we generated probe sets of pooled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from HSA 11, 12, 18, and 19 representing R/G-band-assigned chromatin, segments with different gene density and gene loci with different expression levels. Using multicolor 3D flourescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and 3D image analysis, we determined their localization in the nucleus and their positions within or outside the corresponding chromosome territory (CT). For each BAC data on local gene density within 2- and 10-Mb windows, as well as GC (guanine and cytosine) content, replication timing and expression levels were determined. A correlation analysis of these parameters with nuclear positioning revealed regional gene density as the decisive parameter determining the radial positioning of chromatin in the nucleus in contrast to band assignment, replication timing, and transcriptional activity. We demonstrate a polarized distribution of gene-dense vs gene-poor chromatin within CTs with respect to the nuclear border. Whereas we confirm previous reports that a particular gene-dense and transcriptionally highly active region of about 2 Mb on 11p15.5 often loops out from the territory surface, gene-dense and highly expressed sequences were not generally found preferentially at the CT surface as previously suggested.
doi:10.1007/s00412-007-0098-4
PMCID: PMC2688818  PMID: 17333233
5.  Replication-timing-correlated spatial chromatin arrangements in cancer and in primate interphase nuclei 
Journal of cell science  2008;121(Pt 11):1876-1886.
Summary
Using published high-resolution data on S-phase replication timing, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear arrangement of 33 very-early-replicating and 31 very-late-replicating loci. We analyzed diploid human, non-human primate and rearranged tumor cells by 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of investigating the impact of chromosomal structural changes on the nuclear organization of these loci. Overall, their topology was found to be largely conserved between cell types, species and in tumor cells. Early-replicating loci were localized in the nuclear interior, whereas late-replicating loci showed a broader distribution with a higher preference for the periphery than for late-BrdU-incorporation foci. However, differences in the spatial arrangement of early and late loci of chromosome 2, as compared with those from chromosome 5, 7 and 17, argue against replication timing as a major driving force for the 3D radial genome organization in human lymphoblastoid cell nuclei. Instead, genomic properties, and local gene density in particular, were identified as the decisive parameters. Further detailed comparisons of chromosome 7 loci in primate and tumor cells suggest that the inversions analyzed influence nuclear topology to a greater extent than the translocations, thus pointing to geometrical constraints in the 3D conformation of a chromosome territory.
doi:10.1242/jcs.026989
PMCID: PMC2687722  PMID: 18477608
Nuclear architecture; Replication timing; Chromosome territory; Tumor; Primate
6.  Global variation in copy number in the human genome 
Nature  2006;444(7118):444-454.
Copy number variation (CNV) of DNA sequences is functionally significant but has yet to be fully ascertained. We have constructed a first-generation CNV map of the human genome through the study of 270 individuals from four populations with ancestry in Europe, Africa or Asia (the HapMap collection). DNA from these individuals was screened for CNV using two complementary technologies: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays, and clone-based comparative genomic hybridization. 1,447 copy number variable regions covering 360 megabases (12% of the genome) were identified in these populations; these CNV regions contained hundreds of genes, disease loci, functional elements and segmental duplications. Strikingly, these CNVs encompassed more nucleotide content per genome than SNPs, underscoring the importance of CNV in genetic diversity and evolution. The data obtained delineate linkage disequilibrium patterns for many CNVs, and reveal dramatic variation in copy number among populations. We also demonstrate the utility of this resource for genetic disease studies.
doi:10.1038/nature05329
PMCID: PMC2669898  PMID: 17122850
7.  The rates of de novo meiotic deletions and duplications causing several genomic disorders in the male germline 
Nature genetics  2007;40(1):90-95.
Meiotic recombination between highly-similar duplicated sequences (non-allelic homologous recombination, NAHR) generates deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations, and is responsible for genetic diseases known as ‘genomic disorders’, most of which are caused by altered copy number of dosage sensitive genes. NAHR Hotspots have been identified within some duplicated sequences. We have developed sperm-based assays to measure the de novo rate of reciprocal deletions and duplications at 4 NAHR hotspots. We used these assays to dissect the relative rates of NAHR between different pairs of duplicated sequences. We show that: (i) these NAHR hotspots are specific to meiosis, (ii) deletions are generated at a higher rate than their reciprocal duplications in the male germline and (iii) some of these genomic disorders are likely to have been under-ascertained clinically, most notably the duplication of 7q11, the reciprocal of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome deletion.
doi:10.1038/ng.2007.40
PMCID: PMC2669897  PMID: 18059269
8.  Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation 
Nature genetics  2007;39(10):1256-1260.
Starch consumption is a prominent characteristic of agricultural societies and hunter-gatherers in arid environments. In contrast, rainforest and circum-arctic hunter-gatherers and some pastoralists consume much less starch1-3. This behavioral variation raises the possibility that different selective pressures have acted on amylase, the enzyme responsible for starch hydrolysis4. We found that salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number is correlated positively with salivary amylase protein levels, and that individuals from populations with high-starch diets have on average more AMY1 copies than those with traditionally low-starch diets. Comparisons with other loci in a subset of these populations suggest that the level of AMY1 copy number differentiation is unusual. This example of positive selection on a copy number variable gene is one of the first in the human genome. Higher AMY1 copy numbers and protein levels likely improve the digestion of starchy foods, and may buffer against the fitness-reducing effects of intestinal disease.
doi:10.1038/ng2123
PMCID: PMC2377015  PMID: 17828263
9.  Breaking the waves: improved detection of copy number variation from microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization 
Genome Biology  2007;8(10):R228.
Datasets used for detecting copy number variation (CNV) are shown to be affected by a technical artifact. A novel CNV calling algorithm is presented which removes this artifact and identifies regions of CNV better than existing methods.
Background
Large-scale high throughput studies using microarray technology have established that copy number variation (CNV) throughout the genome is more frequent than previously thought. Such variation is known to play an important role in the presence and development of phenotypes such as HIV-1 infection and Alzheimer's disease. However, methods for analyzing the complex data produced and identifying regions of CNV are still being refined.
Results
We describe the presence of a genome-wide technical artifact, spatial autocorrelation or 'wave', which occurs in a large dataset used to determine the location of CNV across the genome. By removing this artifact we are able to obtain both a more biologically meaningful clustering of the data and an increase in the number of CNVs identified by current calling methods without a major increase in the number of false positives detected. Moreover, removing this artifact is critical for the development of a novel model-based CNV calling algorithm - CNVmix - that uses cross-sample information to identify regions of the genome where CNVs occur. For regions of CNV that are identified by both CNVmix and current methods, we demonstrate that CNVmix is better able to categorize samples into groups that represent copy number gains or losses.
Conclusion
Removing artifactual 'waves' (which appear to be a general feature of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) datasets) and using cross-sample information when identifying CNVs enables more biological information to be extracted from aCGH experiments designed to investigate copy number variation in normal individuals.
doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-10-r228
PMCID: PMC2246302  PMID: 17961237
10.  High resolution array-CGH analysis of single cells 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;35(3):e15.
Heterogeneity in the genome copy number of tissues is of particular importance in solid tumor biology. Furthermore, many clinical applications such as pre-implantation and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis would benefit from the ability to characterize individual single cells. As the amount of DNA from single cells is so small, several PCR protocols have been developed in an attempt to achieve unbiased amplification. Many of these approaches are suitable for subsequent cytogenetic analyses using conventional methodologies such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to metaphase spreads. However, attempts to harness array-CGH for single-cell analysis to provide improved resolution have been disappointing. Here we describe a strategy that combines single-cell amplification using GenomePlex library technology (GenomePlex® Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification Kit, Sigma-Aldrich, UK) and detailed analysis of genomic copy number changes by high-resolution array-CGH. We show that single copy changes as small as 8.3 Mb in single cells are detected reliably with single cells derived from various tumor cell lines as well as patients presenting with trisomy 21 and Prader–Willi syndrome. Our results demonstrate the potential of this technology for studies of tumor biology and for clinical diagnostics.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl1030
PMCID: PMC1807964  PMID: 17178751
11.  Positional and functional mapping of a neuroblastoma differentiation gene on chromosome 11 
BMC Genomics  2005;6:97.
Background
Loss of chromosome 11q defines a subset of high-stage aggressive neuroblastomas. Deletions are typically large and mapping efforts have thus far not lead to a well defined consensus region, which hampers the identification of positional candidate tumour suppressor genes. In a previous study, functional evidence for a neuroblastoma suppressor gene on chromosome 11 was obtained through microcell mediated chromosome transfer, indicated by differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with loss of distal 11q upon introduction of chromosome 11. Interestingly, some of these microcell hybrid clones were shown to harbour deletions in the transferred chromosome 11. We decided to further exploit this model system as a means to identify candidate tumour suppressor or differentiation genes located on chromosome 11.
Results
In a first step, we performed high-resolution arrayCGH DNA copy-number analysis in order to evaluate the chromosome 11 status in the hybrids. Several deletions in both parental and transferred chromosomes in the investigated microcell hybrids were observed. Subsequent correlation of these deletion events with the observed morphological changes lead to the delineation of three putative regions on chromosome 11: 11q25, 11p13->11p15.1 and 11p15.3, that may harbour the responsible differentiation gene.
Conclusion
Using an available model system, we were able to put forward some candidate regions that may be involved in neuroblastoma. Additional studies will be required to clarify the putative role of the genes located in these chromosomal segments in the observed differentiation phenotype specifically or in neuroblastoma pathogenesis in general.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-97
PMCID: PMC1185534  PMID: 16000168
12.  Identification of a Gene in Staphylococcus xylosus Encoding a Novel Glucose Uptake Protein 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(16):4929-4936.
By transposon Tn917 mutagenesis, two mutants of Staphylococcus xylosus were isolated that showed higher levels of β-galactosidase activity in the presence of glucose than the wild type. Both transposons integrated in a gene, designated glcU, encoding a protein involved in glucose uptake in S. xylosus, which is followed by a glucose dehydrogenase gene (gdh). Glucose-mediated repression of β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, and β-glucuronidase activities was partially relieved in the mutant strains, while repression by sucrose or fructose remained as strong as in the wild type. In addition to the pleiotropic regulatory effect, integration of the transposons into glcU reduced glucose dehydrogenase activity, suggesting cotranscription of glcU and gdh. Insertional inactivation of the gdh gene and deletion of the glcU gene without affecting gdh expression showed that loss of GlcU function is exclusively responsible for the regulatory defect. Reduced glucose repression is most likely the consequence of impaired glucose uptake in the glcU mutant strains. With cloned glcU, an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in glucose transport could grow with glucose as sole carbon source, provided a functional glucose kinase was present. Therefore, glucose is internalized by glcU in nonphosphorylated form. A gene from Bacillus subtilis, ycxE, that is homologous to glcU, could substitute for glcU in the E. coli glucose growth experiments and restored glucose repression in the S. xylosus glcU mutants. Three more proteins with high levels of similarity to GlcU and YcxE are currently in the databases. It appears that these proteins constitute a novel family whose members are involved in bacterial transport processes. GlcU and YcxE are the first examples whose specificity, glucose, has been determined.
PMCID: PMC93981  PMID: 10438764

Results 1-12 (12)