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author:("Chen, jinfeng")
1.  miR-101 Suppresses Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C That Inhibits Migration and Invasion and Enhances Cisplatin Chemosensitivity of Bladder Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0117809.
Background
The microRNA miR-101 is downregulated in several cancers, including bladder cancer. However, miR-101’s role in the invasion, metastasis, and chemosensitivity of bladder cancer cells remains unclear. This study was conducted to determine miR-101’s role on the lymphangiogenic molecule vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and their effects upon bladder cancer cell migration, invasion, and chemosensitivity to cisplatin.
Methods
Two bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and 5637) and the tool cell line 293T were employed here. Bladder cancer cells were transfected with either a miR-101 overexpression vector or a scrambled-sequence lentivirus, both of which exhibited a high transfection efficiency. Non-transfection was used as a mock negative control. Wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to measure cell migration and invasiveness. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate miR-101’s interaction with VEGF-C’s 3′ untranslated region followed by RT-PCR and Western blot confirmation. An MTS assay was used to evaluate the cisplatin sensitivity of the cell lines.
Results
miR-101 overexpression significantly inhibited the migration and invasiveness while significantly enhancing cisplatin sensitivity. miR-101 negatively regulated VEGF-C protein expression, and VEGF-C overexpression rescued the effects of miR-101 overexpression, indicating that miR-101 negatively regulates VEGF-C protein expression post-transcriptionally. miR-101 and VEGF-C interference independently enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in bladder cancer cells.
Conclusions
miR-101 suppresses VEGF-C expression, inhibits cell migration and invasion, and increases cisplatin sensitivity in bladder cancer cells. This study provides new insight into miR-101’s role in bladder cancer and shows miR-101’s promise as a potential molecular target for bladder cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117809
PMCID: PMC4320037  PMID: 25658842
2.  Comparison of Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) and Multiple Annealing and Looping-Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) in Single-Cell Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114520.
Single-cell sequencing promotes our understanding of the heterogeneity of cellular populations, including the haplotypes and genomic variability among different generation of cells. Whole-genome amplification is crucial to generate sufficient DNA fragments for single-cell sequencing projects. Using sequencing data from single sperms, we quantitatively compare two prevailing amplification methods that extensively applied in single-cell sequencing, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). Our results show that MALBAC, as a combination of modified MDA and tweaked PCR, has a higher level of uniformity, specificity and reproducibility.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114520
PMCID: PMC4259343  PMID: 25485707
3.  miR-150 Modulates Cisplatin Chemosensitivity and Invasiveness of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells via Targeting PDCD4 In Vitro 
Background
Chemotherapeutic insensitivity and tumor cell invasiveness are major obstacles to effectively treating muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recent reports show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the chemotherapeutic response and disease progression of MIBC. Therefore, here we investigated the role of miR-150 in MIBC cells in vitro.
Material/Methods
miR-150 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR in two MIBC cell lines (5637 and T24). After successful miR-150 inhibition by transfection, MTS and transwell assays were used to assess the MIBC’s cisplatin sensitivity and cell invasiveness, respectively. The TargetScan database and a luciferase reporter system were used to identify whether the programmed cell death 4 protein (PDCD4) is a direct target of miR-150 in MIBC cells.
Results
miR-150 expression was found to be significantly increased in both MIBC cell lines, and treatment with a miR-150 inhibitor significantly sensitized MIBC cells to cisplatin and inhibited MIBC cell invasiveness. PDCD4 was identified as a direct target of miR-150 in MIBC cells, and increased PDCD4 expression via transfection with the pLEX-PDCD4 plasmid efficiently sensitized MIBC cells to cisplatin chemotherapy and inhibited MIBC cell invasiveness.
Conclusions
This study provides novel evidence that miR-150 functions as a tumor promoter in reducing chemosensitivity and promoting invasiveness of MIBC cells via targeting PDCD4. Thus, modulation of the miR-150-PDCD4 axis shows promise as a therapeutic strategy for MIBC.
doi:10.12659/MSM.891340
PMCID: PMC4199406  PMID: 25287716
Cisplatin; MicroRNAs; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
4.  Down-regulated microRNA-101 in bladder transitional cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis 
Background
Down-regulation of microRNA-101 (miR-101) expression has been linked to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) development. However, the relationship between the expression of miR-101 in BTCC and a patient’s prognosis has not yet been studied. Thus, we attempted to explore the correlation of miR-101 and clinicopathological factors of BTCC patients, and evaluate the impact of miR-101 on prognosis of BTCC.
Material/Methods
In 88 samples of BTCC (n=72) and normal tissues (n=16), the expressions of miR-101 were detected by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relationship of miR-101 and clinicopathological factors in BTCC was analyzed statistically. Survival analysis was performed to assess the prognostic significance of miR-101.
Results
Down-regulation of miR-101 was found in BTCC tissues, compared with normal tissues (P<0.05). MiR-101 expression was significantly associated with tumor diameter, tumor stage, tumor grade, lymph node involvement, and lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05). Low-level expression of miR-101 was significantly correlated with shortened survival time (P<0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed this significant prognostic impact was independent of other clinicopathologic factors (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the expression of miR-101 is down-regulated in BTCC, which consequently favored tumor progression. MiR-101 may play an important role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in BTCC.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890300
PMCID: PMC4038639  PMID: 24834983
MicroRNAs; Carcinoma; Transitional Cell; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Prognosis
5.  Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo 
Nature  2010;463(7282):757-762.
We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20×, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
doi:10.1038/nature08835
PMCID: PMC3951495  PMID: 20148029
6.  The DNA Methylome of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(11):e1000533.
Analysis across the genome of patterns of DNA methylation reveals a rich landscape of allele-specific epigenetic modification and consequent effects on allele-specific gene expression.
DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and <0.2% of non-CpG sites were methylated, demonstrating that non-CpG cytosine methylation is minor in human PBMC. Analysis of the PBMC methylome revealed a rich epigenomic landscape for 20 distinct genomic features, including regulatory, protein-coding, non-coding, RNA-coding, and repeat sequences. Integration of our methylome data with the YH genome sequence enabled a first comprehensive assessment of allele-specific methylation (ASM) between the two haploid methylomes of any individual and allowed the identification of 599 haploid differentially methylated regions (hDMRs) covering 287 genes. Of these, 76 genes had hDMRs within 2 kb of their transcriptional start sites of which >80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE). These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.
Author Summary
Epigenetic modifications such as addition of methyl groups to cytosine in DNA play a role in regulating gene expression. To better understand these processes, knowledge of the methylation status of all cytosine bases in the genome (the methylome) is required. DNA methylation can differ between the two gene copies (alleles) in each cell. Such allele-specific methylation (ASM) can be due to parental origin of the alleles (imprinting), X chromosome inactivation in females, and other as yet unknown mechanisms. This may significantly alter the expression profile arising from different allele combinations in different individuals. Using advanced sequencing technology, we have determined the methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Importantly, the PBMC were obtained from the same male Han Chinese individual whose complete genome had previously been determined. This allowed us, for the first time, to study genome-wide differences in ASM. Our analysis shows that ASM in PBMC is higher than can be accounted for by regions known to undergo parent-of-origin imprinting and frequently (>80%) correlates with allele-specific expression (ASE) of the corresponding gene. In addition, our data reveal a rich landscape of epigenomic variation for 20 genomic features, including regulatory, coding, and non-coding sequences, and provide a valuable resource for future studies. Our work further establishes whole-genome sequencing as an efficient method for methylome analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000533
PMCID: PMC2976721  PMID: 21085693

Results 1-6 (6)