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1.  Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:40302.
Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators).
doi:10.1038/srep40302
PMCID: PMC5225473  PMID: 28074936
2.  Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:32685.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.
doi:10.1038/srep32685
PMCID: PMC5015020  PMID: 27604526
3.  Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) snap traps 
Summary
Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional–morphological and biomimetic context.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.7.59
PMCID: PMC4902084  PMID: 27335756
biomechanics; carnivorous plant; Droseraceae; fast plant movement; functional morphology
4.  Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants 
AoB Plants  2015;8:plv140.
How can plants move without muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies? Carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae) perform one of the fastest movements known in the plant kingdom by capturing their prey (mainly small crustaceans) with suction traps. Capture lasts only half a millisecond, and animals are sucked into the trap with an acceleration of 600 g, which leaves no chance of escape. We review the current state of knowledge about these sophisticated trapping devices, highlight their biomechanical, functional-morphological and physiological peculiarities and discuss open questions for possible future studies.
Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called ‘Utricularia vulgaris trap type’). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices.
doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv140
PMCID: PMC4717191  PMID: 26602984
Biomechanics; bladderwort; carnivorous plant; functional morphology; prey; suction trap; Utricularia
5.  Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines – Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0143850.
Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘, Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143850
PMCID: PMC4667892  PMID: 26629690
6.  Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0138495.
We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the ‘throwing arm’ of the sporangium catapult) and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138495
PMCID: PMC4596474  PMID: 26444002
7.  The role of shear in crystallization kinetics: From suppression to enhancement 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:14610.
In many technical applications crystallization proceeds in the presence of stresses and flows, hence the importance to understand the crystallization mechanism in simple situations. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the crystallization kinetics of a nearly hard sphere liquid that is weakly sheared. We demonstrate that shear flow both enhances and suppresses the crystallization kinetics of hard spheres. The effect of shear depends on the quiescent mechanism: suppression in the activated regime and enhancement in the diffusion-limited regime for small strain rates. At higher strain rates crystallization again becomes an activated process even at densities close to the glass transition.
doi:10.1038/srep14610
PMCID: PMC4586493  PMID: 26416556
8.  Impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (Citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state 
Royal Society Open Science  2015;2(6):140322.
Pomelos (Citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which—inter alia—serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. It protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. The main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. In order to investigate the influence of the water content on the energy dissipation capacity, drop weight tests were conducted with fresh and with freeze-dried peel samples. Based on the coefficient of restitution it was found that freeze-drying markedly reduces the relative energy dissipation capacity of the peel. Measuring the transmitted force during impact furthermore indicated a transition from a uniform collapse of the foam-like tissue to a progressive collapse due to water extraction. Representing the peel by a Maxwell model illustrates that freeze-drying not only drastically reduces the damping function of the dashpots but also stiffens the springs of the model.
doi:10.1098/rsos.140322
PMCID: PMC4632530  PMID: 26543566
Citrus maxima; cellular material; energy dissipation; coefficient of restitution; Maxwell model
9.  Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex 
Plant latex, the source of natural rubber, has been of interest to mankind for millennia, with much of the research on its rheological (flow) properties focused towards industrial application. However, little is known regarding the rheology of the native material as produced by the plant, a key factor in determining latex's biological functions. In this study, we outline a method for rheological comparison between native latices that requires a minimum of preparatory steps. Our approach provides quantitative insights into the coagulation mechanisms of Euphorbia and Ficus latex allowing interpretation within a comparative evolutionary framework. Our findings reveal that in laboratory conditions both latices behave like non-Newtonian materials with the coagulation of Euphorbia latex being mediated by a slow evaporative process (more than 60 min), whereas Ficus appears to use additional biochemical components to increase the rate of coagulation (more than 30 min). Based on these results, we propose two different primary defensive roles for latex in these plants: the delivery of anti-herbivory compounds (Euphorbia) and rapid wound healing (Ficus).
doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0847
PMCID: PMC3836322  PMID: 24173604
rheology; latex; Euphorbia; Ficus; evolution; coagulation
10.  Functional morphology and biomechanics of branch–stem junctions in columnar cacti 
Branching in columnar cacti features morphological and anatomical characteristics specific to the subfamily Cactoideae. The most conspicuous features are the pronounced constrictions at the branch–stem junctions, which are also present in the lignified vascular structures within the succulent cortex. Based on finite-element analyses of ramification models, we demonstrate that these indentations in the region of high flexural and torsional stresses are not regions of structural weakness (e.g. allowing vegetative propagation). On the contrary, they can be regarded as anatomical adaptations to increase the stability by fine-tuning the stress state and stress directions in the junction along prevalent fibre directions. Biomimetic adaptations improving the functionality of ramifications in technical components, inspired, in particular, by the fine-tuned geometrical shape and arrangement of lignified strengthening tissues of biological role models, might contribute to the development of alternative concepts for branched fibre-reinforced composite structures within a limited design space.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2244
PMCID: PMC3813340  PMID: 24132310
columnar cacti; functional anatomy; branching; finite-element analysis; biomimetics
11.  Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113336.
Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113336
PMCID: PMC4237448  PMID: 25409036
12.  Structure-Function Relationships in Macadamia integrifolia Seed Coats – Fundamentals of the Hierarchical Microstructure 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e102913.
The shells/coats of nuts and seeds are often very hard to crack. This is particularly the case with Macadamia seed coats, known to exhibit astoundingly high strength and toughness. We performed an extensive materials science characterization of the complex hierarchical structure of these coats, using light and scanning electron microscopy in 2D as well as microCT for 3D characterization. We differentiate nine hierarchical levels that characterize the structure ranging from the whole fruit on the macroscopic scale down to the molecular scale. From a biological viewpoint, understanding the hierarchical structure may elucidate why it is advantageous for these seed coats to be so difficult to break. From an engineering viewpoint, microstructure characterization is important for identifying features that contribute to the high strength and cracking resistance of these objects. This is essential for revealing the underlying structure-function-relationships. Such information will help us develop engineering materials and lightweight-structures with improved fracture and puncture resistance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102913
PMCID: PMC4125148  PMID: 25102155
13.  Trap diversity and evolution in the family Droseraceae 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2013;8(7):e24685.
We review trapping mechanisms in the carnivorous flowering plant family Droseraceae (order Caryophyllales). Its members are generally known to attract, capture, retain and digest prey animals (mainly arthropods) with active snap-traps (Aldrovanda, Dionaea) or with active sticky flypaper traps (Drosera) and to absorb the resulting nutrients. Recent investigations revealed how the snap-traps of Aldrovanda vesiculosa (waterwheel plant) and Dionaea muscipula (Venus’ flytrap) work mechanically and how these apparently similar devices differ as to their functional morphology and shutting mechanics. The Sundews (Drosera spp.) are generally known to possess leaves covered with glue-tentacles that both can bend toward and around stuck prey. Recently, it was shown that there exists in this genus a higher diversity of different tentacle types and trap configurations than previously known which presumably reflect adaptations to different prey spectra. Based on these recent findings, we finally comment on possible ways for intrafamiliar trap evolution.
doi:10.4161/psb.24685
PMCID: PMC3907454  PMID: 23603942
Aldrovanda; carnivorous plant; catapult-flypaper-trap; Dionaea; Drosera; sticky flypaper trap; snap-trap
14.  Restoration of tensile strength in bark samples of Ficus benjamina due to coagulation of latex during fast self-healing of fissures 
Annals of Botany  2011;109(4):807-811.
Background and Aims
The functions of plant latex have been discussed for a long time. Today, many studies support a defence mechanism as being its main function. A role as a self-healing mechanism was never attributed to the coagulation of latex. In this study we quantified the contribution of the coagulation of Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) latex to a restoration of the mechanical properties of the bark after external lesions.
Methods
Tensile tests of F. benjamina bark were conducted either immediately after injury or at various latency times after injury.
Key Results
A significant increase in the tensile strength of bark samples until 30 min after injury was found, and this effect could be attributed to the coagulation of plant latex alone. The tensile strength remains nearly constant until several hours or days after injury. Then, very probably due to other mechanisms such as cell growth and cell proliferation, the tensile strength begins to increase slightly again.
Conclusions
The coagulation of latex seals lesions and serves as a quick and effective pre-step of subsequent, more effective, long-lasting self-healing mechanisms such as cell growth and proliferation. Thus, a fast self-healing effect can be included in the list of functions of plant latex.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr307
PMCID: PMC3286277  PMID: 22207613
Self-healing; latex coagulation; tensile strength; external lesion; Ficus benjamina
15.  Plant surfaces with cuticular folds are slippery for beetles 
Plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional (3D) waxes are known to strongly reduce insect adhesion, leading to slippery surfaces. Besides 3D epicuticular waxes, cuticular folds are a common microstructure found on plant surfaces, which have not been quantitatively investigated with regard to their influence on insect adhesion. We performed traction experiments with Colorado potato beetles on five plant surfaces with cuticular folds of different magnitude. For comparison, we also tested (i) smooth plant surfaces and (ii) plant surfaces possessing 3D epicuticular waxes. Traction forces on surfaces with medium cuticular folds, of about 0.5 µm in both height and thickness and a spacing of 0.5–1.5 µm, were reduced by an average of 88 per cent in comparison to smooth plant surfaces. Traction forces were reduced by the same order of magnitude as on plant surfaces covered with 3D epicuticular waxes. For surface characterization, we performed static contact angle measurements, which proved a strong effect of cuticular folds also on surface wettability. Surfaces possessing cuticular folds of greater magnitude showed higher contact angles up to superhydrophobicity. We hypothesize that cuticular folds reduce insect adhesion mainly due to a critical roughness, reducing the real contact area between the surface and the insect's adhesive devices.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0202
PMCID: PMC3223627  PMID: 21642366
adhesion; attachment; biomimetic surfaces; epicuticular waxes; insect–plant interaction; microstructure
16.  Ultra-fast underwater suction traps 
Carnivorous aquatic Utricularia species catch small prey animals using millimetre-sized underwater suction traps, which have fascinated scientists since Darwin's early work on carnivorous plants. Suction takes place after mechanical triggering and is owing to a release of stored elastic energy in the trap body accompanied by a very fast opening and closing of a trapdoor, which otherwise closes the trap entrance watertight. The exceptional trapping speed—far above human visual perception—impeded profound investigations until now. Using high-speed video imaging and special microscopy techniques, we obtained fully time-resolved recordings of the door movement. We found that this unique trapping mechanism conducts suction in less than a millisecond and therefore ranks among the fastest plant movements known. Fluid acceleration reaches very high values, leaving little chance for prey animals to escape. We discovered that the door deformation is morphologically predetermined, and actually performs a buckling/unbuckling process, including a complete trapdoor curvature inversion. This process, which we predict using dynamical simulations and simple theoretical models, is highly reproducible: the traps are autonomously repetitive as they fire spontaneously after 5–20 h and reset actively to their ready-to-catch condition.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2292
PMCID: PMC3151700  PMID: 21325323
bladderwort; carnivorous/insectivorous plants; suction mechanism; functional morphology; fluid dynamics; Utricularia
17.  Catapulting Tentacles in a Sticky Carnivorous Plant 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45735.
Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed ‘active’ have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin’s early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045735
PMCID: PMC3458893  PMID: 23049849
18.  Always on the bright side: the climbing mechanism of Galium aparine 
Galium aparine is a herbaceous climbing plant that attaches to host plants mainly via its leaves, which are covered by hooked trichomes. Although such hooks are found on both leaf surfaces, the leaves of G. aparine are mainly positioned upon the leaves of supporting plants and rarely beneath. In order to understand the mechanism underlying this observation, we have studied structural and mechanical properties of single leaf hooks, frictional properties of leaf surfaces, turgor pressure in different leaf tissues and bending properties of the leaves in different directions. Abaxial and adaxial leaf hooks differ significantly in orientation, distribution, structure and mechanical properties. In accordance with these differences, friction properties of leaves depend on the direction of the applied force and differ significantly between both leaf surfaces. This results in a ratchet mechanism. Abaxial leaf hooks provide strong attachment upon the leaves of adjacent plants, whereas adaxial hooks cause a gliding-off from the underside of the leaves of host plants. Thus, the leaves of G. aparine can function as attachment organs, and simultaneously orient themselves advantageously for their photosynthetic function. Further adaptations in turgor pressure or concerning an anisotropy of the flexural stiffness of the leaves have not been found.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2038
PMCID: PMC3107623  PMID: 21147808
semi-self-supporter; leaf hooks; attachment; mechanical properties; ratchet mechanism
19.  Impact of cell shape in hierarchically structured plant surfaces on the attachment of male Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) 
Summary
Plant surfaces showing hierarchical structuring are frequently found in plant organs such as leaves, petals, fruits and stems. In our study we focus on the level of cell shape and on the level of superimposed microstructuring, leading to hierarchical surfaces if both levels are present. While it has been shown that epicuticular wax crystals and cuticular folds strongly reduce insect attachment, and that smooth papillate epidermal cells in petals improve the grip of pollinators, the impact of hierarchical surface structuring of plant surfaces possessing convex or papillate cells on insect attachment remains unclear. We performed traction experiments with male Colorado potato beetles on nine different plant surfaces with different structures. The selected plant surfaces showed epidermal cells with either tabular, convex or papillate cell shape, covered either with flat films of wax, epicuticular wax crystals or with cuticular folds. On surfaces possessing either superimposed wax crystals or cuticular folds we found traction forces to be almost one order of magnitude lower than on surfaces covered only with flat films of wax. Independent of superimposed microstructures we found that convex and papillate epidermal cell shapes slightly enhance the attachment ability of the beetles. Thus, in plant surfaces, cell shape and superimposed microstructuring yield contrary effects on the attachment of the Colorado potato beetle, with convex or papillate cells enhancing attachment and both wax crystals or cuticular folds reducing attachment. However, the overall magnitude of traction force mainly depends on the presence or absence of superimposed microstructuring.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.7
PMCID: PMC3304315  PMID: 22428097
cuticular folds; epicuticular wax crystals; insect–plant interaction; papillae; structure–function relationship
20.  Structure, attachment properties, and ecological importance of the attachment system of English ivy (Hedera helix) 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2011;63(1):191-201.
Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to different host species or inert substrates have not been studied. Here organs and tissues involved in the attachment are characterized and their significance in regard to a broader functional and ecological aspect is discussed. Depending on the substrate, the root clusters show different types of failure modes at various frequencies, demonstrating the close interaction between the climber and its substrates. With a Young’s Modulus of 109.2 MPa, the attachment roots are relatively stiff for non-woody roots. The central cylinders of the attachment roots show a high tensile strength of 38 MPa and a very high extensibility of 34%. In host trees naturally co-distributed with English ivy, a ‘balanced’ occurrence of failure of the attachment system of the climber and the bark of the host is found, suggesting a co-evolution of climber and host. Maximum loads of root clusters normalized by the number of roots match those of individually tested attachment roots. In comparison with most subterranean roots the properties and structure of the attachment roots of English ivy show distinct differences. There exist similarities to the properties found for roots of Galium aparine, suggesting a trend in not fully self-supporting plants towards a higher extensibility.
doi:10.1093/jxb/err260
PMCID: PMC3245459  PMID: 21914660
Attachment system; biomechanics; English ivy; Hedera helix; maximum strain; root climber; substrate; tensile strength; Young’s Modulus
21.  The attachment strategy of English ivy: a complex mechanism acting on several hierarchical levels 
English ivy (Hedera helix L.) is able to grow on vertical substrates such as trees, rocks and house plaster, thereby attaching so firmly to the surface that when removed by force typically whole pieces of the climbing substrate are torn off. The structural details of the attachment process are not yet entirely understood. We studied the attachment process of English ivy in detail and suggest a four-phase process to describe the attachment strategy: (i) initial physical contact, (ii) form closure of the root with the substrate, (iii) chemical adhesion, and (iv) shape changes of the root hairs and form-closure with the substrate. These four phases and their variations play an important role in the attachment to differently structured surfaces. We demonstrate that, in English ivy, different mechanisms work together to allow the plant's attachment to various climbing substrates and reveal the importance of micro-fibril orientation in the root hairs for the attachment based on structural changes at the subcellular level.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2010.0140
PMCID: PMC2894893  PMID: 20462880
attachment system; Hedera helix; root climber; English ivy; form-structure–function; adventitious roots
22.  Morphological aspects of self-repair of lesions caused by internal growth stresses in stems of Aristolochia macrophylla and Aristolochia ringens 
This study reveals in detail the mechanism of self-repair during secondary growth in the vines Aristolochia macrophylla and Aristolochia ringens based on morphological data. For a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms during the self-repair of lesions in the sclerenchymatous cylinder of the stem, which are caused by internal growth stresses, a classification of morphological changes in the cells involved in the repair process is required. In an early stage of self-repair, we observed morphological changes as a mere extension of the turgescent cortex cells surrounding the lesion, whereby the cell wall extends locally through visco-elastic/plastic deformation without observable cell wall synthesis. Later stages involve typical cell growth and cell division. Several successive phases of self-repair were investigated by light microscopy of stained samples and confocal laser-scanning microscopy in fluorescence mode. The results indicate that A. macrophylla and A. ringens respond to lesions caused by internal growth stresses with a sophisticated self-repair mechanism comprising several phases of different repair modes.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0075
PMCID: PMC2880149  PMID: 20236971
Aristolochia macrophylla; Aristolochia ringens; self-healing; self-repair; vine; growth stress
23.  Functional morphology, biomechanics and biomimetic potential of stem–branch connections in Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis  
Summary
Branching in plants is one of the most important assets for developing large arborescent growth forms with complex crowns. While the form and development of branching in gymnosperms and dicotyledonous trees is widely understood, very little is known about branching patterns and the structure of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons. For a better and quantitative understanding of the functional morphology of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons, we investigated the two species Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis. While D. reflexa is able to develop large arborescent forms with conspicuous crowns by anomalous secondary growth, F. insignis remains relatively small and is only capable of primary growth. Biomechanical investigations were performed by applying vertical loads up to rupture to lateral branches of both species. This allows the analysis of the fracture mechanics and the determination of the maximal force, stress and strain at rupture as well as the fracture toughness. Functional morphology was correlated with the mechanical behaviour of these plants and compared to data of other dicotyledonous trees. The high energy absorption found in the rupture process of lateral branches of D. reflexa and F. insignis makes them promising biological concept generators with a high potential for biomimetic implementation, i.e., for the development of branched fibre-reinforced technical composites. A wide range of constructional elements with branched (sub-)structures can be optimised by using solutions inspired by plant ramifications, e.g., in automotive and aerospace engineering, architecture, sports equipment and prosthetic manufacturing.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.2.21
PMCID: PMC3148042  PMID: 21977429
Biomimetics; branching; Dracaena reflexa; Freycinetia insignis; monocotyledons
24.  Structural and mechanical design of tissue interfaces in the giant reed Arundo donax 
The culms of the giant reed Arundo donax represent slender tube-like structures. Several nodes along the culm, a ring of sclerenchymatous fibres in the periphery of the culm wall and numerous isolated vascular bundles enclosed by fibre rings in the culm wall function as stiffening elements. The bundles are embedded in lignified parenchyma. Micromechanical analysis indicated differences in stiffness between the individual tissues of more than one order of magnitude. In case of abrupt transitions in stiffness at the interfaces, stress discontinuities arise under dynamic loads. This eventually leads to critical shear stresses at cell ends, and culm failure may be initiated at these points. Pronounced mechanical differences between individual tissues can be compromised by gradual transitions at their interfaces. Ultrastructural and spectroscopic investigations with high spatial resolution revealed a gradual transition of cell parameters (cell wall area fraction and cell length). However, cell wall parameters (cellulose microfibril angle and lignin content) showed abrupt transitions or remained almost constant across the interfaces between various tissues. The design principles found at the interfaces between tissues in the culm walls of A. donax are discussed as an adaptation strategy to mechanical loads at different levels of hierarchy.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0273
PMCID: PMC2842797  PMID: 19726440
Arundo donax; micromechanics; stiffness; microfibril angle; hierarchy; gradients
25.  Stiffness gradients in vascular bundles of the palm Washingtonia robusta 
Palms can grow at sites exposed to high winds experiencing large dynamic wind and gust loads. Their stems represent a system of stiff fibrous elements embedded in the soft parenchymatous tissue. The proper design of the interface of the stiffening elements and the parenchyma is crucial for the functioning of the stem. The strategy of the palm to compromise between stiff fibre caps and the soft parenchymatous tissue may serve as a model system for avoiding stress discontinuities in inhomogeneous and anisotropic fibre-reinforced composite materials. We investigated the mechanical, structural and biochemical properties of the fibre caps of the palm Washingtonia robusta at different levels of hierarchy with high spatial resolution. A gradual decrease in stiffness across the fibre cap towards the surrounding parenchymatous tissue was observed. Structural adaptations at the tissue level were found in terms of changes in cell cross sections and cell wall thickness. At the cell wall level, gradients across the fibre cap were found in the degree of orientation of the microfibrils and in the lignin level and composition. The impact of these structural variations in the local material stiffness distribution is discussed.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0531
PMCID: PMC2603245  PMID: 18595839
palms; gradients; micromechanics; tensile stiffness; cell wall; lignin composition

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