Dendritic cells (DCs) within the CNS are recognized to play an important role in the effector phase and propagation of the immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. However, the mechanisms regulating DC trafficking into the CNS still need to be characterized. In this study, we show by performing intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy of the inflamed spinal cord white-matter microvasculature in SJL mice with EAE that immature, and to a lesser extent, LPS-matured, bone marrow-derived DCs efficiently interact with the CNS endothelium by rolling, capturing, and firm adhesion. Immature but not LPS-matured DCs efficiently migrated across the wall of inflamed parenchymal microvessels into the CNS. Blocking α4 integrins interfered with the adhesion but not the rolling or capturing of immature and LPS-matured DCs to the CNS microvascular endothelium, inhibiting their migration across the vascular wall. Functional absence of β1 integrins but not of β7 integrins or α4β7 integrin similarly reduced the adhesion of immature DCs to the CNS microvascular endothelium, demonstrating that α4β1 but not α4β7 integrin mediates this step of immature DCs interaction with the inflamed blood-brain barrier during EAE. Our study shows that during EAE, especially immature DCs migrate into the CNS, where they may be crucial for the perpetuation of the CNS-targeted autoimmune response. Thus therapeutic targeting of α4 integrins affects DC trafficking into the CNS and may therefore lead to the resolution of the CNS autoimmune inflammation by reducing the number of CNS professional APCs.
This study defines a network of synthetic sick/lethal interactions with a set of query genes in a series of isogenic cancer cell lines. Analysis of differential essentiality reveals general properties in genetic interaction networks derived from studies on model organisms.
This study defined about 200 negative genetic interactions in the isogenic cancer cell line background.Mapping of negative genetic interactions in a systematic fashion in isogenic cancer cell lines has revealed novel functions for several uncharacterized genes.This study demonstrates that differential essentiality profiles derived from isogenic cancer cell lines can be used to classify genetic dependencies in non-isogenic cancer cell lines.
Improved efforts are necessary to define the functional product of cancer mutations currently being revealed through large-scale sequencing efforts. Using genome-scale pooled shRNA screening technology, we mapped negative genetic interactions across a set of isogenic cancer cell lines and confirmed hundreds of these interactions in orthogonal co-culture competition assays to generate a high-confidence genetic interaction network of differentially essential or differential essentiality (DiE) genes. The network uncovered examples of conserved genetic interactions, densely connected functional modules derived from comparative genomics with model systems data, functions for uncharacterized genes in the human genome and targetable vulnerabilities. Finally, we demonstrate a general applicability of DiE gene signatures in determining genetic dependencies of other non-isogenic cancer cell lines. For example, the PTEN−/− DiE genes reveal a signature that can preferentially classify PTEN-dependent genotypes across a series of non-isogenic cell lines derived from the breast, pancreas and ovarian cancers. Our reference network suggests that many cancer vulnerabilities remain to be discovered through systematic derivation of a network of differentially essential genes in an isogenic cancer cell model.
genetic interaction; genome stability; mitotic stress; pooled shRNA screening
Cherubism is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by inflammatory destructive bony lesions resulting in symmetrical deformities of the facial bones. Cherubism is caused by mutations in Sh3bp2, the gene that encodes the adaptor protein 3BP2. Most identified mutations in 3BP2 lie within the peptide sequence RSPPDG. A mouse model of cherubism develops hyperactive bone remodelling osteoclasts and systemic inflammation characterized by expansion of the myelomonocytic lineage. The mechanism by which cherubism mutations alter 3BP2 function has remained obscure. Here we show that Tankyrase, a member of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family, regulates 3BP2 stability through ADP-ribosylation and subsequent ubiquitylation by the E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF146 in osteoclasts. Cherubism mutations uncouple 3BP2 from Tankyrase-mediated protein destruction, which results in its stabilization and subsequent hyperactivation of the SRC, SYK and VAV signalling pathways.
It is now well established that nearly 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents, and the list of human oncogenic pathogens will grow in the future for a variety of cancer types. Whole tumor transcriptome and genome sequencing by next-generation sequencing technologies presents an unparalleled opportunity for pathogen detection and discovery in human tissues but requires development of new genome-wide bioinformatics tools.
Here we present CaPSID (Computational Pathogen Sequence IDentification), a comprehensive bioinformatics platform for identifying, querying and visualizing both exogenous and endogenous pathogen nucleotide sequences in tumor genomes and transcriptomes. CaPSID includes a scalable, high performance database for data storage and a web application that integrates the genome browser JBrowse. CaPSID also provides useful metrics for sequence analysis of pre-aligned BAM files, such as gene and genome coverage, and is optimized to run efficiently on multiprocessor computers with low memory usage.
To demonstrate the usefulness and efficiency of CaPSID, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of both a simulated dataset and transcriptome samples from ovarian cancer. CaPSID correctly identified all of the human and pathogen sequences in the simulated dataset, while in the ovarian dataset CaPSID’s predictions were successfully validated in vitro.
The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (HIPK) family is comprised of four highly related serine/threonine kinases originally identified as co-repressors for various homeodomain-containing transcription factors. The HIPKs have been shown to be involved in growth regulation and apoptosis, with numerous studies highlighting HIPK regulation of the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we have discovered a B cell homeostatic defect in HIPK1-deficient (HIPK1−/−) mice. Lymphopoietic populations within the thymus and bone marrow of HIPK1−/− mice appeared normal based upon FACS analysis; however, the spleen exhibited a reduced number of total B cells with a significant loss of transitional-1 and follicular B cell populations. Interestingly, the marginal zone B cell population was expanded in HIPK1−/− mice, yielding an increased frequency of these cells. HIPK1−/− B cells exhibited impaired cell division in response to B cell receptor cross-linking in vitro based upon thymidine incorporation or CFSE dilution; however, the addition of CD40L rescued HIPK1−/− proliferation to wild-type levels. Despite the expanded MZ B cell population in the HIPK1−/− mice, the T-independent type 2 humoral response was impaired. These data identify HIPK1 as a novel kinase required for optimal B cell function in mice.
A fine balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts maintains bone homeostasis. In patients with cherubism, gain-of-function mutations in 3BP2, which is encoded by SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2), cause cystic lesions with activated osteoclasts that lead to craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the function of wild-type 3BP2 in regulating bone homeostasis. Here we have shown that 3BP2 is required for the normal function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Initial analysis showed that Sh3bp2–/–mice developed osteoporosis as a result of reduced bone formation despite the fact that bone resorption was impaired. We demonstrated using reciprocal bone marrow chimeras, a cell-intrinsic defect of the osteoblast and osteoclast compartments in vivo. Further, Sh3bp2–/– osteoblasts failed to mature and form mineralized nodules in vitro, while Sh3bp2–/– osteoclasts spread poorly and were unable to effectively degrade dentine matrix in vitro. Finally, we showed that 3BP2 was required for Abl activation in osteoblasts and Src activation in osteoclasts, and demonstrated that the in vitro defect of each cell type was restored by the respective expression of activated forms of these kinases. These findings reveal an unanticipated role for the 3BP2 adapter protein in osteoblast function and in coordinating bone homeostatic signals in both osteoclast and osteoblast lineages.
Lfc is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho that demonstrates an unusual ability to associate with microtubules. While several phosphorylated residues have been detected in the Lfc polypeptide, the mechanism(s) by which phosphorylation regulates the exchange activity of Lfc remains unclear. We confirm that Lfc is a phosphorylated protein and demonstrate that 14-3-3 interacts directly and in a phosphorylation-dependent manner with Lfc. We identify AKAP121 as an Lfc-binding protein and show that Lfc is phosphorylated in an AKAP-dependent manner by protein kinase A (PKA). Forskolin treatment induced 14-3-3 binding to Lfc and suppressed the exchange activity of wild-type Lfc on RhoA. Importantly, a mutant of Lfc that is unable to associate with 14-3-3 proteins was resistant to inhibition by forskolin. Tctex-1, a dynein motor light chain, binds to Lfc in a competitive manner with 14-3-3.
One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is hyperplasia and inflammation of the synovial tissue being characterized by in situ occurrence of highly differentiated leukocytes. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) has a crucial role in hematopoiesis, regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Typically, Flt3 is expressed on early myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and is activated by its soluble ligand (Flt3-L). The highly differentiated cellular pattern in the synovium of the RA patients made us hypothesize that Flt3-L, with its ability to induce proliferation and differentiation, could be of importance in induction and/or progression of arthritis.
To investigate occurrence of Flt3-L in RA we have measured its levels in matched serum and synovial fluid samples from 130 patients and 107 controls. To analyse the pro-inflammatory role of Flt3-L, we continuously overexpressed this protein locally in healthy mouse joints using homologous B-cell line transfected with Flt3-L gene. Additionally, recombinant Flt3-L was instillated intra-articularly in combination with peptidoglycans, a Toll Like Receptor 2-ligand with stong arthritogenic properties. Our results show significantly higher levels of Flt3-L in the synovial fluid as compared to serum levels in RA subjects (p = 0.0001). In addition, RA synovial fluid levels of Flt-3-L were significantly higher than these obtained from synovial fluids originating from non-inflammatory joint diseases (p = 0.022). Intra-articular administration of B-cell line transfected with Flt3-L gene resulted in highly erosive arthritis while inoculation of the same B-cell line without hyperexpression of Flt3-L did not induce erosivity and only in a minority of cases caused synovial proliferation! Flt3-ligand potentiated peptidoglycan induced arthritis as compared to mice injected with peptidoglycan alone (p<0.05).
Our findings indicate that Flt3-L is strongly expressed at the site of inflammation in human RA. It exerts both pro-inflammatory and tissue destructive properties once in the joint cavity. Owing to these properties, treatment attempts to neutralize this molecule should be considered in RA.
3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology domain- and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adapter protein that is mutated in the rare human bone disorder cherubism and which has also been implicated in immunoreceptor signaling. However, a function for this protein has yet to be established. Here we show that mice lacking 3BP2 exhibited a perturbation in the peritoneal B1 and splenic marginal-zone B-cell compartments and diminished thymus-independent type 2 antigen response. 3BP2−/− B cells demonstrated a proliferation defect in response to antigen receptor cross-linking and a heightened sensitivity to B-cell receptor-induced death via a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway. We show that 3BP2 binds via its SH2 domain to the CD19 signaling complex and is required for optimum Syk phosphorylation and calcium flux.
Carma1 (also known as caspase recruitment domain [CARD]11, Bimp3) is a CARD-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase family protein that plays an essential role in antigen receptor–induced nuclear factor κB activation. We investigated the role of Carma1 in the assembly of signaling molecules at the immune synapse using a peptide-specific system. We report that Carma1 is essential for peptide-induced interleukin 2 and interferon γ production, but dispensable for proliferation in T cells. Recruitment and distribution of T cell receptor, lymphocyte function associated 1, lipid rafts, and protein kinase C (PKC)θ to central and peripheral immune synapse regions occur normally in Carma1−/− T cells. Carma1 controls entry of IκB kinase (IKK) into lipid raft aggregates and the central region of the immune synapse, as well as activation of IKK downstream of PKC. Our data provide the first genetic evidence on a new class of molecular scaffold that controls entry of defined signaling components, IKK, into the central supramolecular activation cluster at T cell–antigen-presenting cell interfaces without having any apparent effect on the overall organization and formation of immune synapses.
Carma1/CARD11/Bimp3; MAGUK; T cell; IKK; immune synapse
Because survivin-null embryos die at an early embryonic stage, the role of survivin in thymocyte development is unknown. We have investigated the role by deleting the survivin gene only in the T lineage and show here that loss of survivin blocks the transition from CD4− CD8− double negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+ CD8+ double positive cells. Although the pre–T cell receptor signaling pathway is intact in survivin-deficient thymocytes, the cells cannot respond to its signals. In response to proliferative stimuli, cycling survivin-deficient DN cells exhibit cell cycle arrest, a spindle formation defect, and increased cell death. Strikingly, loss of survivin activates the tumor suppressor p53. However, the developmental defects caused by survivin deficiency cannot be rescued by p53 inactivation or introduction of Bcl-2. These lines of evidence indicate that developing thymocytes depend on the cytoprotective function of survivin and that this function is tightly coupled to cell proliferation but independent of p53 and Bcl-2. Thus, survivin plays a critical role in early thymocyte development.
pre–T cell; cell death; development; thymus; mitosis
The SLP-76 family of immune cell-specific adaptors is composed of three distinct members named SLP-76, Blnk, and Clnk. They have been implicated in the signaling pathways coupled to immunoreceptors such as the antigen receptors and Fc receptors. Previous studies using gene-targeted mice and deficient cell lines showed that SLP-76 plays a central role in T-cell development and activation. Moreover, it is essential for normal mast cell and platelet activation. In contrast, Blnk is necessary for B-cell development and activation. While the precise function of Clnk is not known, it was reported that Clnk is selectively expressed in mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and previously activated T-cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Clnk was shown to rescue T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction in an SLP-76-deficient T-cell line, suggesting that, like its relatives, Clnk is involved in the positive regulation of immunoreceptor signaling. Stimulatory effects of Clnk on immunoreceptor signaling were also reported to occur in transfected B-cell and basophil leukemia cell lines. Herein, we attempted to address the physiological role of Clnk in immune cells by the generation of Clnk-deficient mice. The results of our studies demonstrated that Clnk is dispensable for normal differentiation and function of T cells, mast cells, and NK cells. Hence, unlike its relatives, Clnk is not essential for normal immune functions.
Genetic studies have implicated the cytosolic juxtamembrane region of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase as an autoinhibitory regulatory domain. Mutations in the juxtamembrane domain are associated with cancers, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis, and result in constitutive activation of Kit. Here we elucidate the biochemical mechanism of this regulation. A synthetic peptide encompassing the juxtamembrane region demonstrates cooperative thermal denaturation, suggesting that it folds as an autonomous domain. The juxtamembrane peptide directly interacted with the N-terminal ATP-binding lobe of the kinase domain. A mutation in the juxtamembrane region corresponding to an oncogenic form of Kit or a tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the juxtamembrane peptide disrupted the stability of this domain and its interaction with the N-terminal kinase lobe. Kinetic analysis of the Kit kinase harboring oncogenic mutations in the juxtamembrane region displayed faster activation times than the wild-type kinase. Addition of exogenous wild-type juxtamembrane peptide to active forms of Kit inhibited its kinase activity in trans, whereas the mutant peptide and a phosphorylated form of the wild-type peptide were less effective inhibitors. Lastly, expression of the Kit juxtamembrane peptide in cells which harbor an oncogenic form of Kit inhibited cell growth in a Kit-specific manner. Together, these results show the Kit kinase is autoinhibited through an intramolecular interaction with the juxtamembrane domain, and tyrosine phosphorylation and oncogenic mutations relieved the regulatory function of the juxtamembrane domain.
The T cell costimulatory molecule CD28 is important for T cell survival, yet both the signaling pathways downstream of CD28 and the apoptotic pathways they antagonize remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells from CD28-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway. Protein kinase B (PKBα/Akt1) is an important serine/threonine kinase that promotes survival downstream of PI3K signals. To understand how PI3K-mediated signals downstream of CD28 contribute to T cell survival, we examined Fas-mediated apoptosis in T cells expressing an active form of PKBα. Our data demonstrate that T cells expressing active PKB are resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. PKB transgenic T cells show reduced activation of caspase-8, BID, and caspase-3 due to impaired recruitment of procaspase-8 to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Similar alterations are seen in T cells from mice which are haploinsufficient for PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that regulates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and influences PKBα activity. These findings provide a novel link between CD28 and an important apoptosis pathway in vivo, and demonstrate that PI3K/PKB signaling prevents apoptosis by inhibiting DISC assembly.
CD28; PKB/Akt; apoptosis; Fas; caspase-8
The SH2 domain-containing SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase has been shown to negatively regulate a broad spectrum of growth factor- and cytokine-driven mitogenic signaling pathways. Included among these is the cascade of intracellular events evoked by stem cell factor binding to c-Kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor which associates with and is dephosphorylated by SHP-1. Using a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing either tyrosine-phosphorylated segments of the c-Kit cytosolic region or the SH2 domains of SHP-1, we have shown that SHP-1 interacts with c-Kit by binding selectively to the phosphorylated c-Kit juxtamembrane region and that the association of c-Kit with the larger of the two SHP-1 isoforms may be mediated through either the N-terminal or C-terminal SHP-1 SH2 domain. The results of binding assays with mutagenized GST-Kit juxtamembrane fusion proteins and competitive inhibition assays with phosphopeptides encompassing each c-Kit juxtamembrane region identified the tyrosine residue at position 569 as the major site for binding of SHP-1 to c-Kit and suggested that tyrosine 567 contributes to, but is not required for, this interaction. By analysis of Ba/F3 cells retrovirally transduced to express c-Kit receptors, phenylalanine substitution of c-Kit tyrosine residue 569 was shown to be associated with disruption of c-Kit–SHP-1 binding and induction of hyperproliferative responses to stem cell factor. Although phenylalanine substitution of c-Kit tyrosine residue 567 in the Ba/F3–c-Kit cells did not alter SHP-1 binding to c-Kit, the capacity of a second c-Kit-binding tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, to associate with c-Kit was markedly reduced, and the cells again showed hyperproliferative responses to stem cell factor. These data therefore identify SHP-1 binding to tyrosine 569 on c-Kit as an interaction pivotal to SHP-1 inhibitory effects on c-Kit signaling, but they indicate as well that cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatases other than SHP-1 may also negatively regulate the coupling of c-Kit engagement to proliferation.