PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-14 (14)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Bat3 Protects T cell Responses by Repressing Tim-3-Mediated Exhaustion and Death 
Nature medicine  2012;18(9):1394-1400.
T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing-3 (Tim-3) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on exhausted T cells during HIV-1 and HCV infection. By contrast, Tim-3 expression and function are defective in multiple human autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms governing Tim-3 function remain poorly understood. Here we show that HLA-B-associated transcript 3 (Bat3) binds to, and represses the function of Tim-3. Bat3-deficient T cells display elevated expression of exhaustion markers, and knocking down Bat3 in myelin antigen-specific CD4+ T cells dramatically inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis while promoting the expansion of a dysfunctional Tim-3hiIFNγlo CD4+ cell population. Furthermore, exhausted Tim-3+ T cells from murine tumors and HIV-1-infected individuals display substantially reduced Bat3 expression and targeted deletion of Bat3 induces an exhausted phenotype in T cells. These data indicate that Bat3 acts as a molecular safety catch that inhibits Tim-3-dependent cell death/exhaustion, suggesting that Bat3 may represent a viable therapeutic target in autoimmune disorders, chronic infections and cancers.
doi:10.1038/nm.2871
PMCID: PMC3491118  PMID: 22863785
2.  Fission yeast Ags1 confers the essential septum strength needed for safe gradual cell abscission 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2012;198(4):637-656.
The α(1-3)glucan synthase Ags1 is essential for both secondary septum formation and the primary septum structural strength needed to counter cell turgor pressure during cell separation.
Fungal cytokinesis requires the assembly of a dividing septum wall. In yeast, the septum has to be selectively digested during the critical cell separation process. Fission yeast cell wall α(1-3)glucan is essential, but nothing is known about its localization and function in the cell wall or about cooperation between the α- and β(1-3)glucan synthases Ags1 and Bgs for cell wall and septum assembly. Here, we generate a physiological Ags1-GFP variant and demonstrate a tight colocalization with Bgs1, suggesting a cooperation in the important early steps of septum construction. Moreover, we define the essential functions of α(1-3)glucan in septation and cell separation. We show that α(1-3)glucan is essential for both secondary septum formation and the primary septum structural strength needed to support the physical forces of the cell turgor pressure during cell separation. Consequently, the absence of Ags1 and therefore α(1-3)glucan generates a special and unique side-explosive cell separation due to an instantaneous primary septum tearing caused by the turgor pressure.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201202015
PMCID: PMC3514033  PMID: 22891259
3.  Coordinate activation of inflammatory gene networks, alveolar destruction and neonatal death in AKNA deficient mice 
Cell Research  2011;21(11):1564-1577.
Gene expression can be regulated by chromatin modifiers, transcription factors and proteins that modulate DNA architecture. Among the latter, AT-hook transcription factors have emerged as multifaceted regulators that can activate or repress broad A/T-rich gene networks. Thus, alterations of AT-hook genes could affect the transcription of multiple genes causing global cell dysfunction. Here we report that targeted deletions of mouse AKNA, a hypothetical AT-hook-like transcription factor, sensitize mice to pathogen-induced inflammation and cause sudden neonatal death. Compared with wild-type littermates, AKNA KO mice appeared weak, failed to thrive and most died by postnatal day 10. Systemic inflammation, predominantly in the lungs, was accompanied by enhanced leukocyte infiltration and alveolar destruction. Cytologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses revealed CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils as major tissue infiltrators, neutrophilic granule protein, cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide and S100A8/9 as neutrophil-specific chemoattracting factors, interleukin-1β and interferon-γ as proinflammatory mediators, and matrix metalloprotease 9 as a plausible proteolytic trigger of alveolar damage. AKNA KO bone marrow transplants in wild-type recipients reproduced the severe pathogen-induced reactions and confirmed the involvement of neutrophils in acute inflammation. Moreover, promoter/reporter experiments showed that AKNA could act as a gene repressor. Our results support the concept of coordinated pathway-specific gene regulation functions modulating the intensity of inflammatory responses, reveal neutrophils as prominent mediators of acute inflammation and suggest mechanisms underlying the triggering of acute and potentially fatal immune reactions.
doi:10.1038/cr.2011.84
PMCID: PMC3365639  PMID: 21606955
in vivo; mouse genetics; gene network regulation; inflammation; pathogens; innate reactions
4.  Survivin Is Required for Beta-Cell Mass Expansion in the Pancreatic Duct-Ligated Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41976.
Aims/Hypothesis
Pancreatic beta-cell mass expands through adulthood under certain conditions. The related molecular mechanisms are elusive. This study was designed to determine whether surviving (also known as Birc5), which is transiently expressed perinatally in islets, was required for beta-cell mass expansion in the pancreatic duct-ligated mouse model.
Methods
Mice with beta cell–specific deletion of survivin (RIPCre+survivinfl/fl) and their control littermates (RIPCre+survivin+/+) were examined to determine the essential role of survivin in partial pancreatic duct ligation (PDL)-induced beta-cell proliferation, function and survival.
Results
Resurgence of survivin expression occurred as early as day 3 post-PDL. By day 7 post-PDL, control mice showed significant expansion of beta-cell mass and increase in beta-cell proliferation and islet number in the ligated tail of the pancreas. However, mice deficient in beta-cell survivin showed a defect in beta-cell mass expansion and proliferation with a marked attenuation in the increase of total islet number, largely due to an impairment in the increase in number of larger islets while sparing the increase in number of small islets in the ligated tail of pancreas, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. Importantly however, beta cell neogenesis and apoptosis were not affected by the absence of survivin in beta cells after PDL.
Conclusions/Interpretation
Our results indicate that survivin is essential for beta-cell mass expansion after PDL. Survivin appears to exhibit a preferential requirement for proliferation of preexisting beta cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041976
PMCID: PMC3411579  PMID: 22870272
5.  Histone Demethylase JMJD2B Functions as a Co-Factor of Estrogen Receptor in Breast Cancer Proliferation and Mammary Gland Development 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17830.
Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B) constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2) induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017830
PMCID: PMC3060874  PMID: 21445275
6.  Bat3 deficiency accelerates the degradation of Hsp70-2/HspA2 during spermatogenesis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2008;182(3):449-458.
Meiosis is critical for sexual reproduction. During meiosis, the dynamics and integrity of homologous chromosomes are tightly regulated. The genetic and molecular mechanisms governing these processes in vivo, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Bat3/Scythe is essential for survival and maintenance of male germ cells (GCs). Targeted inactivation of Bat3/Scythe in mice results in widespread apoptosis of meiotic male GCs and complete male infertility. Pachytene spermatocytes exhibit abnormal assembly and disassembly of synaptonemal complexes as demonstrated by abnormal SYCP3 staining and sustained γ-H2AX and Rad51/replication protein A foci. Further investigation revealed that a testis-specific protein, Hsp70-2/HspA2, is absent in Bat3-deficient male GCs at any stage of spermatogenesis; however, Hsp70-2 transcripts are expressed at normal levels. We found that Bat3 deficiency induces polyubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of Hsp70-2. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation restores Hsp70-2 protein levels. Our findings identify Bat3 as a critical regulator of Hsp70-2 in spermatogenesis, thereby providing a possible molecular target in idiopathic male infertility.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200802113
PMCID: PMC2500131  PMID: 18678708
7.  XIAP Activity Dictates Apaf-1 Dependency for Caspase 9 Activation▿ † 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(16):5673-5685.
The current model for the intrinsic apoptotic pathway holds that mitochondrial activation of caspases in response to cytotoxic drugs requires both Apaf-1-induced dimerization of procaspase 9 and Smac/Diablo-mediated sequestration of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Here, we showed that either pathway can independently promote caspase 9 activation in response to apoptotic stimuli. In drug-treated Apaf-1−/− primary myoblasts, but not fibroblasts, Smac/Diablo accumulates in the cytosol and sequesters X-linked IAP (XIAP), which is expressed at lower levels in myoblasts than in fibroblasts. Consequently, caspase 9 activation proceeds in Apaf-1−/− myoblasts; concomitant ablation of Apaf-1 and Smac is required to prevent caspase 9 activation and the onset of apoptosis. Conversely, in stimulated Apaf-1−/− fibroblasts, the ratio of XIAP to Smac/Diablo is high compared to that for myoblasts and procaspase 9 is not activated. Suppressing XIAP with exogenous Smac/Diablo or a pharmacological inhibitor can still induce caspase 9 in drug-treated Apaf-1-null fibroblasts. Thus, caspase 9 activation in response to intrinsic apoptotic stimuli can be uncoupled from Apaf-1 in vivo by XIAP antagonists.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00188-07
PMCID: PMC1952122  PMID: 17562856
8.  Generation and Characterization of B7-H4/B7S1/B7x-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(17):6403-6411.
Members of the B7 family of cosignaling molecules regulate T-cell proliferation and effector functions by engaging cognate receptors on T cells. In vitro and in vivo blockade experiments indicated that B7-H4 (also known as B7S1 or B7x) inhibits proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of T cells. B7-H4 binds to an unknown receptor(s) that is expressed on activated T cells. However, whether B7-H4 plays nonredundant immune regulatory roles in vivo has not been tested. We generated B7-H4-deficient mice to investigate the roles of B7-H4 during various immune reactions. Consistent with its inhibitory function in vitro, B7-H4-deficient mice mounted mildly augmented T-helper 1 (Th1) responses and displayed slightly lowered parasite burdens upon Leishmania major infection compared to the wild-type mice. However, the lack of B7-H4 did not affect hypersensitive inflammatory responses in the airway or skin that are induced by either Th1 or Th2 cells. Likewise, B7-H4-deficient mice developed normal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reactions against viral infection. Thus, B7-H4 plays a negative regulatory role in vivo but the impact of B7-H4 deficiency is minimal. These results suggest that B7-H4 is one of multiple negative cosignaling molecules that collectively provide a fine-tuning mechanism for T-cell-mediated immune responses.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00755-06
PMCID: PMC1592821  PMID: 16914726
9.  Sgk3 links growth factor signaling to maintenance of progenitor cells in the hair follicle 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;170(4):559-570.
Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor signaling influences proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Hair follicles undergo cycles of proliferation and apoptotic regression, offering an excellent paradigm to study how this transition is governed. Several factors are known to affect the hair cycle, but it remains a mystery whether Akt kinases that are downstream of growth factor signaling impact this equilibrium. We now show that an Akt relative, Sgk (serum and glucocorticoid responsive kinase) 3, plays a critical role in this process. Hair follicles of mice lacking Sgk3 fail to mature normally. Proliferation is reduced, apoptosis is increased, and follicles prematurely regress. Maintenance of the pool of transiently amplifying matrix cells is impaired. Intriguingly, loss of Sgk3 resembles the gain of function of epidermal growth factor signaling. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, we find that Sgk3 functions by negatively regulating phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling. Our results reveal a novel and important function for Sgk3 in controlling life and death in the hair follicle.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200504131
PMCID: PMC1283094  PMID: 16103225
10.  Sgk3 links growth factor signaling to maintenance of progenitor cells in the hair follicle 
The Journal of cell biology  2005;170(4):559-570.
Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor signaling influences proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Hair follicles undergo cycles of proliferation and apoptotic regression, offering an excellent paradigm to study how this transition is governed. Several factors are known to affect the hair cycle, but it remains a mystery whether Akt kinases that are downstream of growth factor signaling impact this equilibrium. We now show that an Akt relative, Sgk (serum and glucocorticoid responsive kinase) 3, plays a critical role in this process. Hair follicles of mice lacking Sgk3 fail to mature normally. Proliferation is reduced, apoptosis is increased, and follicles prematurely regress. Maintenance of the pool of transiently amplifying matrix cells is impaired. Intriguingly, loss of Sgk3 resembles the gain of function of epidermal growth factor signaling. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, we find that Sgk3 functions by negatively regulating phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling. Our results reveal a novel and important function for Sgk3 in controlling life and death in the hair follicle.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200504131
PMCID: PMC1283094  PMID: 16103225
DP, dermal papilla; ERK, extracellular regulated kinase; ES, embryonic stem; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IRS, inner root sheath; KO, knockout; MEK, MAPK/ERK kinase; ORS, outer root sheath; P, postnatal day; PGK, phosphoglycerate kinase; Phox, phagocyte oxidase; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase; Pten, phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10; RIPA, radioimmunoprecipitation assay; Sgk, serum and glucocorticoid responsive kinase; Tcf, T-cell factor; TOPgal, Tcf optimal promoter driving β-galactosidase; WT, wild type
11.  Neuroprotective Role of the Reaper-Related Serine Protease HtrA2/Omi Revealed by Targeted Deletion in Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2004;24(22):9848-9862.
The serine protease HtrA2/Omi is released from the mitochondrial intermembrane space following apoptotic stimuli. Once in the cytosol, HtrA2/Omi has been implicated in promoting cell death by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) via its amino-terminal Reaper-related motif, thus inducing caspase activity, and also in mediating caspase-independent death through its own protease activity. We report here the phenotype of mice entirely lacking expression of HtrA2/Omi due to targeted deletion of its gene, Prss25. These animals, or cells derived from them, show no evidence of reduced rates of cell death but on the contrary suffer loss of a population of neurons in the striatum, resulting in a neurodegenerative disorder with a parkinsonian phenotype that leads to death of the mice around 30 days after birth. The phenotype of these mice suggests that it is the protease function of this protein and not its IAP binding motif that is critical. This conclusion is reinforced by the finding that simultaneous deletion of the other major IAP binding protein, Smac/DIABLO, does not obviously alter the phenotype of HtrA2/Omi knockout mice or cells derived from them. Mammalian HtrA2/Omi is therefore likely to function in vivo in a manner similar to that of its bacterial homologues DegS and DegP, which are involved in protection against cell stress, and not like the proapoptotic Reaper family proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.
doi:10.1128/MCB.24.22.9848-9862.2004
PMCID: PMC525490  PMID: 15509788
12.  Survivin Loss in Thymocytes Triggers p53-mediated Growth Arrest and p53-independent Cell Death 
Because survivin-null embryos die at an early embryonic stage, the role of survivin in thymocyte development is unknown. We have investigated the role by deleting the survivin gene only in the T lineage and show here that loss of survivin blocks the transition from CD4− CD8− double negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+ CD8+ double positive cells. Although the pre–T cell receptor signaling pathway is intact in survivin-deficient thymocytes, the cells cannot respond to its signals. In response to proliferative stimuli, cycling survivin-deficient DN cells exhibit cell cycle arrest, a spindle formation defect, and increased cell death. Strikingly, loss of survivin activates the tumor suppressor p53. However, the developmental defects caused by survivin deficiency cannot be rescued by p53 inactivation or introduction of Bcl-2. These lines of evidence indicate that developing thymocytes depend on the cytoprotective function of survivin and that this function is tightly coupled to cell proliferation but independent of p53 and Bcl-2. Thus, survivin plays a critical role in early thymocyte development.
doi:10.1084/jem.20032092
PMCID: PMC2211792  PMID: 14757745
pre–T cell; cell death; development; thymus; mitosis
13.  Chk2 Is a Tumor Suppressor That Regulates Apoptosis in both an Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-Dependent and an ATM-Independent Manner 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(18):6521-6532.
In response to ionizing radiation (IR), the tumor suppressor p53 is stabilized and promotes either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Chk2 activated by IR contributes to this stabilization, possibly by direct phosphorylation. Like p53, Chk2 is mutated in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Since the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is required for IR-induced activation of Chk2, it has been assumed that ATM and Chk2 act in a linear pathway leading to p53 activation. To clarify the role of Chk2 in tumorigenesis, we generated gene-targeted Chk2-deficient mice. Unlike ATM−/− and p53−/− mice, Chk2−/− mice do not spontaneously develop tumors, although Chk2 does suppress 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced skin tumors. Tissues from Chk2−/− mice, including those from the thymus, central nervous system, fibroblasts, epidermis, and hair follicles, show significant defects in IR-induced apoptosis or impaired G1/S arrest. Quantitative comparison of the G1/S checkpoint, apoptosis, and expression of p53 proteins in Chk2−/− versus ATM−/− thymocytes suggested that Chk2 can regulate p53-dependent apoptosis in an ATM-independent manner. IR-induced apoptosis was restored in Chk2−/− thymocytes by reintroduction of the wild-type Chk2 gene but not by a Chk2 gene in which the sites phosphorylated by ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and rad3+ related (ATR) were mutated to alanine. ATR may thus selectively contribute to p53-mediated apoptosis. These data indicate that distinct pathways regulate the activation of p53 leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.18.6521-6532.2002
PMCID: PMC135625  PMID: 12192050
14.  Generation and Characterization of Smac/DIABLO-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(10):3509-3517.
The mitochondrial proapoptotic protein Smac/DIABLO has recently been shown to potentiate apoptosis by counteracting the antiapoptotic function of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In response to apoptotic stimuli, Smac is released into the cytosol and promotes caspase activation by binding to IAPs, thereby blocking their function. These observations have suggested that Smac is a new regulator of apoptosis. To better understand the physiological function of Smac in normal cells, we generated Smac-deficient (Smac−/−) mice by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Smac−/− mice were viable, grew, and matured normally and did not show any histological abnormalities. Although the cleavage in vitro of procaspase-3 was inhibited in lysates of Smac−/− cells, all types of cultured Smac−/− cells tested responded normally to all apoptotic stimuli applied. There were also no detectable differences in Fas-mediated apoptosis in the liver in vivo. Our data strongly suggest the existence of a redundant molecule or molecules capable of compensating for a loss of Smac function.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.10.3509-3517.2002
PMCID: PMC133802  PMID: 11971981

Results 1-14 (14)