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1.  BRCA1 interacts with Nrf2 to regulate antioxidant signaling and cell survival 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2013;210(8):1529-1544.
BRCA1 deficiency results in impaired Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses followed by cell death, with estradiol rescuing the effect by inducing Nrf2 stabilization.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cancer development and treatment. Recent data implicate the tumor suppressor BRCA1 in regulating oxidative stress, but the molecular mechanism and the impact in BRCA1-associated tumorigenesis remain unclear. Here, we show that BRCA1 regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant signaling by physically interacting with Nrf2 and promoting its stability and activation. BRCA1-deficient mouse primary mammary epithelial cells show low expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes and accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that impair survival in vivo. Increased Nrf2 activation rescues survival and ROS levels in BRCA1-null cells. Interestingly, 53BP1 inactivation, which has been shown to alleviate several defects associated with BRCA1 loss, rescues survival of BRCA1-null cells without restoring ROS levels. We demonstrate that estrogen treatment partially restores Nrf2 levels in the absence of BRCA1. Our data suggest that Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response plays a crucial role in controlling survival downstream of BRCA1 loss. The ability of estrogen to induce Nrf2 posits an involvement of an estrogen-Nrf2 connection in BRCA1 tumor suppression. Lastly, BRCA1-mutated tumors retain a defective antioxidant response that increases the sensitivity to oxidative stress. In conclusion, the role of BRCA1 in regulating Nrf2 activity suggests important implications for both the etiology and treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.
doi:10.1084/jem.20121337
PMCID: PMC3727320  PMID: 23857982
2.  The CD225 Domain of IFITM3 Is Required for both IFITM Protein Association and Inhibition of Influenza A Virus and Dengue Virus Replication 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(14):7837-7852.
The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) gene is an interferon-stimulated gene that inhibits the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses in vitro and in vivo. IFITM3 is a member of a large protein superfamily, whose members share a functionally undefined area of high amino acid conservation, the CD225 domain. We performed mutational analyses of IFITM3 and identified multiple residues within the CD225 domain, consisting of the first intramembrane domain (intramembrane domain 1 [IM1]) and a conserved intracellular loop (CIL), that are required for restriction of both influenza A virus (IAV) and dengue virus (DENV) infection in vitro. Two phenylalanines within IM1 (F75 and F78) also mediate a physical association between IFITM proteins, and the loss of this interaction decreases IFITM3-mediated restriction. By extension, similar IM1-mediated associations may contribute to the functions of additional members of the CD225 domain family. IFITM3's distal N-terminal domain is also needed for full antiviral activity, including a tyrosine (Y20), whose alteration results in mislocalization of a portion of IFITM3 to the cell periphery and surface. Comparative analyses demonstrate that similar molecular determinants are needed for IFITM3's restriction of both IAV and DENV. However, a portion of the CIL including Y99 and R87 is preferentially needed for inhibition of the orthomyxovirus. Several IFITM3 proteins engineered with rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrated reduced expression or mislocalization, and these events were associated with enhanced viral replication in vitro, suggesting that possessing such alleles may impact an individual's risk for viral infection. On the basis of this and other data, we propose a model for IFITM3-mediated restriction.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00481-13
PMCID: PMC3700195  PMID: 23658454
3.  A role for PVRL4-driven cell–cell interactions in tumorigenesis 
eLife  2013;2:e00358.
During all stages of tumor progression, cancer cells are subjected to inappropriate extracellular matrix environments and must undergo adaptive changes in order to evade growth constraints associated with the loss of matrix attachment. A gain of function screen for genes that enable proliferation independently of matrix anchorage identified a cell adhesion molecule PVRL4 (poliovirus-receptor-like 4), also known as Nectin-4. PVRL4 promotes anchorage-independence by driving cell-to-cell attachment and matrix-independent integrin β4/SHP-2/c-Src activation. Solid tumors frequently have copy number gains of the PVRL4 locus and some have focal amplifications. We demonstrate that the transformation of breast cancer cells is dependent on PVRL4. Furthermore, growth of orthotopically implanted tumors in vivo is inhibited by blocking PVRL4-driven cell-to-cell attachment with monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating a novel strategy for targeted therapy of cancer.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00358.001
eLife digest
Epithelial tissue is one of the four major types of tissue found in animals, and is the only type of tissue that is able to form and maintain layers of cells that are just one cell thick. These layers provide inner linings to various cavities and hollow organs throughout the body—including the lungs and glandular organs such as mammary glands. A single-cell layer of epithelium is separated from the tissues beneath it by a supporting substance called the extracellular matrix. The individual cells within a single-cell layer are physically attached to the matrix, and when displaced from it, they promptly undergo programmed cell death. This mechanism preserves the single-cell layer pattern throughout the body and prevents epithelial cells from growing in inappropriate locations.
It is estimated that up to 90% of cancers in humans originate in epithelial tissue, and the cells within such tumors are known to survive and divide even when they are no longer attached to the extracellular matrix. Understanding how cancerous cells gain this ability may lead to new approaches to stopping tumor cells from dividing and colonizing tissues around the body.
To address this problem, Pavlova et al. explored which genes enable epithelial cells from the human mammary gland to grow without being attached to the extracellular matrix. They found that the gene that codes for a protein called poliovirus receptor-like 4 (PVRL4) allows attachment-free cell growth and also makes cells cluster together once detached from the matrix.
Normally, the PVRL4 gene is not active in breast epithelial cells, but its activity is detected in many breast, lung, and ovarian tumors. Moreover, cancerous cells tend to cluster together when they are detached from the extracellular matrix. This behavior is particularly evident in the cells that divide aggressively to form tumors that subsequently migrate and colonize other tissues around the body. When Pavlova et al. used genetic techniques to silence PVRL4 in cells from breast tumors, they found that it reduced the formation of clusters by the cancer cells and also reduced their ability to grow in the absence of attachment.
Pavlova et al. also showed that interactions between the PVRL4 in one cell and a related protein called PVRL1 in a neighboring cell were responsible for holding the cells together in clusters. Moreover, PVRL4 triggers a form of signaling between the cells called integrin β4 signaling that allows them to survive without being anchored to the extracellular matrix.
Finally, Pavlova et al. found that injecting anti-PVRL4 antibodies (mouse proteins that attach to PVRL4 and prevent the formation of clusters) slows down the growth of breast tumors in mice. These findings suggest that inhibiting PVRL4 action with antibodies can be used as a new approach to the treatment of breast, lung, and ovarian cancers in humans.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00358.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00358
PMCID: PMC3641523  PMID: 23682311
anchorage-independence; transformation; genetic screen; Human; Mouse
4.  Fas Receptor Expression in Germinal-Center B Cells Is Essential for T and B Lymphocyte Homeostasis 
Immunity  2008;29(4):615-627.
SUMMARY
Fas is highly expressed in activated and germinal center (GC) B cells but can potentially be inactivated by misguided somatic hypermutation. We employed conditional Fas-deficient mice to investigate the physiological functions of Fas in various B cell subsets. B cell-specific Fas-deficient mice developed fatal lymphoproliferation due to activation of B cells and T cells. Ablation of Fas specifically in GC B cells reproduced the phenotype, indicating that the lymphoproliferation initiates in the GC environment. B cell-specific Fas-deficient mice also showed an accumulation of IgG1+ memory B cells expressing high amounts of CD80 and the expansion of CD28-expressing CD4+ Th cells. Blocking T cell-B cell interaction and GC formation completely prevented the fatal lymphoproliferation. Thus, Fas-mediated selection of GC B cells and the resulting memory B cell compartment is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of both T and B lymphocytes.
doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.07.016
PMCID: PMC3470429  PMID: 18835195
5.  BRCA1 as tumor suppressor: lord without its RING? 
BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor with critical roles in the maintenance of genomic stability. It encodes a large protein with an amino-terminal RING domain that possesses ubiquitin-ligase activity. Given the occurrence of numerous cancer-causing mutations within its RING domain, investigators have long suspected that BRCA1's ubiquitin ligase is important for its tumor suppression and DNA repair activities. Using genetically engineered mouse models, two recent studies shed light on this age-old hypothesis.
doi:10.1186/bcr3118
PMCID: PMC3446363  PMID: 22494569
6.  The E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule acts through the ATM–p53 axis to maintain B lymphocyte homeostasis 
Genetic manipulation reveals that Mule is vital for B cell development, proliferation, and homeostasis as a result of its ability to regulate p53 and ATM.
Cellular homeostasis is controlled by pathways that balance cell death with survival. Mcl-1 ubiquitin ligase E3 (Mule) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the proapoptotic molecule p53 for polyubiquitination and degradation. To elucidate the role of Mule in B lymphocyte homeostasis, B cell–specific Mule knockout (BMKO) mice were generated using the Cre–LoxP recombination system. Analysis of BMKO mice showed that Mule was essential for B cell development, proliferation, homeostasis, and humoral immune responses. p53 transactivation was increased by two- to fourfold in Mule-deficient B cells at steady state. Genetic ablation of p53 in BMKO mice restored B cell development, proliferation, and homeostasis. p53 protein was increased in resting Mule-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Loss of Mule in both MEFs and B cells at steady state resulted in increased levels of phospho–ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM substrate p53. Under genotoxic stress, BMKO B cells were resistant to apoptosis, and control MEFs exhibited evidence of a physical interaction between Mule and phospho-ATM. Phospho-ATM, phospho-p53, and Brca1 levels were reduced in Mule-deficient B cells and MEFs subjected to genotoxic stress. Thus, Mule regulates the ATM–p53 axis to maintain B cell homeostasis under both steady-state and stress conditions.
doi:10.1084/jem.20111363
PMCID: PMC3260869  PMID: 22213803
7.  Global Identification of Modular Cullin-Ring Ligase Substrates 
Cell  2011;147(2):459-474.
Summary
Cullin Ring Ligases (CRLs) represent the largest E3 ubiquitin ligase family in eukaryotes and the identification of their substrates is critical to understanding regulation of the proteome. Using genetic and pharmacologic Cullin inactivation coupled with genetic (GPS) and proteomic (QUAINT) assays, we have identified hundreds of proteins whose stabilities or ubiquitylation status are regulated by CRLs. Together, these approaches yielded many known CRL substrates as well as a multitude of previously unknown putative substrates. One substrate, NUSAP1, we demonstrate is an SCFCyclin F substrate during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is also degraded in response to DNA damage. This collection of regulated substrates is highly enriched for nodes in protein interaction networks, representing critical connections between regulatory pathways. This demonstrates the broad role of CRL ubiquitylation in all aspects of cellular biology, and provides a set of proteins likely to be key indicators of cellular physiology.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.09.019
PMCID: PMC3226719  PMID: 21963094
8.  Substrate specificity analysis of protein kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 by peptide library and proteome array screening 
BMC Biochemistry  2005;6:22.
Background
The mitotic exit network (MEN) is a group of proteins that form a signaling cascade that is essential for cells to exit mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MEN has also been implicated in playing a role in cytokinesis. Two components of this signaling pathway are the protein kinase Dbf2 and its binding partner essential for its kinase activity, Mob1. The components of MEN that act upstream of Dbf2-Mob1 have been characterized, but physiological substrates for Dbf2-Mob1 have yet to be identified.
Results
Using a combination of peptide library selection, phosphorylation of opitmal peptide variants, and screening of a phosphosite array, we found that Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated serine over threonine and required an arginine three residues upstream of the phosphorylated serine in its substrate. This requirement for arginine in peptide substrates could not be substituted with the similarly charged lysine. This specificity determined for peptide substrates was also evident in many of the proteins phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in a proteome chip analysis.
Conclusion
We have determined by peptide library selection and phosphosite array screening that the protein kinase Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated substrates that contain an RXXS motif. A subsequent proteome microarray screen revealed proteins that can be phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in vitro. These proteins are enriched for RXXS motifs, and may include substrates that mediate the function of Dbf2-Mob1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. The relatively low degree of sequence restriction at the site of phosphorylation suggests that Dbf2 achieves specificity by docking its substrates at a site that is distinct from the phosphorylation site
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-6-22
PMCID: PMC1277818  PMID: 16242037
9.  Survivin Loss in Thymocytes Triggers p53-mediated Growth Arrest and p53-independent Cell Death 
Because survivin-null embryos die at an early embryonic stage, the role of survivin in thymocyte development is unknown. We have investigated the role by deleting the survivin gene only in the T lineage and show here that loss of survivin blocks the transition from CD4− CD8− double negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+ CD8+ double positive cells. Although the pre–T cell receptor signaling pathway is intact in survivin-deficient thymocytes, the cells cannot respond to its signals. In response to proliferative stimuli, cycling survivin-deficient DN cells exhibit cell cycle arrest, a spindle formation defect, and increased cell death. Strikingly, loss of survivin activates the tumor suppressor p53. However, the developmental defects caused by survivin deficiency cannot be rescued by p53 inactivation or introduction of Bcl-2. These lines of evidence indicate that developing thymocytes depend on the cytoprotective function of survivin and that this function is tightly coupled to cell proliferation but independent of p53 and Bcl-2. Thus, survivin plays a critical role in early thymocyte development.
doi:10.1084/jem.20032092
PMCID: PMC2211792  PMID: 14757745
pre–T cell; cell death; development; thymus; mitosis
10.  Chk2 Is a Tumor Suppressor That Regulates Apoptosis in both an Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-Dependent and an ATM-Independent Manner 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(18):6521-6532.
In response to ionizing radiation (IR), the tumor suppressor p53 is stabilized and promotes either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Chk2 activated by IR contributes to this stabilization, possibly by direct phosphorylation. Like p53, Chk2 is mutated in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Since the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is required for IR-induced activation of Chk2, it has been assumed that ATM and Chk2 act in a linear pathway leading to p53 activation. To clarify the role of Chk2 in tumorigenesis, we generated gene-targeted Chk2-deficient mice. Unlike ATM−/− and p53−/− mice, Chk2−/− mice do not spontaneously develop tumors, although Chk2 does suppress 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced skin tumors. Tissues from Chk2−/− mice, including those from the thymus, central nervous system, fibroblasts, epidermis, and hair follicles, show significant defects in IR-induced apoptosis or impaired G1/S arrest. Quantitative comparison of the G1/S checkpoint, apoptosis, and expression of p53 proteins in Chk2−/− versus ATM−/− thymocytes suggested that Chk2 can regulate p53-dependent apoptosis in an ATM-independent manner. IR-induced apoptosis was restored in Chk2−/− thymocytes by reintroduction of the wild-type Chk2 gene but not by a Chk2 gene in which the sites phosphorylated by ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and rad3+ related (ATR) were mutated to alanine. ATR may thus selectively contribute to p53-mediated apoptosis. These data indicate that distinct pathways regulate the activation of p53 leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.18.6521-6532.2002
PMCID: PMC135625  PMID: 12192050
11.  Generation and Characterization of Smac/DIABLO-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(10):3509-3517.
The mitochondrial proapoptotic protein Smac/DIABLO has recently been shown to potentiate apoptosis by counteracting the antiapoptotic function of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In response to apoptotic stimuli, Smac is released into the cytosol and promotes caspase activation by binding to IAPs, thereby blocking their function. These observations have suggested that Smac is a new regulator of apoptosis. To better understand the physiological function of Smac in normal cells, we generated Smac-deficient (Smac−/−) mice by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Smac−/− mice were viable, grew, and matured normally and did not show any histological abnormalities. Although the cleavage in vitro of procaspase-3 was inhibited in lysates of Smac−/− cells, all types of cultured Smac−/− cells tested responded normally to all apoptotic stimuli applied. There were also no detectable differences in Fas-mediated apoptosis in the liver in vivo. Our data strongly suggest the existence of a redundant molecule or molecules capable of compensating for a loss of Smac function.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.10.3509-3517.2002
PMCID: PMC133802  PMID: 11971981
12.  Interleukin 13 Is Secreted by and Stimulates the Growth of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg Cells  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1999;189(12):1939-1946.
Gene expression patterns can provide vital clues to the pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. We investigated the expression of 950 genes in Hodgkin's disease (HD) by analyzing differential mRNA expression using microarrays. In two independent microarray experiments, the HD-derived cell lines L428 and KMH2 were compared with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized lymphoblastoid B cell line, LCL-GK. Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5 were found to be highly expressed in the HD-derived cell lines. Examination of IL-13 and IL-5 expression by Northern blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed these results and revealed the expression of IL-13 in a third HD-derived cell line, HDLM2. Control LCL and EBV-negative non-Hodgkin lymphoma–derived cell lines did not express IL-13. In situ hybridization of lymph node tissue from HD patients showed that elevated levels of IL-13 were specifically expressed by Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) tumor cells. Treatment of a HD-derived cell line with a neutralizing antibody to IL-13 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of H/RS cell proliferation. These data suggest that H/RS cells produce IL-13 and that IL-13 plays an important role in the stimulation of H/RS cell growth, possibly by an autocrine mechanism. Modulation of the IL-13 signaling pathway may be a logical objective for future therapeutic strategies.
PMCID: PMC2192965  PMID: 10377189
lymphoma; cytokines; cDNA microarray; gene expression; proliferation

Results 1-12 (12)