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1.  Cardioprotective Effect of Fimasartan, a New Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, in a Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), was evaluated in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty swine were randomized to group 1 (sham, n=10), group 2 (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] or ARB, n=10), group 3 (perindopril 2 mg daily, n=10), group 4 (valsartan 40 mg daily, n=10), or group 5 (fimasartan 30 mg daily, n=10). Acute MI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 50 min. Echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was done at 6 weeks for visualization of cardiac sympathetic activity. Left ventricular function and volumes at 4 weeks were similar between the 5 groups. No difference was observed in groups 2 to 5 in SPECT perfusion defect, matched and mismatched segments between SPECT and PET at 1 week and 4 weeks. MIBG scan showed similar uptake between the 5 groups. Pathologic analysis showed similar infarct size in groups 2 to 5. Infarct size reduction was not observed with use of fimasartan as well as other ACEI and ARB in a porcine model of acute MI.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.1.34
PMCID: PMC4278025  PMID: 25552881
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; Angiotensin Receptor Blockers; Myocardial Infarction
2.  Effects of Age on Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure Variables in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Untreated Hypertension 
Korean Circulation Journal  2015;45(1):44-50.
Background and Objectives
To investigate the impact of age on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) variables in newly diagnosed untreated hypertension (HT).
Subjects and Methods
A total of 144 patients with newly diagnosed untreated HT were divided into two groups: young group (age ≤50 years, n=71), and old group (age >50 years, n=73). BP variables were measured on office or 24 hours ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Parameters of arterial stiffness were measured on pulse wave velocity (PWV). Pulse wave analysis (PWA) was compared.
Results
Although office BP and pulse pressure (PP) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the young group than in the old group, BP and PP on ABPM were not significantly different. Central systolic BP and PP, augmentation pressure, augmentation index on PWA, and PWV were significantly higher or faster in the old group compared to that in the young group. Age showed significant positive correlation with both PWV and PWA variables in the young group with HT. However, age only showed significant positive correlation with PWV in the old group with HT. In the young group with HT, PWA variable showed better correlation with age than PWV.
Conclusion
Considering BP levels on ABPM, office BP is prone to be overestimated in young patients with HT. Parameters of arterial stiffness measured by PWV and PWA were more affected by age rather than by BP level in patients with HT. Therefore, PWA variable might be a more sensitive marker of arterial stiffness in young patients with HT. However, PWV might be a better marker for old patients with HT.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.1.44
PMCID: PMC4310979  PMID: 25653703
Hypertension; Vascular stiffness; Aging
3.  Rates of Change to a Positive Result in Subsequent Screening Mammography in Korean Women: A Retrospective Observational Study 
Objectives:
This retrospective cohort study aimed at calculating some parameters of changes in the findings of the subsequent screening mammography (SSM) in female Korean volunteers.
Methods:
The study included screenees aged 30 to 79 years who underwent SSM voluntarily after testing negative in the baseline screenings performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A change to a positive result was defined as category 4 or 5 by using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The proportion of results that had changed to positive (CP, %) was calculated by dividing the number of cases with results that were positive in the SSM by the total number of study participants. The rate of results that had changed to positive (CR, cases per 100 000 screenee-months) was calculated by dividing the number of cases with results that were positive in the SSM by the total number of months of the follow-up period.
Results:
The overall CP and CR in all age groups (n=77 908) were 2.26% and 93.94 cases per 100 000 screenee-months, respectively. The median CP interval in the subjects who had positive SSM results was 30 to 36 months, while that in the age group of 30 to 39 years was shorter.
Conclusions:
Different screening intervals should be considered among women aged between 30 and 59 years. In addition, a strategy for a screening program should be developed for the age group of 30 to 39 years, in particular.
doi:10.3961/jpmph.14.042
PMCID: PMC4322517  PMID: 25652710
Breast neoplasms; Early detection of cancer; Mass screening; Mammography
4.  Distribution of dense breasts using screening mammography in Korean women: a retrospective observational study 
Epidemiology and Health  2014;36:e2014027.
OBJECTIVES:
This retrospective observational study evaluated the distribution of dense breasts by age group among healthy Korean women.
METHODS:
Participants were women aged 30 years and older who voluntarily underwent screening mammography between January 2007 and December 2011. Women who received the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System for mammographic density of 3 or 4 were defined as having dense breasts. The proportion of women with dense breasts (PDB, %) was calculated by dividing the number of participants with dense breasts by the total number of participants.
RESULTS:
Among the 231,058 women who participated, 78.15% were classified as having dense breasts. PDB was highest in the youngest age group (PDB=94.87%) and lowest in the oldest age group. The greatest difference in PDB between adjacent age groups was observed in the group aged 60-64 years.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results show that the proportion of dense breasts by age group increased in all age groups, except in those aged 35-39 years. These findings suggest an association between the age distribution of dense breasts and trends in breast cancer incidence. Further studies are needed to estimate the change in breast cancer incidence rate by age and the accumulation of fatty breast tissue in Korean women.
doi:10.4178/epih/e2014027
PMCID: PMC4258717  PMID: 25381996
Breast neoplasms; Early detection of cancer; Mass screening; Mammography
5.  Characteristics, In-Hospital and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Nonagenarian Compared with Octogenarian Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(4):527-535.
We compared clinical characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of nonagenarian acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients (n=270, 92.3±2.3 yr old) with octogenarian AMI patients (n=2,145, 83.5±2.7 yr old) enrolled in Korean AMI Registry (KAMIR). Nonagenarians were less likely to have hypertension, diabetes and less likely to be prescribed with beta-blockers, statins, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors compared with octogenarians. Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was preferred in octogenarians than nonagenarians, the success rate of PCI between the two groups was comparable. In-hospital mortality, the composite of in-hospital adverse outcomes and one year mortality were higher in nonagenarians than in octogenarians. However, the composite of the one year major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) was comparable between the two groups without differences in MI or re-PCI rate. PCI improved 1-yr mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.69, P<0.001) and MACEs (adjusted HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37-0.61, P<0.001) without significant complications both in nonagenarians and octogenarians. In conclusion, nonagenarians had similar 1-yr MACEs rates despite of higher in-hospital and 1-yr mortality compared with octogenarian AMI patients. PCI in nonagenarian AMI patients was associated to better 1-yr clinical outcomes.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.4.527
PMCID: PMC3991796  PMID: 24753700
Aged, Eighty and over; Myocardial Infarction; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
6.  Effects of combined exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and serum BDNF level in mid-aged women 
[Purpose]
The purposes of this study is first to examine a positive effect of long term combined exercise including aerobic and resistance exercise on increasing level of serum BDNF, and investigate how aerobic exercise is related to improving BDNF circulation and resistance exercise improves fat oxidation in mid-aged women.
[Methods]
Initially, 30 mid-aged women, according to their exercise preference, was randomly assigned as a non-exercise group (n=7, control group; CG) and exercise group (n=23). Then, 23 exercise participants were divided by aerobic exercise group (n=15, AEG) and combination of aerobic and resistance exercise group (n=8, CEG). Prior to the experiment, all participants’maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, and blood factors were measured. Changes (Δ delta value) in body composition, fitness level, and serum BDNF level of the different groups were tested through one way ANOVA.
[Results]
For AEG and CG after 24 weeks, VO2max and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly increased. During this period, CEG had significant increase in muscular strength and decrease in triglyceride (TG) total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C (p=0.013). Continuously, serum BDNF concentration of both AEG and CEG was significantly increased (F=6.328, p=0.001) compared to CG. There, however, was no significant between-group difference.
[Conclusion]
Although there was no difference in serum BDNF level between AEG and CEG, we confirmed that CEG may have a possibility of positive changes in increase of serum BDNF level in mid-aged women.
doi:10.5717/jenb.2014.18.1.61
PMCID: PMC4241931  PMID: 25566440
aerobic exercise; resistance exercise; oxygen uptake; muscle fitness; body composition
7.  Progressive Dilation of the Left Atrium and Ventricle after Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Associated with High Mortality 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(11):731-738.
Background and Objectives
The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of progressive dilation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) combined with heart failure (HF) and determine the prognostic significance and associated factors with a geometric change of an infarcted heart.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 1310 AMI patients with HF (63.9±12.5 years, 70% male) between November 2005 and April 2011 underwent echocardiography at admission and one year later. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is defined as 20% progression, and left atria (LA) remodeling is 10% compared with the initial volume index.
Results
The prevalence of both LA and LV remodeling was 13.9%; LV only was 9.3%, LA only 22.8% and non-remodeling was 55.1%, respectively. In the non-remodeling group, Killip class II was more frequent (83.9%, p<0.001) whereas in other remodeling groups, Killip class III was more frequent. Initial wall motion score index, ejection fraction, maximal cardiac enzyme, high sensitive C-reactive protein, B type natriuretic peptide, and triglyceride serum levels were significantly associated with heart remodeling. All causes of death occurred in 168 cases (12.8%) during the follow-up period. Mortality was the highest in the LV and LA remodeling group (20.9%) and the lowest in the non-remodeling group (11.4%). During the period of follow-up, the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in the groups of LA and LV remodeling than in others (log rank p=0.006).
Conclusion
Total mortality was significantly increased in patients AMI with geometrically progressive LA and LV dilatation.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.11.731
PMCID: PMC3866312  PMID: 24363748
Myocardial infarction; Ventricular remodeling; Heart failure; Prognosis
8.  A Comparison of Logistic Regression Analysis and an Artificial Neural Network Using the BI-RADS Lexicon for Ultrasonography in Conjunction with Introbserver Variability 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2012;25(5):599-606.
To determine which Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) descriptors for ultrasound are predictors for breast cancer using logistic regression (LR) analysis in conjunction with interobserver variability between breast radiologists, and to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) and LR models in differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses. Five breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 140 breast masses and described each lesion using BI-RADS lexicon and categorized final assessments. Interobserver agreements between the observers were measured by kappa statistics. The radiologists’ responses for BI-RADS were pooled. The data were divided randomly into train (n = 70) and test sets (n = 70). Using train set, optimal independent variables were determined by using LR analysis with forward stepwise selection. The LR and ANN models were constructed with the optimal independent variables and the biopsy results as dependent variable. Performances of the models and radiologists were evaluated on the test set using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Among BI-RADS descriptors, margin and boundary were determined as the predictors according to stepwise LR showing moderate interobserver agreement. Area under the ROC curves (AUC) for both of LR and ANN were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77–0.94). AUCs for the five radiologists ranged 0.79–0.91. There was no significant difference in AUC values among the LR, ANN, and radiologists (p > 0.05). Margin and boundary were found as statistically significant predictors with good interobserver agreement. Use of the LR and ANN showed similar performance to that of the radiologists for differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses.
doi:10.1007/s10278-012-9457-7
PMCID: PMC3447099  PMID: 22270787
Breast; Ultrasonography; Artificial neural network; Breast neoplasm; Logistic regression
9.  Comparison of Coronary Plaque Components between Non-Culprit Lesions in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Target Lesions in Patients with Stable Angina: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(9):607-614.
Background and Objectives
The differences in plaque characteristics between non-culprit lesions (NCL) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients (ACS-NCL) and target lesions (TL) in stable angina (SA) patients (SA-TL) are not well understood. We used a virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to compare the plaque components between ACS-NCL and SA-TL.
Subjects and Methods
We compared VH-IVUS findings between 290 ACS-NCL and 276 SA-TL. VH-IVUS classified the color-coded tissue into four major components: green (fibrotic); yellow-green (fibro-fatty); white {dense calcium (DC)}; and red {necrotic core (NC)}. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was defined as a NC ≥10% of the plaque area in at least 3 consecutive frames without overlying fibrous tissue in the presence of ≥40% plaque burden.
Results
Although the plaque burden was significantly smaller (52±13% vs. 54±14%, p=0.044), ACS-NCL had a greater %NC area (17.9±11.6% vs. 14.3±8.7%, p<0.001) and %DC area (9.7±9.8% vs. 8.1±8.0%, p=0.032) compared with SA-TL at the minimum lumen site. By volumetric analysis, ACS-NCL had a greater %NC volume (15.8±9.2% vs. 13.9±7.4%, p=0.006) compared with SA-TL. TCFA was observed more frequently in ACS-NCL compared with SA-TL (27.6% vs. 18.1%, p=0.032). Independent predictors of TCFA by multivariate analysis were ACS {odds ratio (OR): 2.204, 95% CI: 1.321-3.434, p=0.021} and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR: 1.101; 95% CI 1.058-1.204, p=0.035).
Conclusion
Although the plaque burden was significantly smaller, ACL-NCL had more vulnerable plaque components compared with SA-TL, and ACS and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were the independent predictors of TCFA.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.9.607
PMCID: PMC3808856  PMID: 24174961
Acute coronary syndrome; Angina, stable; Atherosclerotic plaque; Ultrasonography, intravascular
10.  Effects of Low Dose versus High Dose Statin Therapy on the Changes of Endothelial Function and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Variant Angina 
Background
To compare the effects of low dose and high dose of statin treatment on endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with variant angina (VAP).
Methods
A total of 70 patients with VAP were divided into two groups; atorvastatin 10 mg treatment group (group I: n = 35, 54.2 ± 12.5 years) versus atorvastatin 40 mg treatment group (group II: n = 35, 52.6 ± 9.8 years). Flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and IMT of the carotid artery were compared between the groups after 6 months of statin treatment.
Results
The baseline FMD and carotid IMT were not different between the groups. After 6 months of statin therapy, FMD was significantly improved in both groups (7.7 ± 2.5% to 8.9 ± 2.2% in group I, p = 0.001, 7.9 ± 2.7% to 9.5 ± 2.8% in group II, p < 0.001), but the degree of FMD change and FMD at 6 month were not different between the groups. Carotid IMT were not changed in both groups after 6 months of statin therapy.
Conclusion
The use of statin for 6 months significantly improved endothelial function in patients with VAP, but carotid IMT was not changed. The use of high dose statin did not show significant additional benefit as compared with the use of low dose statin. The present study suggested that statin therapy would be beneficial in the treatment of VAP.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.2.58
PMCID: PMC3701780  PMID: 23837115
Endothelial function; Intima-media thickness; Variant angina
11.  Differences of Aortic Stiffness and Aortic Intima-Media Thickness According to the Type of Initial Presentation in Patients with Ischemic Stroke 
Background
Aortic stiffness and intima-media thickness (IMT) are known to be associated with ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences of aortic stiffness and IMT between cerebral infarction (CI) and transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Methods
A total of 500 patients with acute stroke were divided into 2 groups: the TIA group (n = 230, 62.4 ± 12 years, 144 males) versus CI group (n = 270, 63.4 ± 11 years, 181 males). Aortic stiffness index and IMT, as well as conventional cardiovascular risk factors, were compared.
Results
The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were significantly higher, and left atrial volume and E/E' were significantly elevated in the CI group than in the TIA group. Carotid IMT was significantly thicker in the CI group than in the TIA group. Aortic stiffness index β was significantly higher (7.99 ± 2.70 vs. 7.02 ± 4.30, p = 0.043) and aortic IMT was significantly thicker (1.53 ± 0.41 vs. 1.45 ± 0.39 mm, p = 0.040) in the CI group than in the TIA group. Aortic stiffness index β was significantly correlated with the IMT of the aorta (r = 0.279, p = 0.014), right (r = 412, p < 0.001) and left carotid artery (r = 441, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Aortic stiffness index β and IMT were significantly higher in patients with CI than TIA. The result of the present study suggested that CI is associated with more advanced degree of atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic process than TIA.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.1.12
PMCID: PMC3611113  PMID: 23560137
Aorta; Stiffness; Stroke
12.  Expression Levels of Estrogen Receptor Beta in Conjunction with Aromatase Predict Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Estrogen signaling pathways may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) as evidenced by the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in many of these tumors. Here we examine whether ERα and ERβ levels in conjunction with aromatase define patient groups with respect to survival outcomes and possible treatment regimens. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a high-density tissue microarray with resulting data and clinical information available for 377 patients. Patients were subdivided by gender, age and tumor histology, and survival data was determined using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves. Neither ERα nor ERβ alone were predictors of survival in NSCLC. However, when coupled with aromatase expression, higher ERβ levels predicted worse survival in patients whose tumors expressed higher levels of aromatase. Although this finding was present in patients of both genders, it was especially pronounced in women ≥ 65 years old, where higher expression of both ERβ and aromatase indicated a markedly worse survival rate than that determined by aromatase alone. Conclusion: Expression of ERβ together with aromatase has predictive value for survival in different gender and age subgroups of NSCLC patients. This predictive value is stronger than each individual marker alone. Our results suggest treatment with aromatase inhibitors alone or combined with estrogen receptor modulators may be of benefit in some subpopulations of these patients.
doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.03.009
PMCID: PMC3175023  PMID: 21511357
NSCLC; tissue microarray; aromatase; estrogen receptor; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
13.  Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(10):692-697.
Background and Objectives
Predictive factors of mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with left ventricular dysfunction were analyzed during 5-year clinical follow-up after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Subjects and Methods
A total of 329 ACS consecutive patients (64.6±11.3 years, 227 males) who underwent PCI from January 2001 to March 2006 were followed for 5 years. All patients had lower than 40% of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients were divided into Group I (survived longer than 5-years: n=130, 101 males) and Group II (survived shorter than 5 years: n=199, 126 males).
Results
The cumulative survival rate was 88.0% at 1 month, 78.0% at 6 months, 75.0% at 1 year, 67.0% at 2 years, 62.0% at 3 years, 57.0% at 4 years and 40% at 5-years. Group II was older (61.6±11.2 years vs. 66.4±11.4 years, p<0.001), and showed higher prevalence of female gender (28.4% vs. 36.7%, p=0.006) and lower LVEF (35.3±5.2 vs. 33.6±5.6) than Group I. The independent predictors for mortality were LVEF <30% {odds ratio (OR)=1.793, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.234-2.452, p=0.002}, serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dL (OR=2.455, 95% CI: 1.306-4.614, p=0.005), older than 65 years (OR=1.594, 95% CI: 1.152-2.206, p=0.005), and female gender (OR=1.524, 95% CI: 1.090-2.130, p=0.014).
Conclusion
Five-year survival rate was 40% in ACS patients with left ventricular dysfunction, and the predictors for mortality were low LVEF, high serum creatinine, old age, and female gender.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.10.692
PMCID: PMC3493806  PMID: 23170097
Acute coronary syndrome; Prognosis; Heart failure; Angioplasty
14.  Prediction of Colorectal Cancer Risk Using a Genetic Risk Score: The Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) 
Genomics & Informatics  2012;10(3):175-183.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the leading causes of cancer deaths and can be caused by environmental factors as well as genetic factors. Therefore, we developed a prediction model of CRC using genetic risk scores (GRS) and evaluated the effects of conventional risk factors, including family history of CRC, in combination with GRS on the risk of CRC in Koreans. This study included 187 cases (men, 133; women, 54) and 976 controls (men, 554; women, 422). GRS were calculated with most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism with CRC through a genomewide association study. The area under the curve (AUC) increased by 0.5% to 5.2% when either counted or weighted GRS was added to a prediction model consisting of age alone (AUC 0.687 for men, 0.598 for women) or age and family history of CRC (AUC 0.692 for men, 0.603 for women) for both men and women. Furthermore, the risk of CRC significantly increased for individuals with a family history of CRC in the highest quartile of GRS when compared to subjects without a family history of CRC in the lowest quartile of GRS (counted GRS odds ratio [OR], 47.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9 to 471.8 for men; OR, 22.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 344.2 for women) (weighted GRS OR, 35.9; 95% CI, 5.9 to 218.2 for men; OR, 18.1, 95% CI, 3.7 to 88.1 for women). Our findings suggest that in Koreans, especially in Korean men, GRS improve the prediction of CRC when considered in conjunction with age and family history of CRC.
doi:10.5808/GI.2012.10.3.175
PMCID: PMC3492653  PMID: 23166528
area under curve; colorectal neoplasms; genetic risk score (GRS); prediction
15.  Endothelial Dysfunction and Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Patients with Slow Coronary Flow 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(6):614-618.
Flow mediated brachial dilatation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) have been a surrogate for early atherosclerosis. Slow coronary flow in a normal coronary angiogram is not a rare condition, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. A total of 85 patients with angina were evaluated of their brachial artery FMD, carotid IMT and conventional coronary angiography. Coronary flow was quantified using the corrected thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count method. Group I was a control with normal coronary angiography (n = 41, 56.1 ± 8.0 yr) and group II was no significant coronary stenosis with slow flow (n = 44, 56.3 ± 10.0 yr). Diabetes was rare but dyslipidemia and family history were frequent in group II. Heart rate was higher in group II than in group I. White blood cells, especially monocytes and homocysteine were higher in group II. The FMD was significantly lower in group II than in group I. Elevated heart rate, dyslipidemia and low FMD were independently related with slow coronary flow in regression analysis. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction may be an earlier vascular phenomenon than increased carotid IMT in the patients with slow coronary flow.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.6.614
PMCID: PMC3369446  PMID: 22690091
Endothelium; Coronary Artery; Carotid Intima
16.  Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure Measured in Emergency Room on Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):304-310.
Background and Objectives
Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients.
Results
Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and one-year clinical follow-up rate was 88.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Group I had 78 patients (60.9±12.4 years). Group II had 81 patients (61.6±12.5 years). Demographics of patients were not different between groups. Treatment strategy was not different. Initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 was less frequent in group II (n=32, 47.1%) than in group I (n=16, 21.9%) (p=0.001). Successful intervention rate was not different between group II (93.8%) and group I (97.1%) (p=0.590). Six-month MACE occurred in 3 patients in group I (4.4%) and 10 in group II (15.6%) (p=0.031). Compared with normal BP, the odds ratio for patients with high-normal BP was 1.147 (p=0.045, 95% confidence interval 1.011-1.402) for 6-month MACE.
Conclusion
Even though high-normal BP patients had a better baseline clinical status, the prognosis was poorer than patients with normal BP. Therapeutic BP target goal for the patients with acute myocardial infarction should be <140/90 mm Hg, which is recommended in JNC7.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.304
PMCID: PMC3369961  PMID: 22701132
Blood pressure; Prognosis
17.  Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Centenarian Patient With Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):355-359.
Despite an increasing prevalence and burden of disease in the elderly, little is known about the management and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in this group. We report the case of a 101-year-old female patient with a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a total occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA), and a significant stenosis in the proximal to mid left anterior descending artery (LAD). Despite a very poor initial clinical status, a percutaneous coronary intervention was successfully performed for the total occlusion in the RCA. The LAD lesion was treated with medical therapy only, on account of the age and general condition of the patient. She was discharged after recovering to a good health status, free of chest pain or dyspnea.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.355
PMCID: PMC3369970  PMID: 22701138
Centenarian; Myocardial infarction; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
18.  Relation between Anemia and Vulnerable Coronary Plaque Components in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(4):370-376.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the plaque components and the predictors of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in anemic patients with acute coronary syndrome using virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization, (i.e. , hemoglobin levels < 13 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women) and we compared VH-IVUS findings between anemia group (171 patients, 260 lesions) and non-anemia group (569 patients, 881 lesions). Anemia group had greater % necrotic core (NC) volume (21% ± 9% vs 19% ± 9%, P = 0.001) compared with non-anemia group. Hemoglobin level correlated negatively with absolute NC volume (r = -0.235, P < 0.001) and %NC volume (r = -0.209, P < 0.001). Independent predictors of TCFA by multivariate analysis were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 2.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.403-3.612, P = 0.006), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR, 1.143; 95% CI, 1.058-1.304, P = 0.012), microalbuminuria (albumin levels of 30 to 300 mg/g of creatinine) (OR, 2.124; 95% CI, 1.041-3.214, P = 0.018), and anemia (OR: 2.112; 95% CI 1.022-3.208, P = 0.028). VH-IVUS analysis demonstrates that anemia at the time of clinical presentation is associated with vulnerable plaque component in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.4.370
PMCID: PMC3314848  PMID: 22468099
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Plaque; Anemia; Intravascular Ultrasound
19.  Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Patient With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Single Coronary Artery Ostium 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(4):284-287.
One of the single anomalous origins of coronary artery that has rarely been reported is a congenital anomaly of coronary circulation that occurs in the left coronary artery originating from the right coronary sinus of valsalva. We report a 49-year-old male patient with non-ST segment elevated myocardial infarction that was identified to have an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right coronary artery (RCA) with thrombotic total occlusion of RCA by coronary angiography and cardiac computed tomography. The patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention in total occlusion of the RCA and was discharged after uneventful recovery.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.4.284
PMCID: PMC3341428  PMID: 22563344
Coronary vessel anomalies; Myocardial infarction; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
20.  Is Myocardial Infarction in Patients without Significant Stenosis on a Coronary Angiogram as Benign as Believed? 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(1):39-46.
The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients without significant stenosis on a coronary angiogram comparison with the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with significant coronary artery stenosis. A total of 1,220 patients with AMI were retrospectively classified into Group I (≥50% diameter stenosis, n=1,120) and Group II (<50%, n=100). Group II was further divided into two subgroups according to the underlying etiology: cryptogenic (Group II-a, n=54) and those with possible causative factors (Group II-b, n=46). Patients in Group II were younger, were more likely to be women, and were less likely to smoke and to have diabetes mellitus than were patients in Group I. The levels of cardiac enzymes, LDL-cholesterol levels, and the apo-B/A1 ratio were lower in Group II. However, 1-month and 12-month rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were not significantly different between the two groups. The Group II-b subgroup comprised 29 patients with vasospasm, 11 with myocardial bridge, and 6 with spontaneous thrombolysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction and creatinine clearance were lower and levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were higher in Group II-a than in Group II-b. However, outcomes including MACE and mortality at 12 months were not significantly different between the two subgroups. The 1-year outcomes of patients in Group II were similar to those of patients in Group I. The clinical outcomes in Group II-a were also similar to those of Group II-b, although the former group showed higher levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2012.48.1.39
PMCID: PMC3341436  PMID: 22570814
Coronary angiography; Myocardial infarction; Stenosis
21.  Higher Levels of GATA3 Predict Better Survival in Women with Breast Cancer 
Human pathology  2010;41(12):1794-1801.
The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. GATA3 in particular is necessary for mammary gland maturation, and its loss has been implicated in breast cancer development. Our goal was to validate the ability of GATA3 expression to predict survival in breast cancer patients. Protein expression of GATA3 was analyzed on a high density tissue microarray consisting of 242 cases of breast cancer. We associated GATA3 expression with patient outcomes and clinicopathological variables. Expression of GATA3 was significantly increased in breast cancer, in situ lesions, and hyperplastic tissue compared to normal breast tissue. GATA3 expression decreased with increasing tumor grade. Low GATA3 expression was a significant predictor of disease-related death in all patients, as well as in subgroups of estrogen receptor positive or low grade patients. Additionally, low GATA3 expression correlated with increased tumor size and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity. GATA3 is an important predictor of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. This finding has been validated in a diverse set of populations. Thus, GATA3 expression has utility as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.06.010
PMCID: PMC2983489  PMID: 21078439
Tissue microarray; breast cancer; tumor marker; prognostic marker
22.  Higher Expression Levels of 14-3-3 σ in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Predict Poorer Outcome 
The protein 14-3-3σ is involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle progression and proliferation. Disruption of protein expression has been implicated in a number of malignancies. Here we examine the expression pattern of 14-3-3σ in breast cancer and specifically consider whether expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions is predictive of disease outcome. We examined 14-3-3σ protein expression and localization using immunohistochemical staining on a high-density tissue microarray consisting of 157 invasive breast cancer patients. Statistical analyses were used to assess the correlation of 14-3-3σ expression with clinico-pathological parameters and patient outcome. We observed a statistically significant increase in 14-3-3σ protein expression in ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) as compared normal glandular epithelium. In IDC, lower expression of 14-3-3σ tended to predicted poorer survival time while in DCIS lesions, there was a stronger correlation between relatively higher levels of 14-3-3σ predicting shorter survival time. Further, of patients who had concurrent DCIS and IDC lesions, those that exhibited a decrease of 14-3-3σ expression from DCIS to IDC had significantly shorter survival time. Our findings indicate that 14-3-3σ expression may be a useful prognostic indicator for survival in patients with breast cancer with an elevated 14-3-3σ in earlier disease predicting a less favorable disease outcome. To our knowledge this is the first published study associating 14-3-3σ protein expression with breast cancer survival.
doi:10.3233/CBM-2009-0106
PMCID: PMC3170666  PMID: 19729831
Tissue microarray; breast cancer; tumor marker; 14-3-3 σ; prognostic marker; DCIS
23.  Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Statins in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Background/Aims
A controversy exists about which statin is preferable for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and clinical impacts of different statins according to lipophilicity have not been established.
Methods
The 1,124 patients with AMI included in the present study were divided into hydrophilic- and lipophilic-statin groups. In-hospital complications (defined as death, cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmia, infection, bleeding, and renal insufficiency, and other fatal arrhythmias), major adverse cardiac events (MACE), all-cause death, re-myocardial infarction, re-percutaneous coronary intervention (re-PCI), and surgical revascularization were analyzed during a 1-year clinical follow-up.
Results
Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, and in-hospital complication rates showed no between-group differences (11.7% vs. 12.8%, p = 0.688). Although MACE at the 1- and 6-month clinical follow-ups occurred more in hydrophilic statin group I (1 month: 10.0% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.001; 6 month: 19.9% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.022), no significant difference in MACE was observed at the 1-year follow-up (21.5% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.172). Both statin groups showed similar efficacy for reducing serum lipid concentrations. A Cox-regression analysis showed that the use of a hydrophilic statin did not predict 1-year MACE, all-cause death, AMI, or re-PCI.
Conclusions
Although short-term cardiovascular outcomes were better in the lipophilic-statin group, 1-year outcomes were similar in patients with AMI who were administered hydrophilic and lipophilic statins. In other words, the type of statin did not influence 1-year outcomes in patients with AMI.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2011.26.3.294
PMCID: PMC3192202  PMID: 22016590
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors; Myocardial infarction
24.  Effects of Ramiprilat-Coated Stents on Neointimal Hyperplasia, Inflammation, and Arterial Healing in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(9):535-541.
Background and Objectives
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia, and a role for angiotensin II in the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in restenotic lesions has been proposed. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of ramiprilat-coated stents in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model.
Subjects and Methods
Pigs were randomized into two groups in which the coronary arteries {16 pigs (16 coronaries in each group)} had a 3.0×17 mm ramiprilat-coated MAC stent or a 3.0×17 mm control MAC stent (AMG, Munich, Germany) implanted with oversizing (stent-to-artery ratio, 1.3 : 1) in porcine coronary arteries, and histopathologic analysis was assessed 28 days after stenting.
Results
There were no significant differences in the injury and inflammation scores between the two groups (1.20±0.43 vs. 1.23±0.57, p=0.8; and 1.21±0.39 vs. 1.25±0.49, p=0.6, respectively). Within the neointima, most inflammatory cells were lymphohistiocytes. Significant positive correlations existed between inflammatory cell counts and the neointima areas (r=0.567, p<0.001), and between inflammatory cell counts and the percent area stenosis (r=0.478, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the inflammatory cell counts normalized to the injury (110±89 vs. 123±83, p=0.4) and fibrin scores (0.15±0.06 vs. 0.17±0.07, p=0.8) between the 2 groups. There were trends toward a smaller neointima area (1.06±0.51 mm2 vs. 1.28±0.35 mm2, p=0.083) and a smaller percent area stenosis (18.9±8.7% vs. 21.8±7.2%, p=0.088) in the ramiprilat-coated stent group.
Conclusion
Although the ramiprilat-coated stent did not show significant inhibitory effects on neointimal hyperplasia, the ramiprilat-coated stent showed good effects on the inflammatory reaction and arterial healing similar to the control stent in a porcine coronary restenosis model.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.9.535
PMCID: PMC3193045  PMID: 22022329
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; Stents; Inflammation; Coronary restenosis
25.  Relation Between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Plaque Components in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(8):440-446.
Background and Objectives
We used virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and plaque components in 279 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.
Subjects and Methods
We divided patients into three groups according to their hs-CRP levels {lowest tertile <0.07 mg/dL (n=93), middle tertile ≥0.07, <0.4 mg/dL (n=93), and highest tertile ≥0.4 mg/dL (n=93)}. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was defined as focal, necrotic core (NC)-rich (≥10% of the cross-sectional area) plaques in contact with the lumen in a plaque burden ≥40%.
Results
The highest tertile group was mostly diabetics (20%, 27%, 40%, p=0.009), and had the greatest plaque plus media volume (163±139/mm3 vs. 201±155/mm3 vs. 232±176/mm3, p=0.013). The highest tertile group had the greatest absolute and % NC volumes (13.6±15.1 mm3 vs. 14.8±14.2 mm3 vs. 23.7±24.3 mm3, p<0.001, and 14.9±8.7% vs. 16.0±8.7% vs. 19.5±10.2%, p=0.024, respectively). The culprit lesion TCFA was observed most frequently in the highest tertile group (28% vs. 35% vs. 55%, p=0.006). By multivariable analysis, absolute NC volume was an independent predictor of hs-CRP elevation {odds ratio (OR); 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.21, p=0.004}, and hs-CRP was an independent predictor of TCFA (OR; 1.86, 95% CI=1.11-2.90, p=0.010).
Conclusion
VH-IVUS analysis has demonstrated that ACS patients with elevated hs-CRP have more vulnerable plaque component (NC-rich plaques and higher frequency of culprit lesion TCFA), compared with ACS patients with normal hs-CRP.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.8.440
PMCID: PMC3173663  PMID: 21949527
Acute coronary syndrome; Plaque, atherosclerotic; Inflammation; Ultrasonography, interventional

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