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1.  Iron and Infection in Hemodialysis Patients 
Seminars in dialysis  2013;27(1):26-36.
Intravenous iron is an important component of the treatment of anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but it is biologically plausible that iron could increase the risk of infection through impairment of neutrophil and T cell function and promotion of microbial growth. Any such increase in risk would be particularly important because infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. The overall evidence favors an association between iron and infection in hemodialysis patients, but the optimal iron management strategy to minimize infection risk has yet to be identified. There is a need for further research on this topic, particularly in light of increased utilization of intravenous iron following implementation of the bundled ESRD reimbursement system.
doi:10.1111/sdi.12168
PMCID: PMC4016233  PMID: 24329610
2.  Influence of Cannabis Use on Severity of Hepatitis C Disease 
Background
Complications of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are primarily related to the development of advanced fibrosis.
Methods
Baseline data from a prospective community-based cohort study of 204 persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were used for analysis. The outcome was fibrosis score on biopsy and the primary predictor evaluated was daily cannabis use.
Results
The median age of the cohort was 46.8 years, 69.1% were male, 49.0% were Caucasian, and the presumed route of infection was injection drug use in 70.1%. The median lifetime duration and average daily use of alcohol were 29.1 years and 1.94 drink equivalents per day. Cannabis use frequency (within prior 12 months) was daily in 13.7%, occasional in 45.1%, and never in 41.2%. Fibrosis stage, assessed by Ishak method, was F0, F1–2 and F3–6 in 27.5%, 55.4% and 17.2% of subjects, respectively. Daily compared to non-daily cannabis use was significantly associated with moderate to severe fibrosis (F3–6 versus F1–2) in univariate [OR = 3.21 (95% CI, 1.20–8.56), p = 0.020] and multivariate analyses (OR = 6.78, (1.89–24.31), p=0.003). Other independent predictors of F3–6 were ≥11 portal tracts (compared to <5, OR = 6.92 (1.34–35.7), p=0.021] and lifetime duration of moderate and heavy alcohol use [OR per decade = 1.72 (1.02–2.90), p=0.044].
Conclusion
We conclude that daily cannabis use is strongly associated with moderate to severe fibrosis and that HCV-infected individuals should be counseled to reduce or abstain from cannabis use.
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.10.021
PMCID: PMC3184401  PMID: 18166478
fibrosis; alcohol; viral load; marijuana; cirrhosis

Results 1-2 (2)