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1.  Robust, Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Lymphocyte Response against an Out-of-Frame Epitope 
Rational vaccines designed to engender T cell responses require intimate knowledge of how epitopes are generated and presented. Recently, we vaccinated 8 Mamu-A*02+ rhesus macaques with every SIV protein except Envelope (Env). Surprisingly, one of the strongest T cell responses engendered was against the Env protein, the Mamu-A*02–restricted epitope, Env788–795RY8. In this paper, we show that translation from an alternate reading frame of both the Rev-encoding DNA plasmid and the rAd5 vector engendered Env788–795RY8-specific CD8+ T cells of greater magnitude than “normal” SIV infection. Our data demonstrate both that the pathway from vaccination to immune response is not well understood and that products of alternate reading frames may be rich and untapped sources of T cell epitopes.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903118
PMCID: PMC2881682  PMID: 19949108
2.  Characterization of Notch1 Antibodies That Inhibit Signaling of Both Normal and Mutated Notch1 Receptors 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9094.
Background
Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.
Principal Findings
Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD), and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR). The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC50 values as low as 5±3 nM and 0.13±0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR “class I” point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare “class II” or “class III” mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell-penetrating gamma-secretase inhibitors.
Conclusions/Significance
Antibodies that compete with Notch1 ligand binding or that bind to the negative regulatory region can act as potent inhibitors of Notch1 signaling. These antibodies may have clinical utility for conditions in which inhibition of signaling by wild-type Notch1 is desired, but are likely to be of limited value for treatment of T-ALLs associated with aberrant Notch1 activation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009094
PMCID: PMC2817004  PMID: 20161710
3.  Vaccine-Induced Cellular Responses Control Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication after Heterologous Challenge▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2009;83(13):6508-6521.
All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine efficacy trials to date have ended in failure. Structural features of the Env glycoprotein and its enormous variability have frustrated efforts to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. To explore the extent to which vaccine-induced cellular immune responses, in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, can control replication of a heterologous, mucosal viral challenge, we vaccinated eight macaques with a DNA/Ad5 regimen expressing all of the proteins of SIVmac239 except Env. Vaccinees mounted high-frequency T-cell responses against 11 to 34 epitopes. We challenged the vaccinees and eight naïve animals with the heterologous biological isolate SIVsmE660, using a regimen intended to mimic typical HIV exposures resulting in infection. Viral loads in the vaccinees were significantly less at both the peak (1.9-log reduction; P < 0.03) and at the set point (2.6-log reduction; P < 0.006) than those in control naïve animals. Five of eight vaccinated macaques controlled acute peak viral replication to less than 80,000 viral RNA (vRNA) copy eq/ml and to less than 100 vRNA copy eq/ml in the chronic phase. Our results demonstrate that broad vaccine-induced cellular immune responses can effectively control replication of a pathogenic, heterologous AIDS virus, suggesting that T-cell-based vaccines may have greater potential than previously appreciated.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00272-09
PMCID: PMC2698536  PMID: 19403685

Results 1-3 (3)