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1.  Characterization of Notch1 Antibodies That Inhibit Signaling of Both Normal and Mutated Notch1 Receptors 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9094.
Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.
Principal Findings
Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD), and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR). The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC50 values as low as 5±3 nM and 0.13±0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR “class I” point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare “class II” or “class III” mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell-penetrating gamma-secretase inhibitors.
Antibodies that compete with Notch1 ligand binding or that bind to the negative regulatory region can act as potent inhibitors of Notch1 signaling. These antibodies may have clinical utility for conditions in which inhibition of signaling by wild-type Notch1 is desired, but are likely to be of limited value for treatment of T-ALLs associated with aberrant Notch1 activation.
PMCID: PMC2817004  PMID: 20161710
2.  Initiation Codon Scanthrough versus Termination Codon Readthrough Demonstrates Strong Potential for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I–restricted Cryptic Epitope Expression  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1997;186(7):1051-1058.
Accumulating evidence shows that the repertoire of major histocompatibility complex class I–restricted epitopes extends beyond conventional translation reading frames. Previously, we reported that scanthrough translation, where the initiating AUG of a primary open reading frame is bypassed, is most likely to account for the presentation of cryptic epitopes from alternative reading frames within the influenza A PR/8/34 nucleoprotein gene. Here, we confirm and extend these findings using an epitope cassette construct that features two well-defined CD8+ T cell (TCD8+) epitopes in alternative reading frames, each preceded by a single start codon. Expression of one epitope depends on scanning of the ribosome over the first AUG with translation initiation occurring at the second AUG. We find that scanthrough translation has great potency in our system, with its impact being modulated, as predicted, by the base composition surrounding the first initiation codon, the number of start codons preceding the point of alternate reading frame initiation, and the efficiency with which the epitope itself is generated. Additionally, we investigated the efficiency of eukaryotic translation termination codons, to assess codon readthrough as a mechanism for cryptic epitope expression from 3′ untranslated regions. In contrast with initiation codons, eukaryotic stop codons appear to be highly efficient at preventing expression of epitopes encoded in 3′ untranslated regions, suggesting that 3′ untranslated regions are not a common source of cryptic epitope substrate. We conclude that scanthrough is a powerful mechanism for the expression of epitopes encoded in upstream alternative open reading frames that may contribute significantly to TCD8+ responses and to tolerance induction.
PMCID: PMC2199058  PMID: 9314554

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