Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-13 (13)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Transcription Factors CysB and SfnR Constitute the Hierarchical Regulatory System for the Sulfate Starvation Response in Pseudomonas putida▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2008;190(13):4521-4531.
Pseudomonas putida DS1 is able to utilize dimethyl sulfone as a sulfur source. Expression of the sfnFG operon responsible for dimethyl sulfone oxygenation is directly regulated by a σ54-dependent transcriptional activator, SfnR, which is encoded within the sfnECR operon. We investigated the transcription mechanism for the sulfate starvation-induced expression of these sfn operons. Using an in vivo transcription assay and in vitro DNA-binding experiments, we revealed that SfnR negatively regulates the expression of sfnECR by binding to the downstream region of the transcription start point. Additionally, we demonstrated that a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, CysB, directly activates the expression of sfnECR by binding to its upstream region. CysB is a master regulator that controls the sulfate starvation response of the sfn operons, as is the case for the sulfonate utilization genes of Escherichia coli, although CysBDS1 appeared to differ from that of E. coli CysB in terms of the effect of O-acetylserine on DNA-binding ability. Furthermore, we investigated what effector molecules repress the expression of sfnFG and sfnECR in vivo by using the disruptants of the sulfate assimilatory genes cysNC and cysI. The measurements of mRNA levels of the sfn operons in these gene disruptants suggested that the expression of sfnFG is repressed by sulfate itself while the expression of sfnECR is repressed by the downstream metabolites in the sulfate assimilatory pathway, such as sulfide and cysteine. These results indicate that SfnR plays a role independent of CysB in the sulfate starvation-induced expression of the sfn operons.
PMCID: PMC2446806  PMID: 18456803
2.  The Sphingomonas Plasmid pCAR3 Is Involved in Complete Mineralization of Carbazole▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;189(5):2007-2020.
We determined the complete 254,797-bp nucleotide sequence of the plasmid pCAR3, a carbazole-degradative plasmid from Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1. A region of about 65 kb involved in replication and conjugative transfer showed similarity to a region of plasmid pNL1 isolated from the aromatic-degrading Novosphingobium aromaticivorans strain F199. The presence of many insertion sequences, transposons, repeat sequences, and their remnants suggest plasticity of this plasmid in genetic structure. Although pCAR3 is thought to carry clustered genes for conjugative transfer, a filter-mating assay between KA1 and a pCAR3-cured strain (KA1W) was unsuccessful, indicating that pCAR3 might be deficient in conjugative transfer. Several degradative genes were found on pCAR3, including two kinds of carbazole-degradative gene clusters (car-I and car-II), and genes for electron transfer components of initial oxygenase for carbazole (fdxI, fdrI, and fdrII). Putative genes were identified for the degradation of anthranilate (and), catechol (cat), 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate (carDFE), dibenzofuran/fluorene (dbf/fln), protocatechuate (lig), and phthalate (oph). It appears that pCAR3 may carry clustered genes (car-I, car-II, fdxI, fdrI, fdrII, and, and cat) for the degradation of carbazole into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; KA1W completely lost the ability to grow on carbazole, and the carbazole-degradative genes listed above were all expressed when KA1 was grown on carbazole. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis also revealed that the transcription of car-I, car-II, and cat genes was induced by carbazole or its metabolic intermediate. Southern hybridization analyses with probes prepared from car-I, car-II, repA, parA, traI, and traD genes indicated that several Sphingomonas carbazole degraders have DNA regions similar to parts of pCAR3.
PMCID: PMC1855757  PMID: 17172338
3.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase component and ferredoxin in the Rieske non-haem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase 
The electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.90 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. The electron-transport complex between CARDO-­O and CARDO-F crystallizes at 293 K using hanging-drop vapour diffusion with the precipitant PEG MME 2000 (type I crystals) or PEG 3350 (type II). Blossom-shaped crystals form from a pile of triangular plate-shaped crystals. The type I crystal diffracts to a maximum resolution of 1.90 Å and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.1, b = 89.8, c = 104.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. Diffraction data for the type I crystal gave an overall R merge of 8.0% and a completeness of 100%. Its V M value is 2.63 Å3 Da−1, indicating a solvent content of 53.2%.
PMCID: PMC1952320  PMID: 16511100
angular dioxygenases; carbazole; electron-transfer complexes; Rieske non-haem iron oxygenase systems; Rieske-type ferredoxins; Rieske-type proteins
4.  Plasmid pCAR3 Contains Multiple Gene Sets Involved in the Conversion of Carbazole to Anthranilate†  
The carbazole degradative car-I gene cluster (carAaIBaIBbICIAcI) of Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 is located on the 254-kb circular plasmid pCAR3. Carbazole conversion to anthranilate is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO; CarAaIAcI), meta-cleavage enzyme (CarBaIBbI), and hydrolase (CarCI). CARDO is a three-component dioxygenase, and CarAaI and CarAcI are its terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin components. The car-I gene cluster lacks the gene encoding the ferredoxin reductase component of CARDO. In the present study, based on the draft sequence of pCAR3, we found multiple carbazole degradation genes dispersed in four loci on pCAR3, including a second copy of the car gene cluster (carAaIIBaIIBbIICIIAcII) and the ferredoxin/reductase genes fdxI-fdrI and fdrII. Biotransformation experiments showed that FdrI (or FdrII) could drive the electron transfer chain from NAD(P)H to CarAaI (or CarAaII) with the aid of ferredoxin (CarAcI, CarAcII, or FdxI). Because this electron transfer chain showed phylogenetic relatedness to that consisting of putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam monooxygenase system of Pseudomonas putida, CARDO systems of KA1 can be classified in the class IIA Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that two car gene clusters constituted operons, and their expression was induced when KA1 was exposed to carbazole, although the fdxI-fdrI and fdrII genes were expressed constitutively. Both terminal oxygenases of KA1 showed roughly the same substrate specificity as that from the well-characterized carbazole degrader Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, although slight differences were observed.
PMCID: PMC1472349  PMID: 16672458
5.  Characterization of the Replication, Maintenance, and Transfer Features of the IncP-7 Plasmid pCAR1, Which Carries Genes Involved in Carbazole and Dioxin Degradation†  
Isolated from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, pCAR1 is a 199-kb plasmid that carries genes involved in the degradation of carbazole and dioxin. The nucleotide sequence of pCAR1 has been determined previously. In this study, we characterized pCAR1 in terms of its replication, maintenance, and conjugation. By constructing miniplasmids of pCAR1 and testing their establishment in Pseudomonas putida DS1, we show that pCAR1 replication is due to the repA gene and its upstream DNA region. The repA gene and putative oriV region could be separated in P. putida DS1, and the oriV region was determined to be located within the 345-bp region between the repA and parW genes. Incompatibility testing using the minireplicon of pCAR1 and IncP plasmids indicated that pCAR1 belongs to the IncP-7 group. Monitoring of the maintenance properties of serial miniplasmids in nonselective medium, and mutation and complementation analyses of the parWABC genes, showed that the stability of pCAR1 is attributable to the products of the parWAB genes. In mating assays, the transfer of pCAR1 from CA10 was detected in a CA10 derivative that was cured of pCAR1 (CA10dm4) and in P. putida KT2440 at frequencies of 3 × 10−1 and 3 × 10−3 per donor strain, respectively. This is the first report of the characterization of this completely sequenced IncP-7 plasmid.
PMCID: PMC1472330  PMID: 16672459
6.  Crystal Structure of the Terminal Oxygenase Component of Cumene Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01†  
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(7):2483-2490.
The crystal structure of the terminal component of the cumene dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme system of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01 (CumDO) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å by means of molecular replacement by using the crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 (NphDO). The ligation of the two catalytic centers of CumDO (i.e., the nonheme iron and Rieske [2Fe-2S] centers) and the bridging between them in neighboring catalytic subunits by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid residue, Asp231, are similar to those of NphDO. An unidentified external ligand, possibly dioxygen, was bound at the active site nonheme iron. The entrance to the active site of CumDO is different from the entrance to the active site of NphDO, as the two loops forming the lid exhibit great deviation. On the basis of the complex structure of NphDO, a biphenyl substrate was modeled in the substrate-binding pocket of CumDO. The residues surrounding the modeled biphenyl molecule include residues that have already been shown to be important for its substrate specificity by a number of engineering studies of biphenyl dioxygenases.
PMCID: PMC1065230  PMID: 15774891
7.  Transcriptional Regulation of the ant Operon, Encoding Two-Component Anthranilate 1,2-Dioxygenase, on the Carbazole-Degradative Plasmid pCAR1 of Pseudomonas resinovorans Strain CA10 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(20):6815-6823.
The carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1 of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 has two gene clusters, carAaAaBaBbCAcAdDFE and antABC, which are involved in the conversions of carbazole to anthranilate and anthranilate to catechol, respectively. We proved that the antABC gene cluster, encoding two-component anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, constitutes a single transcriptional unit through Northern hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. The transcription start point of antA was mapped at 53 bp upstream point of its translation start point, and the −10 and −35 boxes were homologous to conserved σ70 recognition sequence. Hence the promoter of the ant operon was designated Pant. 5′ Deletion analyses using luciferase as a reporter showed that the region up to at least 70 bp from the transcription start point of antA was necessary for the activation of Pant. Luciferase expression from Pant was induced by anthranilate itself, but not by catechol. Two probable AraC/XylS-type regulatory genes found on pCAR1, open reading frame 22 (ORF22) and ORF23, are tandemly located 3.2 kb upstream of the antA gene. We revealed that the product of ORF23, designated AntR, is indispensable for the stimulation of Pant in Pseudomonas putida cells. Northern hybridization and RT-PCR analyses revealed that another copy of Pant, which is thought to be translocated about 2.1 kb upstream of the carAa gene as a consequence of the transposition of ISPre1, actually drives transcription of the carAa gene in the presence of anthranilate, indicating that both ant and car operons are simultaneously regulated by AntR.
PMCID: PMC522213  PMID: 15466034
8.  Characterization of the Upper Pathway Genes for Fluorene Metabolism in Terrabacter sp. Strain DBF63 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(17):5938-5944.
Genes involved in the degradation of fluorene to phthalate were characterized in the fluorene degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63. The initial attack on both fluorene and 9-fluorenone was catalyzed by DbfA to yield 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone, respectively. The FlnB protein exhibited activities against both 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone to produce 9-fluorenone and 2′-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, respectively. FlnD is a heteromeric protein encoded by flnD1 and ORF16, being a member of the class III two-subunit extradiol dioxygenase. FlnE was identified as a serine hydrolase for the meta-cleavage products that yield phthalate.
PMCID: PMC516849  PMID: 15317800
9.  Purification and Characterization of Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase, a Three-Component Dioxygenase System of Pseudomonas resinovorans Strain CA10 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2002;68(12):5882-5890.
The carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 consists of terminal oxygenase (CarAa), ferredoxin (CarAc), and ferredoxin reductase (CarAd). Each component of CARDO was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as a native form (CarAa) or a His-tagged form (CarAc and CarAd) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. CarAa was found to be trimeric and to have one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. Both His-tagged proteins were found to be monomeric and to contain the prosthetic groups predicted from the deduced amino acid sequence (His-tagged CarAd, one FAD and one [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein; His-tagged CarAc, one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein). Both NADH and NADPH were effective as electron donors for His-tagged CarAd. However, since the kcat/Km for NADH is 22.3-fold higher than that for NADPH in the 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase assay, NADH was supposed to be the physiological electron donor of CarAd. In the presence of NADH, His-tagged CarAc was reduced by His-tagged CarAd. Similarly, CarAa was reduced by His-tagged CarAc, His-tagged CarAd, and NADH. The three purified proteins could reconstitute the CARDO activity in vitro. In the reconstituted CARDO system, His-tagged CarAc seemed to be indispensable for electron transport, while His-tagged CarAd could be replaced by some unrelated reductases.
PMCID: PMC134387  PMID: 12450807
10.  Degradation of Chlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dibenzo-p-Dioxins by Two Types of Bacteria Having Angular Dioxygenases with Different Features 
Two kinds of bacteria having different-structured angular dioxygenases—a dibenzofuran (DF)-utilizing bacterium, Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63, and a carbazole (CAR)-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10—were investigated for their ability to degrade some chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (or, together, CDF/Ds) using either wild-type strains or recombinant Escherichia coli strains. First, it was shown that CAR 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzed angular dioxygenation of all mono- to triCDF/Ds investigated in this study, but DF 4,4a-dioxygenase (DFDO) did not degrade 2,7-diCDD. Secondly, degradation of CDF/Ds by the sets of three enzymes (angular dioxygenase, extradiol dioxygenase, and meta-cleavage compound hydrolase) was examined, showing that these enzymes in both strains were able to convert 2-CDF to 5-chlorosalicylic acid but not other tested substrates to the corresponding chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) or chlorocatechol (CC). Finally, we tested the potential of both wild-type strains for cooxidation of CDF/Ds and demonstrated that both strains degraded 2-CDF, 2-CDD, and 2,3-diCDD to the corresponding CSA and CC. We investigated the sites for the attack of angular dioxygenases in each CDF/D congener, suggesting the possibility that the angular dioxygenation of 2-CDF, 2-CDD, 2,3-diCDD, and 1,2,3-triCDD (10 ppm each) by both DFDO and CARDO occurred mainly on the nonsubstituted aromatic nuclei.
PMCID: PMC93062  PMID: 11472938
11.  Genetic Characterization and Evolutionary Implications of a car Gene Cluster in the Carbazole Degrader Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10 
Journal of Bacteriology  2001;183(12):3663-3679.
The nucleotide sequences of the 27,939-bp-long upstream and 9,448-bp-long downstream regions of the carAaAaBaBbCAc(ORF7)Ad genes of carbazole-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 were determined. Thirty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and the car gene cluster was consequently revealed to consist of 10 genes (carAaAaBaBbCAcAdDFE) encoding the enzymes for the three-step conversion of carbazole to anthranilate and the degradation of 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. The high identities (68 to 83%) with the enzymes involved in 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid degradation were observed only for CarFE. This observation, together with the fact that two ORFs are inserted between carD and carFE, makes it quite likely that the carFE genes were recruited from another locus. In the 21-kb region upstream from carAa, aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes (ORF26, ORF27, and ORF28) were found. Inductive expression in carbazole-grown cells and the results of homology searching indicate that these genes encode the anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase involved in carbazole degradation. Therefore, these ORFs were designated antABC. Four homologous insertion sequences, IS5car1 to IS5car4, were identified in the neighboring regions of car and ant genes. IS5car2 and IS5car3 constituted the putative composite transposon containing antABC. One-ended transposition of IS5car2 together with the 5′ portion of antA into the region immediately upstream of carAa had resulted in the formation of IS5car1 and ORF9. In addition to the insertion sequence-dependent recombination, gene duplications and presumed gene fusion were observed. In conclusion, through the above gene rearrangement, the novel genetic structure of the car gene cluster has been constructed. In addition, it was also revealed that the car and ant gene clusters are located on the megaplasmid pCAR1.
PMCID: PMC95244  PMID: 11371531
12.  Utilization of Dimethyl Sulfide as a Sulfur Source with the Aid of Light by Marinobacterium sp. Strain DMS-S1 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2000;66(12):5527-5532.
Strain DMS-S1 isolated from seawater was able to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a sulfur source only in the presence of light in a sulfur-lacking medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA genes indicated that the strain was closely related to Marinobacterium georgiense. The strain produced dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was a main metabolite, and small amounts of formate and formaldehyde when grown on DMS as the sole sulfur source. The cells of the strain grown with succinate as a carbon source were able to use methyl mercaptan or methanesulfonate besides DMS but not DMSO or dimethyl sulfone as a sole sulfur source. DMS was transformed to DMSO primarily at wavelengths between 380 and 480 nm by heat-stable photosensitizers released by the strain. DMS was also degraded to formaldehyde in the presence of light by unidentified heat-stable factors released by the strain, and it appeared that strain DMS-S1 used the degradation products, which should be sulfite, sulfate, or methanesulfonate, as sulfur sources.
PMCID: PMC92498  PMID: 11097944
13.  Diverse Oxygenations Catalyzed by Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(10):3105-3113.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO.
PMCID: PMC93765  PMID: 10322011

Results 1-13 (13)