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1.  What Must a Vocabulary Editing Interface Offer? 
Creating, modifying, and maintaining a vocabulary is a new task that more healthcare enterprises are having to take on. There are today essentially no readily available vocabulary editing systems. This poster sets out a basic list of editing functions that knowledge workers will require - a minimal functionality list. Functions are explained and illustrated.
PMCID: PMC2232096
2.  Inhibitory Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Microsomal Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity in Platelets 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2013;21(1):54-59.
In this study, we investigated the effect of (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins from green tea leaves, on activities of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production associated microsomal enzymes. EGCG inhibited COX-1 activity to 96.9%, and TXAS activity to 20% in platelet microsomal fraction having cytochrome c reductase (an endoplasmic reticulum marker enzyme) activity and expressing COX-1 (70 kDa) and TXAS (58 kDa) proteins. The inhibitory ratio of COX-1 to TXAS by EGCG was 4.8. These results mean that EGCG has a stronger selectivity in COX-1 inhibition than TXAS inhibition. In special, a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug aspirin, a COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited COX-1 activity by 11.3% at the same concentration (50 μM) as EGCG that inhibited COX-1 activity to 96.9% as compared with that of control. This suggests that EGCG has a stronger effect than that of aspirin on inhibition of COX-1 activity. Accordingly, we demonstrate that EGCG might be used as a crucial tool for a strong negative regulator of COX-1/TXA2 signaling pathway to inhibit thrombotic disease-associated platelet aggregation.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2012.075
PMCID: PMC3762306  PMID: 24009859
(–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); Aspirin; Microsomal fraction; Cyclooxygenase-1; Thromboxane synthase
3.  Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Elderly: Clinical Characteristics, Treatment, Survival Analysis in Korean Patients Older than 70 Years 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(10):1147-1154.
The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has increased in recent years. However, HCC remains poorly characterized in elderly patients, and comprehensive data are limited. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, prognostic features and survival outcome of elderly HCC patients. We retrospectively analyzed 992 HCC patients treated at Dongsan Hospital from January 2003 to December 2007. The patients were divided into two age groups: < 70 yr (n = 813) and ≥ 70 yr (n = 179). Elderly HCC patients, compared to younger patients, had significantly higher incidence of females (31.3% vs 18.9%, P = 0.001), hepatitis C-related disease (HCV antibody positivity 26.3% vs 9.2%, P = 0.001) and comorbid condition (53.6% vs 32.1%), but lower rates of hepatitis B-related disease (HBs antigen positivity 31.3% vs 69.4%, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in underlying liver function, stage and survival outcomes. Factors significantly influencing the prognosis of HCC were Child-Pugh grade, number of HCC, level of alpha-fetoprotein, presence of metastasis. The survival outcome of older patients with HCC was not different from that of younger patients. There were no differences between groups in independent factors influencing the prognosis of HCC. Therefore, determining the optimal management strategy for elderly HCC patients is important to improve survival and long-term outcomes.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.10.1147
PMCID: PMC3468749  PMID: 23091310
Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Elderly; Survival; Prognosis
4.  Rapid normalization of alanine aminotransferase predicts viral response during combined peginterferon and ribavirin treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients 
Background/Aims
The treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is removal of the virus in order to prevent progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Few data have been presented regarding the clinical significance of changes in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in this context. We analyzed the patterns of changes in ALT level and investigated the relationship between the rapid normalization of ALT and sustained virologic response (SVR) after combined treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin.
Methods
CHC patients (n=370) were classified into four groups according to the initial ALT level and subsequent changes: (1) initially abnormal ALT level and sustained abnormal ALT level during treatment, (2) initially abnormal ALT level but achievement of ALT normalization, (3) initially normal ALT level and variable ALT abnormality during treatment, and (4) initially normal ALT level and sustained normalization of ALT level during treatment. We subdivided groups 1 and 2 into those with patterns of decreased and normalization of ALT, with or without rapid normalization. We checked the end-treatment response (ETR) and SVR rates in each group and the factors associated with SVR, including patterns of changes in ALT level.
Results
A total of 168 patients completed the therapy (age=54.34±10.64 years [mean±SD], 95 males [56.5%], genotype 1:82 [48.8%]). SVR was achieved in 115 (68.45%) of the completely treated patients. The SVR rate was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (37.8 vs. 81.6%, P<0.001), and significantly higher in the rapid normalization group than in the group without rapid normalization (78.5% vs. 41.2%, P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (odds ratio [OR]=0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.91-0.98, P=0.005), viral genotype (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.20-6.38, P=0.017), and initial hepatitis C virus RNA titer (OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.75, P=0.012) were identified as independent significant predictive factors for SVR.
Conclusions
The SVR rate is significantly associated with normalization, and especially rapid normalization of ALT. Rapid normalization of ALT by 4 weeks after treatment might be a useful response factor that is readily available in clinical practice, and especially for genotype 1 patients.
doi:10.3350/kjhep.2012.18.1.41
PMCID: PMC3326992  PMID: 22511902
Hepatitis C; Chronic; Ribavirin; Alanine transaminase; Peginterferon
5.  Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus Infections and Cervical Cytological Abnormalities among Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(10):1431-1437.
We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study of 134 sexually active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cytological abnormalities among Korean women with SLE. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, HPV testing and routine cervical cytologic examination was performed. HPV was typed using a hybrid method or the polymerase chain reaction. Data on 4,595 healthy women were used for comparison. SLE patients had greater prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (24.6% vs. 7.9%, P<0.001, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 2.5-5.7) and of abnormal cervical cytology (16.4 vs. 2.8%, P<0.001, OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-7.8) compared with controls. SLE itself was identified as independent risk factors for high risk HPV infection among Korean women (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7) along with ≥2 sexual partners (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.2-61.6), and Pap smear abnormalities (OR 97.3, 95% CI 6.5-1,456.7). High-risk HPV infection and cervical cytological abnormalities were more common among Korean women with SLE than controls. SLE itself may be a risk factor for HPV infection among Korean women, suggesting the importance of close monitoring of HPV infections and abnormal Pap smears in SLE patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.10.1431
PMCID: PMC2946651  PMID: 20890422
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Human Papilloma Virus; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities
6.  Behavioral Changes as the Earliest Clinical Manifestation of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 
Background
The clinical and pathological heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is well established. Even with a well-defined clinical phenotype and a thorough laboratory workup, PSP can be misdiagnosed, especially in its early stages.
Case Report
A 52-year-old woman, who we initially diagnosed with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia developed parkinsonian features, which then progressed to gait instability and gaze abnormality.
Conclusions
We report herein a pathologically confirmed case of PSP presenting with behavioral changes including agitation and irritability, which eventually led to the cardinal symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2010.6.3.148
PMCID: PMC2950920  PMID: 20944816
frontotemporal dementia; parkinsonism; progressive supranuclear palsy
7.  High density genotyping of STAT4 gene reveals multiple haplotypic associations with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in different racial groups 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2009;60(4):1085-1095.
Objective
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disorder with complex etiology and a strong genetic component. Recently, gene products involved in the interferon pathway have been under intense investigation in SLE pathogenesis. STAT1 and STAT4 are transcription factors that play key roles in the interferon and Th1 signaling pathways, making them attractive candidates for SLE susceptibility.
Methods
Fifty-six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across STAT1 and STAT4 genes on chromosome 2 were genotyped using Illumina platform as a part of extensive association study in a large collection of 9923 lupus cases and controls from different racial groups. DNA from patients and controls was obtained from peripheral blood. Principal component analyses and population based case-control association analyses were performed and the p values, FDR q values and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
Results
We observed strong genetic associations with SLE and multiple SNPs located within the STAT4 gene in different ethnicities (Fisher combined p= 7.02×10−25). In addition to strong confirmation of the association in the 3rd intronic region of this gene reported previously, we identified additional haplotypic association across STAT4 gene and in particular a common risk haplotype that is found in multiple racial groups. In contrast, only a relatively weak suggestive association was observed with STAT1, probably due to the proximity to STAT4.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that the STAT4 gene is likely to be a crucial component in SLE pathogenesis among multiple racial groups. The functional effects of this association, when revealed, might improve our understanding of the disease and provide new therapeutic targets.
doi:10.1002/art.24387
PMCID: PMC2776081  PMID: 19333953
8.  A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and l-carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet 
Genes & Nutrition  2007;2(4):353-358.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and l-carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w/w/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body weight gain and the accumulation of visceral fat mass in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, the mixture effectively lowered blood and hepatic lipid concentrations and serum glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and leptin levels in rats with HFD-induced obesity. Results from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) genes in the epididymal fat tissue of rats fed the CD + M diet were 0.4-, 0.6-, and 0.48-fold, respectively, of those found in the CD rats (P  < 0.05), while expression of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene in epididymal adipose tissue was 1.25-fold (P  < 0.05) of that found in CD rats. In conclusion, a mixture composed of G. cambogia extract, soy peptide, and l-carnitine attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved dyslipidemia in a rat model with HFD-induced obesity.
doi:10.1007/s12263-007-0070-1
PMCID: PMC2478482  PMID: 18850230
Garcinia cambogia; Soypeptide; l-carnitine; Anti-obesity effect; High-fat-diet-induced obesity rats; Obesity-related genes

Results 1-8 (8)